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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526822

ABSTRACT

At the end of December 2019, a new coronavirus denominated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Less than three months later, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) to be a global pandemic. Growing numbers of clinical, histopathological, and molecular findings were subsequently reported, among which a particular interest in skin manifestations during the course of the disease was evinced. Today, about one year after the development of the first major infectious foci in Italy, various large case series of patients with COVID-19-related skin manifestations have focused on skin specimens. However, few are supported by histopathological, immunohistochemical, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data on skin specimens. Here, we present nine cases of COVID-positive patients, confirmed by histological, immunophenotypical, and PCR findings, who underwent skin biopsy. A review of the literature in Italian cases with COVID-related skin manifestations is then provided.

3.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 149-162, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300684

ABSTRACT

Skin is one of target organs affected by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, and in response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, a fast body of literature has emerged on related cutaneous manifestations. Current perspective is that the skin is not only a bystander of the general cytokines storm with thrombophilic multiorgan injury, but it is directly affected by the epithelial tropism of the virus, as confirmed by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in endothelial cells and epithelial cells of epidermis and eccrine glands. In contrast with the abundance of epidemiologic and clinical reports, histopathologic characterization of skin manifestations is limited. Without an adequate clinicopathologic correlation, nosology of clinically similar conditions is confusing, and effective association with COVID-19 remains presumptive. Several patients with different types of skin lesions, including the most specific acral chilblains-like lesions, showed negative results at SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal and serologic sampling. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of what has currently been reported worldwide, with a particular emphasis on microscopic patterns of the skin manifestations in patients exposed to or affected by COVID-19. Substantial breakthroughs may occur in the near future from more skin biopsies, improvement of immunohistochemistry studies, RNA detection of SARS-CoV-2 strain by real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay, and electron microscopic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases/virology , Skin/pathology , Chilblains/pathology , Chilblains/virology , Erythema Multiforme/pathology , Erythema Multiforme/virology , Exanthema/pathology , Exanthema/virology , Humans , Necrosis/virology , Purpura/pathology , Purpura/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Urticaria/pathology , Urticaria/virology
5.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 35(11): e699-e709, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269750
6.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol ; 40(2): 168-174, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Skin lesions are either caused by COVID-19 disease or they can be due to other driving forces related to the COVID-19 pandemic. AIM: Considering the fact that the reported data in different articles for the type and prevalence of skin manifestations related to the COVID-19 pandemic are inconsistent, we have described the mechanism and type of skin lesions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this review article, we have searched the Medline database (PubMed) for the combination of the following key terms "Dermatological Manifestation", "cutaneous Manifestation", "Skin Manifestation", "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2". RESULTS: The prevalence of skin manifestations related to COVID-19 ranged from 0.2% to 20%. The majority of these skin lesions are maculopapular eruptions. The skin presentations related to the COVID-19 pandemic are described below. Traumatic skin conditions such as dermatitis in individuals, especially those with allergies, might initiate secondary to over-washing or rinsing with inappropriate detergents. Also, inappropriate use of personal protective equipment (mask-gloves-shield) can trigger skin lesions on the face and hands or aggravate the lesions of acne, seborrhoeic dermatitis, eczema, etc. Furthermore, cutaneous adverse drug reactions may occur during hospitalization or outpatient treatment of COVID-19 patients. Also, psychocutaneous disorders due to acute stress can trigger or deteriorate several skin manifestations. Moreover, COVID-19 prevalence and course may be changed in patients with autoimmune or chronic inflammatory underlying skin disorders such as psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, pemphigus, scleroderma who are on immunosuppressive or biological medications to control their disorders. CONCLUSION: Due to the various dimensions of skin organ involvement and the large population affected, long-term skin conditions following this pandemic can be a lot more problematic than it appears. Serious preventive measures and medical supports are necessary to avoid skin disorders from becoming permanent or even chronic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Skin/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermatitis/etiology , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects
7.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 157(1): 33-37, 2021 07 09.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous manifestations have been included in COVID-19 patients' clinical spectrum. Our objective was to determine the association between skin lesions in children and SARS-CoV-2 infection, analyzing others possible infectious/autoimmune etiologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, multicenter, cross-sectional study, about children with skin manifestations from April to May 2020. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 was performed by PCR in nasopharyngeal exudate and/or presence of antibodies by serology. RESULTS: Sixty-two children were included, 9 (14.5%) presented positive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, with no positive PCR to SARS-Cov-2 in those patients in whom it was made. Patients with positive serology to SARS-CoV-2 presented chilblains and/or vesicular-bullous skin lesions more frequently (66.7% vs. 24.5%, p=0.019). Generalized, urticarial and maculopapular rash was more common in patients with negative antibodies (37.7 vs. 0%, p=0.047), others pathogens were isolated in 41.5% of these patients. There were no significant differences in the positivity for autoantibodies between both groups. CONCLUSION: In our study, the presence of chilblains-like and/or vesicular lesions were significantly related to SARS-CoV-2 previous contact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(8): 956-963, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The infection by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with multiple cutaneous manifestations, although characterization of them in Hispanic patients with darker skin phototypes is lacking. The objective of this study is to characterize the clinical dermatological manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection in cases with few or without general symptoms in patients from Latin America. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a questionnaire that was made for health professionals (physicians with a specialty in dermatology) to investigate dermatological lesions associated with COVID-19 infection in patients from 25 countries of Latin America. The survey was active from June 9 to July 30, 2020. RESULTS: In this study, information was collected from a total of 347 patients. We found a female gender predominance: 179/347 (51.6%). The mean age at presentation was 40.87 years. The most frequent dermatological manifestations were maculopapular rash and urticarial lesions, followed by papulovesicular lesions, vesicular lesions, chilblain-like lesions, papular lesions, ecchymosis, petechial purpura, pityriasis rosea-like lesions, pruritus, palmoplantar dysesthesias, transient livedo, acral necrosis, palpable purpura, livedo racemosa, and retiform purpura. As far as we know, there are no previous reports of pruritus and palmoplantar dysesthesias. CONCLUSIONS: This registry emphasizes skin manifestations as an important criterion for establishing the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection in Latin American countries. This information will be useful for the early identification of suspected cases by health professionals (dermatologists and nondermatologists) and will allow contact tracing to mitigate the impact on health systems at different levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Biologics ; 15: 107-113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217010

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is emerging. Various cutaneous manifestations have been observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, yet exacerbations of psoriasis have been reported sporadically. Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH) is an uncommon, sterile pustular dermatosis involving one or more digits. In some rare cases, ACH may evolve into generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), which is a severe, and potentially life-threatening, form of psoriasis that manifests itself with widespread eruptions of pustules. We describe the first case of a patient in whom ACH abruptly progressed into GPP during COVID-19. A combination of infliximab and acitretin was used allowing swift clinical improvement.

10.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 85(1): 88-94, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous manifestations in hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 have not been studied systematically. OBJECTIVE: To describe the mucocutaneous involvement in pediatric patients with COVID-19 admitted to a pediatric institution in Madrid (Spain), located in a zone reporting among the highest prevalence of COVID-19 in Europe. METHODS: A descriptive, analytical study was conducted on a series of 50 children hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and November 30, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients presented with mucocutaneous symptoms: 18 patients with macular and/or papular exanthem, 17 with conjunctival hyperemia, and 9 with red cracked lips or strawberry tongue. Eighteen patients fulfilled criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Patients with mucocutaneous involvement tended to be older and presented to the emergency department with poor general status and extreme tachycardia, higher C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels, and lower lymphocyte counts than patients without skin signs. Mucocutaneous manifestations pose a higher risk of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (odds ratio, 10.24; 95% confidence interval, 2.23-46.88; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Children hospitalized with COVID-19 frequently had mucocutaneous involvement, with most symptoms fulfilling criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Patients with an exanthem or conjunctival hyperemia at admission have a higher probability of pediatric intensive care admission than patients without mucocutaneous symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Mucous Membrane , Retrospective Studies , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
12.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 84(5): 1356-1363, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of skin manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19-associated skin manifestations and explore the relationships among the 6 main cutaneous phenotypes and systemic findings. METHODS: Twenty-one Italian Dermatology Units were asked to collect the demographic, clinical, and histopathologic data of 200 patients with COVID-19-associated skin manifestations. The severity of COVID-19 was classified as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe. RESULTS: A chilblain-like acral pattern was significantly associated with a younger age (P < .0001) and, after adjusting for age, significantly associated with less severe COVID-19 (P = .0009). However, the median duration of chilblain-like lesions was significantly longer than that of the other cutaneous manifestations taken together (P < .0001). Patients with moderate/severe COVID-19 were more represented than those with asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 among the patients with cutaneous manifestations other than chilblain-like lesions, but only the confluent erythematous/maculo-papular/morbilliform phenotype was significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 (P = .015), and this significance disappeared after adjustment for age. LIMITATIONS: Laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 was not possible in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for age, there was no clear-cut spectrum of COVID-19 severity in patients with COVID-19-related skin manifestations, although chilblain-like acral lesions were more frequent in younger patients with asymptomatic/pauci-symptomatic COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Chilblains/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Skin Diseases, Viral/pathology
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 634208, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119546

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Until now, there are several reports on cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19 patients. However, the link between skin manifestations and the severity of the disease remains debatable. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the temporal relationship between different types of skin lesions and the severity of COVID-19. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for relevant studies published between January and July 2020 using Pubmed/Medline, Embase, and Web of knowledge. The following keywords were used: "SARS-CoV-2" or "COVID-19" or "new coronavirus" or "Wuhan Coronavirus" or "coronavirus disease 2019" and "skin disease" or "skin manifestation" or "cutaneous manifestation." Results: Out of 381 articles, 47 meet the inclusion criteria and a total of 1,847 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were examined. The overall frequency of cutaneous manifestations in COVID-19 patients was 5.95%. The maculopapular rash was the main reported skin involvement (37.3%) commonly occurred in middle-aged females with intermediate severity of the disease. Forty-eight percentage of the patients had a mild, 32% a moderate, and 20% a severe COVID-19 disease. The mild disease was mainly correlated with chilblain-like and urticaria-like lesions and patients with vascular lesions experienced a more severe disease. Seventy-two percentage of patients with chilblain-like lesions improved without any medication. The overall mortality rate was 4.5%. Patients with vascular lesions had the highest mortality rate (18.2%) and patients with urticaria-like lesions had the lowest mortality rate (2.2%). Conclusion: The mere occurrence of skin manifestations in COVID-19 patients is not an indicator for the disease severity, and it highly depends on the type of skin lesions. Chilblain-like and vascular lesions are the ends of a spectrum in which from chilblain-like to vascular lesions, the severity of the disease increases, and the patient's prognosis worsens. Those with vascular lesions should also be considered as high-priority patients for further medical care.

15.
J Dermatol ; 48(5): 651-656, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096631

ABSTRACT

It is not yet entirely clear what is the relevance of skin symptoms and what clinical implications are related to their appearance in COVID-19 patients. We describe two cases of COVID-19-associated pneumonia, which presented skin manifestations in advanced stage of illness, when nasopharyngeal swabs became negative for SARS-CoV-2. The first case presented erythematous, maculopapular lesions; the second developed petechial, vesicular and blood-encrusted lesions on the limbs. Histopathology documented perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates, with prevalent CD4+ T-cells in both patients. The research of SARS-CoV-2 in tissues with real time RT-PCR was negative. Basal keratinocytes displayed C4d deposits in one case, who developed laboratory signs indicative of a procoagulative condition at the same time as the skin rash. Skin manifestations during SARS-CoV-2 infection seem to be clinically relevant and further studies are necessary to assess if they are linked to systemic complications, lack of viral clearance or cascades of immune responses induced by the virus, even in patients affected by mild pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , COVID-19 Testing , Erythema , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Dermatol Pract Concept ; 11(1): e2021153, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094323

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The International Dermoscopy Society (IDS) conducted an online survey to investigate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on the daily practice of dermatologists working with skin cancer patients, to collect data regarding the frequency of skin manifestations noticed by the members, and to obtain information about the use of teledermatology during the pandemic. METHODS: All IDS members were asked to fill in a questionnaire, sent by email. A questionnaire available in English was sent to all IDS members (≈16.0000 members) by email. The questionnaire was anonymous, with a compiling time of less than 5 minutes. The survey was open for 30 days (from April 24, 2020 to May 24, 2020) and it could only be filled out once. RESULTS: Overall, 678 dermatologists responded to the questionnaire; 334 members stated that there has been a reduction of more than 75% in daily work activity during the pandemic, 265 dermatologists worked fewer days per week, and 118 experienced telemedicine for the first time. Acrodermatitis was the most frequently observed skin manifestation (n = 80) followed by urticarial rash (n = 69), morbilliform rash (n = 53) and purpuric manifestation (n = 40). In regard to the role of teledermatology, 565 dermatologists reported an increased number of teleconsultations, and the number of melanomas diagnosed during the pandemic was practically 0 for 385 (56.78%) of respondents. CONCLUSION: This survey highlights that the outbreak had a negative impact on most dermatology services, with a significant reduction in consultation time spent for chronic patients, and an increased risk of missed melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) diagnosis. Moreover, our study confirms earlier findings of a wide range of skin manifestations associated with COVID-19.

17.
Dermatol Online J ; 27(1)2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074062

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus two (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has infected patients worldwide. Physicians have increasingly identified cutaneous findings as a significant clinical manifestation of COVID-19. In this review, we describe the clinical presentation, onset, duration, associated symptoms, treatment, and outcome of cutaneous manifestations thus far reported to be related to COVID-19. We have included data from 63 studies and subdivided reported cutaneous manifestations into the categories of viral exanthem, urticarial, vesicular, chilblains/chilblains-like, non-chilblains vasculopathy-related, pityriasis rosea-like, erythema multiforme-like, Kawasaki/Kawasaki-like disease, and others. Physicians should be aware of the known common cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 and future research is required to better understand the pathophysiology and prognosis of each COVID-19-related skin manifestation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Skin Diseases/physiopathology , Chilblains/physiopathology , Erythema Multiforme/physiopathology , Exanthema/physiopathology , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Pityriasis Rosea/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases, Vascular/physiopathology , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Urticaria/physiopathology
19.
Hum Pathol ; 107: 39-45, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065107

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 is getting wider with the exponential increase of patients worldwide. Initially described with flu-like symptoms, variable cutaneous manifestations have been reported, with only few histopathological descriptions. Detection of the virus in cutaneous samples has been assessed in very few cases until now, and the causative role of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has not been proven for every type of cutaneous manifestations yet. We aimed to describe histological features of cutaneous eruptions occurring concomitantly to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess by immunochemistry and in situ hybridization using RNAscope validation techniques the presence of the virus in skin lesions. We retrieved all skin biopsies received in the departments of pathology and dermatopathology, University Hospital of Strasbourg, performed in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients presenting concomitant cutaneous manifestations since March 2020. In situ hybridization and immunostaining using a polyclonal SARS nucleocapsid protein antibody were performed on each sample. Skin biopsies from six patients presenting morbilliform eruption concomitant to SARS-CoV-2 infection were available for evaluation. All six samples showed varying degrees of spongiosis, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates of the dermis, and, for some of them, discrete interface dermatitis. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were negative in all cutaneous samples. Morbilliform rash concomitant to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by mild and unspecific histopathological features with no detectable viral RNA and protein and appears then not to be directly caused by the virus. Even if, at least for a few cases, the differential diagnosis with drug hypersensitivity reaction can be difficult, these cutaneous eruptions seem to rather correspond to paraviral rashes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dermatitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin Diseases/virology , Dermatitis/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , Skin/pathology , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases/pathology
20.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(2): 137-144, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067936

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, several studies have described a distinctive cutaneous manifestation with a clinical picture resembling chilblains or chilblain lupus in young patients. OBJECTIVE.­: To report the histopathologic description of a series of chilblainlike lesions appearing in the context of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 epidemic. DESIGN.­: The study included 13 patients with cutaneous acral lesions resembling chilblains occurring in the setting of suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection with available skin biopsy. RESULTS.­: Two main histopathologic patterns were observed: a chilblainlike histopathologic pattern (10 of 13 cases; 77%) and a thrombotic vasculopathy pattern (3 of 13 cases; 23%). The chilblainlike histopathologic pattern featured a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes of varying intensity. This infiltrate was sometimes peri-eccrine and alterations of eccrine glands were present in most cases. Vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis was found in a majority of patients. Lichenoid interface dermatitis was rarely present. The thrombotic vasculopathy pattern featured an absent or mild inflammatory infiltrate, multiple intraluminal fibrin thrombi, and ischemic epidermal necrosis. In both patterns, no true vasculitis was observed. No patient tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by polymerase chain reaction, possibly because these lesions may represent late cutaneous manifestations of the disease or are associated with an early effective immune response. CONCLUSIONS.­: The relationship of chilblainlike lesions to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 requires further investigations. Histopathologic features mimic chilblains, chilblain lupus, and, less frequently, a thrombotic vasculopathy. Response to viral infection might trigger diverse mechanisms leading to the 2 histopathologic patterns described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Chilblains/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/diagnosis
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