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1.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13626, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fever-7 is a test evaluating host mRNA expression levels of IFI27, JUP, LAX, HK3, TNIP1, GPAA1 and CTSB in blood able to detect viral infections. This test has been validated mostly in hospital settings. Here we have evaluated Fever-7 to identify the presence of respiratory viral infections in a Community Health Center. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in the "Servicio de Urgencias de Atención Primaria" in Salamanca, Spain. Patients with clinical signs of respiratory infection and at least one point in the National Early Warning Score were recruited. Fever-7 mRNAs were profiled on a Nanostring nCounter® SPRINT instrument from blood collected upon patient enrolment. Viral diagnosis was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) using the Biofire-RP2 panel. RESULTS: A respiratory virus was detected in the NPAs of 66 of the 100 patients enrolled. Median National Early Warning Score was 7 in the group with no virus detected and 6.5 in the group with a respiratory viral infection (P > .05). The Fever-7 score yielded an overall AUC of 0.81 to predict a positive viral syndromic test. The optimal operating point for the Fever-7 score yielded a sensitivity of 82% with a specificity of 71%. Multivariate analysis showed that Fever-7 was a robust marker of viral infection independently of age, sex, major comorbidities and disease severity at presentation (OR [CI95%], 3.73 [2.14-6.51], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Fever-7 is a promising host immune mRNA signature for the early identification of a respiratory viral infection in the community.


Subject(s)
RNA, Messenger/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cathepsin B/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Early Warning Score , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/genetics , Transcriptome , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/genetics , gamma Catenin/genetics
2.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(2): e543-e545, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270767

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Patients with hematologic malignancies have been shown to have higher risk of mortality due to COVID-19 than reported in the general adult population. Reports on acute lymphoblastic leukemia and COVID in children are scarce. We present a case of an 11-year-old male patient undergoing treatment for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an atypical course of COVID-19. The patient received a positive result of the syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction test performed due to epidemiologic reasons. The chemotherapy was continued since the patient had no clinical signs of COVID-19. The disease started with intensive gastrointestinal bleeding, followed by severe respiratory tract infection over 2 weeks later.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/pathology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/virology , Prognosis
3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 663864, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259340

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially regarded as a disease of the lungs, which manifests as an acute respiratory illness and pneumonia, although more recently cardiac complications have been well-characterised. Serological cardiac biomarkers have been used to define acute myocardial injury, with significant elevation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) associated with poor prognosis. Accordingly, 20-25% patients with acute myocardial injury (as defined by an elevated hs-cTn greater than the 99th percentile) have clinical signs of heart failure and increased mortality. An important outstanding clinical question is how best to determine the extent and nature of cardiac involvement in COVID-19. Non-invasive cardiac imaging has a well-established role in assessing cardiac structure and function in a wide range of cardiac diseases. It offers the potential to differentiate between direct and indirect COVID-19 effects upon the heart, providing incremental diagnostic and prognostic utility beyond the information yielded by elevated cardiac biomarkers in isolation. This review will focus on the non-invasive imaging assessment of cardiac involvement in COVID-19.

4.
Pancreas ; 50(5): 732-735, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) have been well established, but pancreatic involvement is under debate. Our aims were to evaluate the presence of acute pancreatitis in COVID-19 patients and to assess the frequency of pancreatic hyperenzymemia. METHODS: From April 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, 110 consecutive patients (69 males, 41 females; mean age, 63.0 years; range, 24-93 years) met these criteria and were enrolled in the study. The clinical data and serum activity of pancreatic amylase and lipase were assayed in all patients using commercially available kits. RESULTS: None of the patients studied developed clinical signs or morphological alterations compatible with acute pancreatitis. However, it was found that 24.5% of the patients had amylase values above 53 IU/L and 16.4% had lipase values above 300 IU/L. Only 1 patient (0.9%) had both amylase and lipase values in excess of 3-fold the upper normal limit without clinical signs of pancreatitis. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of pancreatic hyperenzymemia in a patient with COVID-19 requires the management of these patients be guided by clinical evaluation and not merely by evaluation of the biochemical results.


Subject(s)
Amylases/blood , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Enzyme Tests , Lipase/blood , Pancreatic Diseases/diagnosis , Pancreatitis/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Diseases/blood , Pancreatic Diseases/etiology , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 598875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167303

ABSTRACT

In the last year, the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic brought a new consideration for the multidisciplinary sciences. The unknown mechanisms of infection used by SARS-CoV-2 and the absence of effective antiviral pharmacological therapy, diagnosis methods, and vaccines evoked scientific efforts on the COVID-19 outcome. In general, COVID-19 clinical features are a result of local and systemic inflammatory processes that are enhanced by some preexistent comorbidities, such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular, and pulmonary diseases, and biological factors, like gender and age. However, the discrepancies in COVID-19 clinical signs observed among those patients lead to investigations about the critical factors that deeply influence disease severity and death. Herein, we present the viral infection mechanisms and its consequences after blocking the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) axis in different tissues and the progression of inflammatory and immunological reactions, especially the influence of genetic features on those differential clinical responses. Furthermore, we discuss the role of genotype as an essential indicator of COVID-19 susceptibility, considering the expression profiles, polymorphisms, gene identification, and epigenetic modifications of viral entry factors and their recognition, as well as the infection effects on cell signaling molecule expression, which amplifies disease severity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
Immune Netw ; 21(1): e10, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138874

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a global infectious disease with rapid spread. Some patients have severe symptoms and clinical signs caused by an excessive inflammatory response, which increases the risk of mortality. In this study, we reanalyzed scRNA-seq data of cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of patients with COVID-19 with mild and severe symptoms, focusing on Ab-producing cells. In patients with severe disease, B cells seemed to be more activated and expressed more immunoglobulin genes compared with cells from patients with mild disease, and macrophages expressed higher levels of the TNF superfamily member B-cell activating factor but not of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand). In addition, macrophages from patients with severe disease had increased pro-inflammatory features and pathways associated with Fc receptor-mediated signaling, compared with patients with mild disease. CCR2-positive plasma cells accumulated in patients with severe disease, probably because of increased CCL2 expression on macrophages from patients with severe disease. Together, these results support the hypothesis that different characteristics of B cells might be associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection.

7.
Cir Pediatr ; 34(1): 3-8, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with acute abdomen as the main manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive study of patients with clinical signs of acute abdomen diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted at out healthcare facility from April 1 to May 10, 2020 was carried out. Clinical records were reviewed for data collection purposes. RESULTS: A series of 14 patients (9 male and 5 female) with a median age of 9.5 years was analyzed. All patients had abdominal pain. There were 11 patients with fever, 9 patients with vomit or diarrhea, and 9 patients with clinically suspected surgical pathology (acute appendicitis or peritonitis). Increased acute phase reactants and coagulation disorders were a common characteristic at blood tests. An abdominal ultrasonography was carried out in all patients, and a CT-scan was performed in 4 patients, which demonstrated inflammatory signs in the terminal ileum, the ileocecal valve and the ascending colon, as well as gallbladder edema. Conservative management was decided upon in all patients except one, and eight patients required intensive care admission for support treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal symptoms can be the primary manifestation of the new coronavirus infection, which simulates an acute abdomen with a potentially unfavorable evolution. For an accurate diagnosis to be achieved, a good clinical record and a comprehensive physical exploration, as well as complementary tests in search of characteristic findings of COVID-19, should be carried out.


OBJETIVOS: Describir nuestra experiencia en el manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico de los pacientes que han presentado abdomen agudo como principal manifestación de la infección por SARS-Cov-2. MATERIAL Y METODOS: Estudio descriptivo de los pacientes ingresados con clínica inicial de abdomen agudo que fueron diagnosticados de COVID-19 entre el 1 de abril y el 10 de mayo de 2020. Se ha realizado la revisión de historias clínicas para la recogida de datos. RESULTADOS: Describimos una serie de 14 pacientes (9 varones y 5 mujeres) con una mediana de edad de 9,5 años. Todos ellos consultaron por dolor abdominal acompañado de fiebre en 11 y vómitos o diarrea en 9, y la sospecha clínica inicial fue de patología quirúrgica (apendicitis aguda o peritonitis) en 9. En la analítica sanguínea se encontró como característica común elevación de reactantes de fase aguda y alteraciones de coagulación. Se realizó ecografía abdominal a todos los pacientes y tomografía computarizada en cuatro observándose signos inflamatorios en íleon terminal, válvula ileocecal, colon ascendente y edema de vesícula biliar. Se optó por un manejo conservador en todos los pacientes menos uno y ocho pacientes precisaron ingreso en cuidados intensivos para tratamiento de soporte. CONCLUSIONES: La infección por el nuevo coronavirus puede producir síntomas gastrointestinales como principal manifestación, simulando un abdomen agudo que en algunos casos puede evolucionar de forma desfavorable. Para el diagnóstico es preciso realizar una buena historia clínica y exploración física, así como pruebas complementarias en busca de hallazgos característicos de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Abdomen, Acute/virology , Abdominal Pain/virology , Adolescent , Appendicitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Peritonitis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
8.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; 45(2): 101408, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039312

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the widespread use of face masks was recommended as a key measure against the spread of SARS-CoV-2. A marked increase in dry eye symptoms among regular mask users was reported, but the prevalence of this condition has not been described in the literature yet. The aim of this observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was to measure self-reported symptoms of mask-associated dry eye in the general population and to identify factors influencing this condition. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was distributed using Google Forms through different social media platforms. RESULTS: A total of 3,605 surveys were analysed. Of the 2,447 having symptoms, 658 (26.9 %) participants reported their symptoms were exacerbated when wearing a mask, thus 18.3 % of all participants experienced mask-associated dry eye. There was no significant association between perceived mask-associated dry eye and age, refractive correction, and pre-existing ocular discomfort, while a positive association was observed with female sex and retail work. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results of this survey showed that most people reported no change in ocular symptoms while wearing a face mask, a significant proportion reported an increase in ocular discomfort when wearing a face mask. As face masks are necessary to slow down the spread of COVID-19, it is important not to underestimate all symptoms that could discourage the population from using them. Eye care professionals should verify the presence of clinical signs in all patients complaining about mask-induced eye discomfort, and suggest methods to mitigate this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dry Eye Syndromes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , Female , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
9.
Trials ; 21(1): 1027, 2020 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the efficacy of curcumin-piperine co-supplementation on disease duration, severity and clinical symptoms, and inflammatory mediators in patients with coronavirus (COVID-19). TRIAL DESIGN: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: All patients aged 20-75 years with the diagnosis of Covid-19 based on the PCR test. The exclusion criteria will include an age less than 20 and more than 75 years, current use of warfarin or other anticoagulant drugs, and the presence of sensitivity to herbal products such as turmeric and pepper. This study will be conducted in academic hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Fifty outpatients will be randomly allocated in a ratio of 1:1 to receive a capsule of curcumin-piperine containing 500 mg curcumin plus 5 mg piperine or matching placebo containing 505 mg maltodextrin twice a daily, after lunch and dinner, over a period of 2 weeks. Similarly, 50 inpatients who are admitted to hospital wards excluding intensive care unit (ICU) will be randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to receive a capsule curcumin-piperine or matching placebo (provided by the Sami Labs company) twice a daily, after lunch and dinner, over a period of 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: The main outcomes of this study are the efficacy of curcumin-piperine on coronavirus disease's clinical symptoms, duration, severity, and inflammatory mediators after 2 weeks of curcumin-piperine co-supplementation. RANDOMISATION: Randomization sequences will be generated with the use of a random-number table with a permuted block design (block size of 4) and stratification according to the gender variable (male vs. female). These sequences will be prepared by an independent statistician and will be kept in opaque, sealed, numbered envelopes which will be opened only at the time of enrollment. The allocation ratio in intervention and control groups is 1:1. Researchers and all patients will be unaware of the study-group assignment until the completion of data analyses. BLINDING (MASKING): This study is a double-blind clinical trial (participant, researcher). The curcumin-piperine and placebo supplements are packaged in similar numbered drug containers, and the researcher and all patients will be unaware of the study assignment until the end of the study. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The calculated total sample size is 100 patients, with 25 patients in each group. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 2.0, May 24, 2020. Recruitment began May 4, 2020, and is anticipated to be completed by April 19, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial has been registered by the title of "Effect of curcumin-piperine co-supplementation on disease duration, severity and clinical signs, and inflammatory factors in patients with coronavirus (COVID-19): A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial study" in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with code "IRCT20121216011763N46", https://www.irct.ir/trial/47529 . The registration date is May 4, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/administration & dosage , Benzodioxoles/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Hospitalization , Humans , Iran , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 688, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A subset of critically ill COVID-19 patients develop a hyperinflammatory state. Anakinra, a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, is known to be effective in several hyperinflammatory diseases. We investigated the effects of anakinra on inflammatory parameters and clinical outcomes in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with clinical features of hyperinflammation. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 21 critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra were compared to a group of standard care. Serial data of clinical inflammatory parameters and concentrations of multiple circulating cytokines were determined and aligned on start day of anakinra in the treatment group, and median start day of anakinra in the control group. Analysis was performed for day - 10 to + 10 relative to alignment day. Clinical outcomes were analyzed during 28 days. Additionally, three sensitivity analyses were performed: (1) using propensity score-matched groups, (2) selecting patients who did not receive corticosteroids, and (3) using a subset of the control group aimed to match the criteria (fever, elevated ferritin) for starting anakinra treatment. RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics and clinical parameters on ICU admission were similar between groups. As a consequence of bias by indication, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) (p = 0.0002), ferritin (p = 0.009), and temperature (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the anakinra group on alignment day. Following treatment, no relevant differences in kinetics of circulating cytokines were observed between both groups. Decreases of clinical parameters, including temperature (p = 0.03), white blood cell counts (p = 0.02), and plasma levels of ferritin (p = 0.003), procalcitonin (p = 0.001), creatinine (p = 0.01), and bilirubin (p = 0.007), were more pronounced in the anakinra group. No differences in duration of mechanical ventilation or ICU length of stay were observed between groups. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Anakinra is effective in reducing clinical signs of hyperinflammation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to draw conclusion about the effects of anakinra on clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Receptors, Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Interleukin-1/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(4): 561-568, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922369

ABSTRACT

Background: The comorbidities and clinical signs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been reported mainly as descriptive statistics, rather than quantitative analysis even in very large investigations. The aim of this study was to identify specific patients' characteristics that may modulate COVID-19 hospitalization risk.Research design and methods: A pooled analysis was performed on high-quality epidemiological studies to quantify the prevalence (%) of comorbidities and clinical signs in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Pooled data were used to calculate the relative risk (RR) of specific comorbidities by matching the frequency of comorbidities in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with those of general population.Results: The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular diseases. The RR of COVID-19 hospitalization was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in patients with asthma (0.86, 0.77-0.97) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (0.46, 0.40-0.52). The most frequent clinical signs were fever and cough.Conclusion: The clinical signs of hospitalized COVID-19 patients are similar to those of other infective diseases. Patients with asthma or COPD were at lower hospitalization risk. This paradoxical evidence could be related with the protective effect of inhaled corticosteroids that are administered worldwide to most asthmatic and COPD patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Asthma/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Risk Factors
12.
Klin Padiatr ; 233(1): 24-30, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894437

ABSTRACT

AIM: Reports describing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in children are fewer than adult studies due to milder clinical picture. We aimed to share our experience at a single center with an emphasis on collective decision making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A suspected case was defined as the presence of symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and/or positive contact history. SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients were defined as confirmed COVID-19. Between March 12, 2020, and May 15, 2020, all children presenting with fever, cough, or respiratory difficulty were investigated for COVID-19. A total of 719 children were examined at outpatient clinics, and 495 were tested with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for suspicion of COVID-19. A team was organized for monitoring and treating patients either as outpatients or hospitalization. Patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender, travel history, epidemiological history, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory and radiological findings, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: Sixty patients were hospitalized for suspicion of COVID-19. Forty-three patients were diagnosed as probable or confirmed COVID-19. 21 of 43 patients (48.8%) were PCR confirmed. The remaining 22 were diagnosed by epidemiologic history, clinical assessment, and computerized thorax tomography (CT) findings. The median age was 126 and 78.5 months in PCR positives and PCR negatives, respectively and the youngest patient was a 28 days old baby. Nineteen of the patients had an upper respiratory infection (44.1%). Although five patients had no clinical signs, chest X-ray, or CT revealed pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: As previously reported, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in children are mostly mild. Even very young kids can become infected following exposure to sick family members. International and local guidelines are valuable for decision making since it is a new disease. A combination of chest disease, infectious diseases, and emergency care physicians approach will aid the appropriate management of cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Fever , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(5): 3710-3715, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854832

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified strain of coronavirus in the human body and was reported in Wuhan at the end of 2019. So far, the epidemic is continuing and very serious, with the number of infections and deaths increasing. Despite active investigations around the world to better understand the dynamics of transmission and the scope of clinical disease, COVID-19 continues to spread rapidly from person to person. The common signs and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection include fever, fatigue, dry cough, and dyspnea; in severe cases, patients may have acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, metabolic acidosis difficult to treat and coagulation disorder. However, some patients who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 in their respiratory tract may not have such clinical signs and symptoms. This report presents a case study analysis of a patient admitted in the Fourth Taiyuan People's Hospital, who had suffered traumatic injuries from a car accident and survived COVID-19, with pleural effusion as the initial symptom. We report a case of 2019-NCOV with pleural effusion as the first symptom. Describe in detail the differential diagnosis, diagnosis, clinical management, and cure of this case. In order to combat the novel CoronaviruscoVID-19 in the process to provide lessons and help.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Multiple Trauma/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea/complications , Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disease Progression , Ethmoid Sinusitis/complications , Ethmoid Sinusitis/diagnosis , Female , Foot Injuries/complications , Foot Injuries/diagnosis , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Maxillary Fractures/complications , Maxillary Fractures/diagnosis , Maxillary Sinus/injuries , Multiple Trauma/complications , Orbital Fractures/complications , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Rib Fractures/complications , Rib Fractures/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Toe Phalanges/injuries , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ulna Fractures/complications , Ulna Fractures/diagnosis
14.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 214-219, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nutritional knowledge in patients with SARS-Cov2 infection (COVID-19) is limited. Our objectives were: i) to assess malnutrition in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ii) to investigate the links between malnutrition and disease severity at admission, iii) to study the impact of malnutrition on clinical outcomes such as transfer to an intensive care unit (ICU) or death. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized in a medicine ward at a university hospital were included from March 21st to April 24th 2020 (n = 114, 60.5% males, age: 59.9 ± 15.9 years). Nutritional status was defined using Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria. Clinical, radiological and biological characteristics of COVID-19 patients were compared according to the presence of malnutrition. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between nutritional parameters and unfavourable outcomes such as transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) or death. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 42.1% (moderate: 23.7%, severe: 18.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition reached 66.7% in patients admitted from ICU. No significant association was found between nutritional status and clinical signs of COVID-19. Lower albumin levels were associated with a higher risk of transfer to ICU (for 10 g/l of albumin, OR [95%CI]: 0.31 [0.1; 0.7]; p < 0.01) and this association was independent of age and CRP levels. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 in medical units dedicated to non-intensive care is associated with a high prevalence of malnutrition, especially for patients transferred from ICU. These data emphasize the importance of early nutritional screening in these patients to adapt management accordingly.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hospitalization , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 7: 2054358120957473, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772025

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Hemodialysis patients are at significant risk from COVID-19 due to their frequent interaction with the health care system and medical comorbidities. We followed up the trajectory of the first COVID-19-positive maintenance hemodialysis patient at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto. We present the lessons learned and changes in practices that occurred to prevent an outbreak in our center. PRESENTING CONCERNS OF THE PATIENT: The patient, a 66-year-old woman on in-center hemodialysis, initially presented with a 2-day history of a productive cough. She subsequently developed a fever, was placed on contact and droplet isolation, and admitted to hospital. DIAGNOSES: On March 13, 2020, the patient tested positive for COVID-19. Within the next 48 hours, she developed hypoxia and acute respiratory distress syndrome as a complication of her illness requiring an extended critical care stay. This extended critical care stay resulted in critical illness-associated secondary sclerosing cholangitis. INTERVENTIONS: An interprofessional team was established, performing rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act quality improvement cycles to improve screening practices and promote the safety of patients and staff in the hemodialysis unit. OUTCOMES: We present here the lessons learned, the changes to our screening protocols, and the clinical course of our first in-center hemodialysis patient with SARS-CoV-2. TEACHING POINTS: Regular review of the infection screening processes is paramount in preventing outbreaks of COVID-19, particularly in hemodialysis units. Hospital admission should be arranged if a patient exhibits any clinical signs of hemodynamic compromise or hypoxia. Early education for health care practitioners caring for patients with COVID-19 and refresher information regarding personal protective equipment helped promote the safety of staff and prevent health care-associated outbreaks.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 56(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose to venous thromboembolism. We determined factors independently associated with computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA)-confirmed pulmonary embolism (PE) in hospitalised severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Among all (n=349) patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in a university hospital in a French region with a high rate of COVID-19, we analysed patients who underwent CTPA for clinical signs of severe disease (oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry ≤93% or breathing rate ≥30 breaths·min-1) or rapid clinical worsening. Multivariable analysis was performed using Firth penalised maximum likelihood estimates. RESULTS: 162 (46.4%) patients underwent CTPA (mean±sd age 65.6±13.0 years; 67.3% male (95% CI 59.5-75.5%). PE was diagnosed in 44 (27.2%) patients. Most PEs were segmental and the rate of PE-related right ventricular dysfunction was 15.9%. By multivariable analysis, the only two significant predictors of CTPA-confirmed PE were D-dimer level and the lack of any anticoagulant therapy (OR 4.0 (95% CI 2.4-6.7) per additional quartile and OR 4.5 (95% CI 1.1-7.4), respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a D-dimer cut-off value of 2590 ng·mL-1 to best predict occurrence of PE (area under the curve 0.88, p<0.001, sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 83.8%). D-dimer level >2590 ng·mL-1 was associated with a 17-fold increase in the adjusted risk of PE. CONCLUSION: Elevated D-dimers (>2590 ng·mL-1) and absence of anticoagulant therapy predict PE in hospitalised COVID-19 patients with clinical signs of severity. These data strengthen the evidence base in favour of systematic anticoagulation, and suggest wider use of D-dimer guided CTPA to screen for PE in acutely ill hospitalised patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Oximetry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
IDCases ; 22: e00937, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725791

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infant patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. Clinical and epidemiological data of a 3-month-old patient with COVID-19 were collected, including general status, clinical results, laboratory tests, imaging characteristics, and epidemiological reports. The infant had no fever but had mild respiratory symptoms. The major laboratory results included normal white blood cell counts and lymphocytopenia, notably with elevated interleukin (IL-)-17A, IL-17F, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-)-α. The main manifestation of his chest computed tomography scan was pulmonary patchy shadows. All throat swabs and urine of the infant detected via Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) were negative, but his anal swab continued to test positive up to 40 days after onset of illness. Our study indicated that infants infected with COVID-19 may have relatively mild symptoms or clinical signs, IL-17A, IL-17 F, and TNF-α could be involved in the immune response of COVID-19. In addition, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) may shed through the gastrointestinal tract and convalescent carriers may exist among infant patients. We cannot rule out the possibility that infants may acquire infection from breastfeeding. Intensive care and nutrition support are recommended for infant patients with mild symptoms.

18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(32): 1074-1080, 2020 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695725

ABSTRACT

In April 2020, during the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Europe, a cluster of children with hyperinflammatory shock with features similar to Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome was reported in England* (1). The patients' signs and symptoms were temporally associated with COVID-19 but presumed to have developed 2-4 weeks after acute COVID-19; all children had serologic evidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). The clinical signs and symptoms present in this first cluster included fever, rash, conjunctivitis, peripheral edema, gastrointestinal symptoms, shock, and elevated markers of inflammation and cardiac damage (1). On May 14, 2020, CDC published an online Health Advisory that summarized the manifestations of reported multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), outlined a case definition,† and asked clinicians to report suspected U.S. cases to local and state health departments. As of July 29, a total of 570 U.S. MIS-C patients who met the case definition had been reported to CDC. A total of 203 (35.6%) of the patients had a clinical course consistent with previously published MIS-C reports, characterized predominantly by shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and markedly elevated inflammatory markers, and almost all had positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. The remaining 367 (64.4%) of MIS-C patients had manifestations that appeared to overlap with acute COVID-19 (2-4), had a less severe clinical course, or had features of Kawasaki disease.§ Median duration of hospitalization was 6 days; 364 patients (63.9%) required care in an intensive care unit (ICU), and 10 patients (1.8%) died. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to expand in many jurisdictions, clinicians should be aware of the signs and symptoms of MIS-C and report suspected cases to their state or local health departments; analysis of reported cases can enhance understanding of MIS-C and improve characterization of the illness for early detection and treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
19.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 37: 101825, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693406

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a world-wide pandemic with an enormous medical and societal-economic toll. Thus, our aim was to gather all available information regarding comorbidities, clinical signs and symptoms, outcomes, laboratory findings, imaging features, and treatments in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for studies published in any language between December 1st, 2019 and March 28th, 2020. Original studies were included if the exposure of interest was an infection with SARS-CoV-2 or confirmed COVID-19. The primary outcome was the risk ratio of comorbidities, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging features, treatments, outcomes, and complications associated with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. We performed random-effects pairwise meta-analyses for proportions and relative risks, I2, T2, and Cochrane Q, sensitivity analyses, and assessed publication bias. RESULTS: 148 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review and meta-analysis with 12'149 patients (5'739 female) and a median age of 47.0 [35.0-64.6] years. 617 patients died from COVID-19 and its complication. 297 patients were reported as asymptomatic. Older age (SMD: 1.25 [0.78-1.72]; p < 0.001), being male (RR = 1.32 [1.13-1.54], p = 0.005) and pre-existing comorbidity (RR = 1.69 [1.48-1.94]; p < 0.001) were identified as risk factors of in-hospital mortality. The heterogeneity between studies varied substantially (I2; range: 1.5-98.2%). Publication bias was only found in eight studies (Egger's test: p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analyses revealed important risk factors that are associated with severity and mortality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 59(6): 102881, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665570

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19), has caused a pandemic. Few data are available about the risk of COVID-19 infection in persons with hematological cancer, but controversy whether these persons have the same clinical signs and outcomes. We describe a case of life-threatening COVID-19 infection complicated by severe anemia in patients affected also by chronic myelogenous leukemia. The screening for RBC antibodies and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) turned positive. The identification of the antibodies, showed the presence of an alloantibody with anti-Lewis b specificity, which was reactive at room temperature, in the anti-human globulin phase (AGH) and with papain-treated red blood cells. At the same time hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), on the basis of major laboratory findings including hyperferritnemia, increase of triglicerides levels and according to the HLH score was suspected. Patients received antiviral therapy, steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Hemolysis resolved and ferritin dramatically decreased after administration of Ig and a Afull recovery was achieved after viral infection resolution.This case highlights the novel and multifaceted hematological findings during sever COVID 19 infection. COVID 19-related pneumonia is mediated by hyper activation of effector T cells and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1, interferon-gamma, and TNF. This inflammatory process called "cytokine storm" is a life-threatening complication of COVID 19 infection. In this case severe immunohematological consequences are reported for the first time and recognition of this complications are probably underestimated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/blood , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/diagnostic imaging , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnostic imaging , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged
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