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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(10): 1135-1140, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is characterised by respiratory symptoms, which deteriorate into respiratory failure in a substantial proportion of cases, requiring intensive care in up to a third of patients admitted to hospital. Analysis of the pathological features in the lung tissues of patients who have died with COVID-19 could help us to understand the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We systematically analysed lung tissue samples from 38 patients who died from COVID-19 in two hospitals in northern Italy between Feb 29 and March 24, 2020. The most representative areas identified at macroscopic examination were selected, and tissue blocks (median seven, range five to nine) were taken from each lung and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for at least 48 h. Tissues were assessed with use of haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining for inflammatory infiltrate and cellular components (including staining with antibodies against CD68, CD3, CD45, CD61, TTF1, p40, and Ki-67), and electron microscopy to identify virion localisation. FINDINGS: All cases showed features of the exudative and proliferative phases of diffuse alveolar damage, which included capillary congestion (in all cases), necrosis of pneumocytes (in all cases), hyaline membranes (in 33 cases), interstitial and intra-alveolar oedema (in 37 cases), type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia (in all cases), squamous metaplasia with atypia (in 21 cases), and platelet-fibrin thrombi (in 33 cases). The inflammatory infiltrate, observed in all cases, was largely composed of macrophages in the alveolar lumina (in 24 cases) and lymphocytes in the interstitium (in 31 cases). Electron microscopy revealed that viral particles were predominantly located in the pneumocytes. INTERPRETATION: The predominant pattern of lung lesions in patients with COVID-19 patients is diffuse alveolar damage, as described in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. Hyaline membrane formation and pneumocyte atypical hyperplasia are frequent. Importantly, the presence of platelet-fibrin thrombi in small arterial vessels is consistent with coagulopathy, which appears to be common in patients with COVID-19 and should be one of the main targets of therapy. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Hyaline Membrane Disease , Inflammation , Italy/epidemiology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/ultrastructure , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Infiltration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/blood supply , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/ultrastructure , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis
3.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to test how certain signs and symptoms related to COVID-19 in children predict the positivity or negativity of the SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab in children. METHODS: We review the data of children who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 for a suspected infection. We compared the clinical characteristics of the subjects who tested positive and negative, including the sensibility, positive and negative predictive value of different combination of signs and symptoms. RESULTS: Of all the suspected infected, 2596 tested negative (96.2%) and 103 tested positive (3.8%). The median age was 7.0 and 5.3 years for the positive and negative ones, respectively. The female to male ratio was ~1:1.3. Fever and respiratory symptoms were mostly reported. Most positive children had a prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects (59.2%). A total of 99.3% of patients without fever nor exposure to the virus proved negative to the SARS-CoV-2 test. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a child without fever or contact with infected subjects is SARS-CoV-2 negative. If this were to be confirmed, many resources would be spared, with improved care of both COVID-19 and not COVID-19-affected children. IMPACT: Key message: lack of fever and exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected people highly predicts a negative results of the SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab in the paediatric population. Added value to the current literature: this is the first article to prove this point. IMPACT: reduction of emergency department accesses of children with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection; increased outpatient management of children with cough or other common respiratory symptoms of infancy; sparing of many human and material health resources.

4.
Biocatal Agric Biotechnol ; 35: 102056, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260667

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 is attributed to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This viral disease is rapidly spreading across the globe, including India. The mainstay in managing the disease is supportive care, nutrition, and preventing further progression in the absence of proven antiviral drugs. Currently two vaccines Covishield and Covaxin are administered in India. Long-term plans of developing most reliable mRNA-based vaccines are also underway for the future method of prophylaxis. The Siddha system of medicine's holistic approach emphasizes lifestyle modification, prophylactic interventions, and dietary management to boost the host immunity and treatment with herbal medicines and higher-order medicines as the case may be. In this review, a brief outline of the disease COVID-19, Coronavirus, evidence-based traditional Siddha interventions for respiratory ailments and immune boosters highlighting the relevant published research on individual herbs are dealt, which pave way for further research on drug repurposing for COVID-19. Historical evidence on the prevention and treatment of infections especially antivirals in Siddha classics is studied.

5.
Virol J ; 18(1): 93, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can present with a broad clinical differential that includes many other respiratory viruses; therefore, accurate tests are crucial to distinguish true COVID-19 cases from pathogens that do not require urgent public health interventions. Co-circulation of other respiratory viruses is largely unknown during the COVID-19 pandemic but would inform strategies to rapidly and accurately test patients with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: This study retrospectively examined 298,415 respiratory specimens collected from symptomatic patients for SARS-CoV-2 testing in the three months since COVID-19 was initially documented in the province of Alberta, Canada (March-May, 2020). By focusing on 52,285 specimens that were also tested with the Luminex Respiratory Pathogen Panel for 17 other pathogens, this study examines the prevalence of 18 potentially co-circulating pathogens and their relative rates in prior years versus since COVID-19 emerged, including four endemic coronaviruses. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 2.2% of all specimens. Parallel broad multiplex testing detected additional pathogens in only 3.4% of these SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens: significantly less than in SARS-CoV-2-negative specimens (p < 0.0001), suggesting very low rates of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Furthermore, the overall co-infection rate was significantly lower among specimens with SARS-CoV-2 detected (p < 0.0001). Finally, less than 0.005% of all specimens tested positive for both SARS-CoV-2 and any of the four endemic coronaviruses tested, strongly suggesting neither co-infection nor cross-reactivity between these coronaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Broad respiratory pathogen testing rarely detected additional pathogens in SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens. While helpful to understand co-circulation of respiratory viruses causing similar symptoms as COVID-19, ultimately these broad tests were resource-intensive and inflexible in a time when clinical laboratories face unprecedented demand for respiratory virus testing, with further increases expected during influenza season. A transition from broad, multiplex tests toward streamlined diagnostic algorithms targeting respiratory pathogens of public health concern could simultaneously reduce the overall burden on clinical laboratories while prioritizing testing of pathogens of public health importance. This is particularly valuable with ongoing strains on testing resources, exacerbated during influenza seasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alberta/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1449-1458, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196451

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, but its reported characteristics and outcomes vary greatly amongst studies. We determined pooled estimates for clinical characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients including subgroups by disease severity (based on World Health Organization Interim Guidance Report or Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society criteria) and by country/region. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, Chinese Medical Journal, and preprint databases from 1 January 2020 to 6 April 2020. Studies of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with relevant data were included. Two reviewers independently performed study selection and data extraction. From 6007 articles, 212 studies from 11 countries/regions involving 281 461 individuals were analyzed. Overall, mean age was 46.7 years, 51.8% were male, 22.9% had severe disease, and mortality was 5.6%. Underlying immunosuppression, diabetes, and malignancy were most strongly associated with severe COVID-19 (coefficient = 53.9, 23.4, 23.4, respectively, all P < .0007), while older age, male gender, diabetes, and hypertension were also associated with higher mortality (coefficient = 0.05 per year, 5.1, 8.2, 6.99, respectively; P = .006-.0002). Gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain) and respiratory symptoms (shortness of breath, chest pain) were associated with severe COVID-19, while pneumonia and end-organ failure were associated with mortality. COVID-19 is associated with a severe disease course in about 23% and mortality in about 6% of infected persons. Individuals with comorbidities and clinical features associated with severity should be monitored closely, and preventive efforts should especially target those with diabetes, malignancy, and immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 570098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178047

ABSTRACT

The first cases of unexplained pneumonia were reported in Wuhan, China, in December of 2019. Later, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the causal agent of pneumonia. This virus has since spread to more than 180 countries and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Herein, we aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of symptomatic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the relationship between the influenza vaccine with a lower risk of severe COVID-19 infection in the state of Sinaloa. We collected demographic and clinical data of 4,040 patients with acute respiratory infections across Sinaloa state hospitals from February 28 to May 15, 2020. The prevalence of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms in Sinaloa showed 45.2% of men were more affected than women (p < 0.001), and people aged 40-49 years were the most affected. The main symptoms of COVID-19 infection were cough and fever (p < 0.001), while hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes were the chronic diseases associated with COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 (p < 0.003). Healthcare workers were most likely to be infected compared to other occupations (p < 0.001). The general lethality rate was 14.1%, and males >62 years were the ones who had a higher lethality rate (p < 0.001); the aforementioned chronic diseases were related to higher lethality of COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Likewise, higher lethality was seen in housewives and patient retirees/pensioners compared with other occupations (p < 0.001). Finally, we found there was a relationship between influenza vaccination and a lower risk of severe COVID-19 infection and mortality (p < 0.001). These findings showed that healthcare workers, men >62 years with chronic diseases, and retired people were most affected. Furthermore, the influenza vaccine could decrease the severeness of COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity , Survival Analysis
8.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 109-119, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as one of viral major clinical features during actual pandemic; limb arterial ischemic events, venous thrombosis, acute myocardial infection and stroke have occurred in patients. Acute aortic conditions have also been described, followed by interesting observations on cases, hypothesis, raised since the emergence of the pandemics. METHODS: a review of cases in literature of aortic pathology in patients with clinically suspected/microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection has been carried out to analyze anagraphic data, clinical presentation, treatment options and outcome. RESULTS: Seventeen cases have been included. Mean age of patients was 58.6 ± 15.2 years, with a male to female ratio of 12:15 (70.5% vs. 29.5%). Comorbidities were reported in 11 cases (64.7%), but in 5 cases (29.4%) no previous pathology was signaled in history. Hypertension was the most frequently reported comorbidity, in 8 cases, (47%), followed by renal pathology (17.6%), coronary artery disease (17.6%), previous aortic surgery (11.7%) and arrhythmia (11.7%); but also cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, previous neoplasia and arrhythmia were reported once each. Fever and thoracic pain were the most frequently reported findings at presentation (8 cases, 47% each), followed by respiratory symptoms (6, 35.2%), low lymphocyte count (17.6%), features related to aneurysm rupture, ischemic stroke, abdominal pain and acute renal insufficiency. Reported aortic pathology included: type A aortic dissection (11 cases; 64.7%); new pathology of previous aortic graft (2 cases, 11.7%); 2 aortitis, 1 associated with type A aortic dissection; 1 thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm, 1 ruptured aortic aneurysm and 1 aortic embolizing thrombosis. Open surgery was carried out in 10 cases (58.8%), endovascular treatment in 3 (17.6%). Three patients (17.6%) died before surgery. Exitus was reported in 4 cases, with a total mortality of 23.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Acute aortic events have occurred during pandemic in patients with clinically suspected/microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection. Confounding clinical features at presentation, the importance of anamnestic details (as previous vascular graft implant), the observed surgical and postoperatory challenges may suggest the need to consider the implications of the possible link between acute aortic events and SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to promptly correctly diagnose the patient and respond to specific needs.


Subject(s)
Aorta/pathology , Aortic Diseases/pathology , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta/surgery , Aortic Diseases/mortality , Aortic Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009416, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156080

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterized by respiratory symptoms of various severities, ranging from mild upper respiratory signs to acute respiratory failure/acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with a high mortality rate. However, the pathophysiology of the disease is largely unknown. Shotgun metagenomics from nasopharyngeal swabs were used to characterize the genomic, metagenomic and transcriptomic features of patients from the first pandemic wave with various forms of COVID-19, including outpatients, patients hospitalized not requiring intensive care, and patients in the intensive care unit, to identify viral and/or host factors associated with the most severe forms of the disease. Neither the genetic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, nor the detection of bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites were associated with the severity of pulmonary disease. Severe pneumonia was associated with overexpression of cytokine transcripts activating the CXCR2 pathway, whereas patients with benign disease presented with a T helper "Th1-Th17" profile. The latter profile was associated with female gender and a lower mortality rate. Our findings indicate that the most severe cases of COVID-19 are characterized by the presence of overactive immune cells resulting in neutrophil pulmonary infiltration which, in turn, could enhance the inflammatory response and prolong tissue damage. These findings make CXCR2 antagonists, in particular IL-8 antagonists, promising candidates for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 19(8): 528-545, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147369

ABSTRACT

Human respiratory virus infections lead to a spectrum of respiratory symptoms and disease severity, contributing to substantial morbidity, mortality and economic losses worldwide, as seen in the COVID-19 pandemic. Belonging to diverse families, respiratory viruses differ in how easy they spread (transmissibility) and the mechanism (modes) of transmission. Transmissibility as estimated by the basic reproduction number (R0) or secondary attack rate is heterogeneous for the same virus. Respiratory viruses can be transmitted via four major modes of transmission: direct (physical) contact, indirect contact (fomite), (large) droplets and (fine) aerosols. We know little about the relative contribution of each mode to the transmission of a particular virus in different settings, and how its variation affects transmissibility and transmission dynamics. Discussion on the particle size threshold between droplets and aerosols and the importance of aerosol transmission for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza virus is ongoing. Mechanistic evidence supports the efficacies of non-pharmaceutical interventions with regard to virus reduction; however, more data are needed on their effectiveness in reducing transmission. Understanding the relative contribution of different modes to transmission is crucial to inform the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions in the population. Intervening against multiple modes of transmission should be more effective than acting on a single mode.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aerosols , Humans , Hygiene , Personal Protective Equipment
11.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13266, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136638

ABSTRACT

Background Demographic and clinical risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children presenting with respiratory viral symptoms are not well defined. An understanding of risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection can help prioritize testing. Methodology We evaluated potential demographic and clinical factors in children who had respiratory viral symptoms and were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viral infections. Results Among the 263 symptomatic children tested for routine seasonal respiratory viruses by PCR, 18 (6.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 22.2% of SARS-CoV-2-infected children and 37.1% of SARS-CoV-2-uninfected children had infection with one or more non-SARS-CoV-2 pathogens (p = 0.31). Higher proportions of children with compared to without SARS-CoV-2 infection were male (77.8 vs. 51.8%, p = 0.05), Hispanic (44.4% vs. 9.8%, p < 0.001), or had the symptoms of fatigue (22.2% vs. 2.5%, p = 0.003) or anosmia/ageusia (11.1% vs. 0%, p = 0.004). History of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and obesity were more common in children with versus without SARS-CoV-2 infection (11.1% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.04, and 11.1% vs. 0%, p = 0.004, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, Hispanic ethnicity, symptoms of fatigue or anosmia/ageusia, and presence of obesity (as noted on physical examination) or HIE were independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Numbers in each category were small, and these preliminary associations require confirmation in future studies. Conclusions In this area of the United States, infection with other viruses did not rule out infection with SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, children with respiratory viral symptoms who were of Hispanic ethnicity, had symptoms of weakness/fatigue, or had obesity or HIE were at an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Future studies should assess if these factors are associated with risk in populations in other areas of the United States.

12.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(1): 84-87, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been reported with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but data on the prevalence and severity of GI symptoms in patients with cancer are limited. We sought to characterize the GI manifestations of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in oncology patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a multicenter cohort study of adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 9 Massachusetts medical centers and identified those with an active malignancy. We evaluated the prevalence and severity of GI symptoms among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with cancer. RESULTS: Of 395 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 36 (9%) had an active malignancy. Of the 36 cancer patients, 23 (63%) reported ≥1 new GI symptom. The most prevalent symptoms were anorexia (12, 52%), diarrhea (9, 39%), and vomiting (8, 35%). GI symptoms were the initial symptom in 4/36 (11%) patients, were the predominant symptom in 5/36 (14%) patients, and were severe in 4/23 (17%) patients. Four of 5 patients with GI symptoms at presentation reported concurrent fever; notably 1 patient had no fever or respiratory symptoms. Twelve (33%) patients had elevations in liver transaminases at presentation; patients with elevated transaminases were more likely to have associated GI symptoms (83% vs. 54%, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Acute GI symptoms associated with COVID-19 are highly prevalent in hospitalized cancer patients and can occur as a presenting symptom without respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are severe in a small subset of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Neoplasms/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112321

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 and is a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. In addition to respiratory symptoms, neurological manifestations have been associated with COVID-19. This is attributed to the neurotropic nature of coronaviruses. The authors present a case of Bell's palsy associated with COVID-19 in a term primigravida.


Subject(s)
Bell Palsy , COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Stroke/diagnosis , Valacyclovir/administration & dosage , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Bell Palsy/etiology , Bell Palsy/physiopathology , Bell Palsy/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/physiopathology , Facial Paralysis/therapy , Facial Paralysis/virology , Female , Humans , Neurologic Examination/methods , Physical Therapy Modalities , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Treatment Outcome
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111363, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068873

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of COVID-19, is reported to increase the rate of mortality worldwide. COVID-19 is associated with acute respiratory symptoms as well as blood coagulation in the vessels (thrombosis), heart attack and stroke. Given the requirement of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, here we discuss how the downregulation of ACE2 in the COVID-19 patients and virus-induced shift in ACE2 catalytic equilibrium, change the concentrations of substrates such as angiotensin II, apelin-13, dynorphin-13, and products such as angiotensin (1-7), angiotensin (1-9), apelin-12, dynorphin-12 in the human body. Substrates accumulation ultimately induces inflammation, angiogenesis, thrombosis, neuronal and tissue damage while diminished products lead to the loss of the anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-angiogenic responses. In this review, we focus on the viral-induced imbalance between ACE2 substrates and products which exacerbates the severity of COVID-19. Considering the roadmap, we propose multiple therapeutic strategies aiming to rebalance the products of ACE2 and to ameliorate the symptoms of the disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Paracrine Communication , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Discovery , Humans , Paracrine Communication/drug effects , Paracrine Communication/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 262-272, 2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067907

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China. Clinically, respiratory tract symptoms as well as other organs disorders are observed in patients positively diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition, neurological symptoms, mainly anosmia, ageusia and headache were observed in many patients. Once in the central nervous system (CNS), the SARS-CoV-2 can reside either in a quiescent latent state, or eventually in actively state leading to severe acute encephalitis, characterized by neuroinflammation and prolonged neuroimmune activation. SRAS-CoV-2 requires angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a cell entry receptor. The expression of this receptor in endothelial cells of blood-brain barrier (BBB) shows that SRAS-CoV-2 may have higher neuroinvasive potential compared to known coronaviruses. This review summarizes available information regarding the impact of SRAS-CoV-2 in the brain and tended to identify its potential pathways of neuroinvasion. We offer also an understanding of the long-term impact of latently form of SARS-CoV-2 on the development of neurodegenerative disorders. As a conclusion, the persistent infection of SRAS-CoV-2 in the brain could be involved on human neurodegenerative diseases that evolve a gradual process, perhapes, over several decades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neurons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Tropism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/metabolism , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/pathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Virus Latency
16.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(1): 39-43, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Apart from respiratory symptoms, encephalopathy and a range of central nervous system complications have been described in coronavirus disease 2019. However, there is a lack of published literature on the rehabilitative course and functional outcomes of severe coronavirus disease 2019 with encephalopathy. In addition, the presence of subclinical neurocognitive sequelae during postacute rehabilitation has not been described and may be underrecognized by rehabilitation providers. We report the rehabilitative course of a middle-aged male patient with severe coronavirus disease 2019 who required intensive care and mechanical ventilation. During postacute inpatient rehabilitation for severe intensive care unit-related weakness, an abnormal cognitive screen prompted brain magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed destructive leukoencephalopathy. Subsequently, detailed psychometric evaluation revealed significant impairments in the domains of processing speed and executive function. After 40 days of intensive inpatient rehabilitation, he was discharged home with independent function. This report highlights the need for an increased awareness of covert subclinical neurocognitive sequelae, the role of comprehensive rehabilitation, and value of routine cognitive screening therein and describes the neurocognitive features in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Critical Care , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Leukoencephalopathies/rehabilitation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge
17.
J Emerg Med ; 60(4): 524-530, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) is a complex inflammatory syndrome predominantly seen in adolescents and young adults. The clinical and laboratory profile can easily mimic infectious and noninfectious conditions. The exclusion of these conditions is essential to establish the diagnosis. Recently, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic introduced the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). MIS-C knowledge is evolving. The current criteria to establish the diagnosis are not specific and have overlapping features with EVALI, making the accurate diagnosis a clinical challenge during continued COVID-19 transmission within the community. CASE REPORT: Three young adults evaluated at our emergency department for prolonged fever and gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms were initially assessed for possible MIS-C due to epidemiologic links to COVID-19 and were eventually diagnosed with EVALI. The clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics of both entities are explored, as well as the appropriate medical management. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Physician awareness of overlapping and differentiating EVALI and MIS-C features is essential to direct appropriate diagnostic evaluation and medical management of adolescents and young adults presenting with systemic inflammatory response during the unfolding pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Vaping/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
J Neurol ; 268(9): 3059-3071, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042279

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus, is responsible for the outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It is evident that the COVID-19 pandemic has become a challenging world issue. Although most COVID-19 patients primarily develop respiratory symptoms, an increasing number of neurological symptoms and manifestations associated with COVID-19 have been observed. In this narrative review, we elaborate on proposed neurotropic mechanisms and various neurological symptoms, manifestations, and complications of COVID-19 reported in the present literature. For this purpose, a review of all current published literature (studies, case reports, case series, reviews, editorials, and other articles) was conducted and neurological sequelae of COVID-19 were summarized. Essential and common neurological symptoms including gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions, myalgia, headache, altered mental status, confusion, delirium, and dizziness are presented separately in sections. Moreover, neurological manifestations and complications that are of great concern such as stroke, cerebral (sinus) venous thrombosis, seizures, meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome, acute myelitis, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are also addressed systematically. Future studies that examine the impact of neurological symptoms and manifestations on the course of the disease are needed to further clarify and assess the link between neurological complications and the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. To limit long-term consequences, it is crucial that healthcare professionals can early detect possible neurological symptoms and are well versed in the increasingly common neurological manifestations and complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Headache , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
IDCases ; 20: e00771, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025849

ABSTRACT

We present a case of Guillain- Barré Syndrome (GBS) in a patient with confirmed COVID-19 infection. GBS in commonly encountered after an antecedent trigger, most commonly an infection. To date, only one case of GBS associated with this infection has been described. Clinicians should consider this entity since it may warrant appropriate isolation precautions especially in a patient who may not present primarily with typical constitutional and respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19.

20.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(1): 44-47, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024385

ABSTRACT

We studied the changes in presented health problems and demand for primary care since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Netherlands. We analyzed prominent symptom features of COVID-19, and COVID-19 itself as the reason for encounter. Also, we analyzed the number and type of encounters for common important health problems. Respiratory tract symptoms related to COVID-19 were presented more often in 2020 than in 2019. We observed a dramatic increase of telephone/e-mail/Internet consultations in the months after the outbreak. Contacts for other health problems such as prevention and acute and chronic conditions plummeted substantially (P <0.001); mental health problems stabilized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Family Practice/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Primary Health Care/trends , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/trends
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