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1.
Sci Immunol ; 5(44)2020 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575907

ABSTRACT

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are innate immune cells that acquire the capacity to suppress adaptive immune responses during cancer. It remains elusive how MDSCs differ from their normal myeloid counterparts, which limits our ability to specifically detect and therapeutically target MDSCs during cancer. Here, we sought to determine the molecular features of breast cancer-associated MDSCs using the widely studied mouse model based on the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter-driven expression of the polyomavirus middle T oncoprotein (MMTV-PyMT). To identify MDSCs in an unbiased manner, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to compare MDSC-containing splenic myeloid cells from breast tumor-bearing mice with wild-type controls. Our computational analysis of 14,646 single-cell transcriptomes revealed that MDSCs emerge through an aberrant neutrophil maturation trajectory in the spleen that confers them an immunosuppressive cell state. We establish the MDSC-specific gene signature and identify CD84 as a surface marker for improved detection and enrichment of MDSCs in breast cancers.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Animals , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/immunology , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Mice, Transgenic , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , RNA, Neoplasm/genetics , RNA, Neoplasm/immunology , Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family/genetics , Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family/immunology
2.
Viral Immunol ; 34(6): 416-420, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475758

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has infected millions of individuals in the world. However, the long-term effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the organs of recovered patients remains unclear. This study is to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the spleen and T lymphocytes. Seventy-six patients recovered from COVID-19, including 66 cases of moderate pneumonia and 10 cases of severe pneumonia were enrolled in the observation group. The control group consisted of 55 age-matched healthy subjects. The thickness and length of spleen were measured by using B-ultrasound and the levels of T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that the mean length of spleen in the observation group was 89.57 ± 11.49 mm, which was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (103.82 ± 11.29 mm, p < 0.001). The mean thicknesses of spleen between observation group and control group were 29.97 ± 4.04 mm and 32.45 ± 4.49 mm, respectively, and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was observed in the size of spleen between common pneumonia and severe pneumonia (p > 0.05). In addition, the decreased count of T lymphocyte was observed in part of recovered patients. The counts of T suppressor lymphocytes in patients with severe pneumonia were significantly decreased compared with those with moderate pneumonia (p = 0.005). Therefore, these data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects the size of spleen and T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
3.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 847-860, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387284

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. 2-E proteins were found to form a type of pH-sensitive cation channels in bilayer lipid membranes. As observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, heterologous expression of 2-E channels induced rapid cell death in various susceptible cell types and robust secretion of cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. Intravenous administration of purified 2-E protein into mice caused ARDS-like pathological damages in lung and spleen. A dominant negative mutation lowering 2-E channel activity attenuated cell death and SARS-CoV-2 production. Newly identified channel inhibitors exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and excellent cell protective activity in vitro and these activities were positively correlated with inhibition of 2-E channel. Importantly, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of the channel inhibitor effectively reduced both the viral load and secretion of inflammation cytokines in lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2). Our study supports that 2-E is a promising drug target against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Half-Life , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spleen/metabolism , Spleen/pathology , Viral Load , Virulence
4.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282548

ABSTRACT

Fabry disease (FD) is a monogenic X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme α-Galactosidase A (α-Gal A). It is a good candidate to be treated with gene therapy, in which moderately low levels of enzyme activity should be sufficient for clinical efficacy. In the present work we have evaluated the efficacy of a non-viral vector based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to increase α-Gal A activity in an FD mouse model after intravenous administration. The SLN-based vector incremented α-Gal A activity to about 10%, 15%, 20% and 14% of the levels of the wild-type in liver, spleen, heart and kidney, respectively. In addition, the SLN-based vector significantly increased α-Gal A activity with respect to the naked pDNA used as a control in plasma, heart and kidney. The administration of a dose per week for three weeks was more effective than a single-dose administration. Administration of the SLN-based vector did not increase liver transaminases, indicative of a lack of toxicity. Additional studies are necessary to optimize the efficacy of the system; however, these results reinforce the potential of lipid-based nanocarriers to treat FD by gene therapy.

5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 56, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled inflammation is a central problem for many respiratory diseases. The development of potent, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies to reduce lung inflammation and re-establish the homeostasis in the respiratory tract is still a challenge. Previously, we developed a unique anti-inflammatory nanodrug, P12 (made of hexapeptides and gold nanoparticles), which can attenuate Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages. However, the effect of the administration route on its therapeutic efficacy and tissue distribution remained to be defined. RESULTS: In this study, we systematically compared the effects of three different administration routes [the intratracheal (i.t.), intravenous (i.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.)] on the therapeutic activity, biodistribution and pulmonary cell targeting features of P12. Using the LPS-induced ALI mouse model, we found that the local administration route via i.t. instillation was superior in reducing lung inflammation than the other two routes even treated with a lower concentration of P12. Further studies on nanoparticle biodistribution showed that the i.t. administration led to more accumulation of P12 in the lungs but less in the liver and other organs; however, the i.v. and i.p. administration resulted in more nanoparticle accumulation in the liver and lymph nodes, respectively, but less in the lungs. Such a lung favorable distribution was also determined by the unique surface chemistry of P12. Furthermore, the inflammatory condition in the lung could decrease the accumulation of nanoparticles in the lung and liver, while increasing their distribution in the spleen and heart. Interestingly, the i.t. administration route helped the nanoparticles specifically target the lung macrophages, whereas the other two administration routes did not. CONCLUSION: The i.t. administration is better for treating ALI using nanodevices as it enhances the bioavailability and efficacy of the nanodrugs in the target cells of the lung and reduces the potential systematic side effects.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Gold/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/pathology , Tissue Distribution
6.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 847-860, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265947

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. 2-E proteins were found to form a type of pH-sensitive cation channels in bilayer lipid membranes. As observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, heterologous expression of 2-E channels induced rapid cell death in various susceptible cell types and robust secretion of cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. Intravenous administration of purified 2-E protein into mice caused ARDS-like pathological damages in lung and spleen. A dominant negative mutation lowering 2-E channel activity attenuated cell death and SARS-CoV-2 production. Newly identified channel inhibitors exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and excellent cell protective activity in vitro and these activities were positively correlated with inhibition of 2-E channel. Importantly, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of the channel inhibitor effectively reduced both the viral load and secretion of inflammation cytokines in lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2). Our study supports that 2-E is a promising drug target against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Half-Life , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spleen/metabolism , Spleen/pathology , Viral Load , Virulence
7.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1291-1301, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258939

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The clinical and laboratory features of severe COVID-19 infection overlap with those of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a hyperinflammatory disorder often associated with several viral infections. The clinical syndrome of HLH encompasses fever, organomegaly, cytopenias, hyperferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, raised transaminases, hypofibrinogenemia, absent natural killer (NK) cell activity, increased soluble CD25 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes. METHODS: We analyzed clinicopathological and laboratory features of thirteen patients with severe COVID-19 infection suspected to have HLH and found to have hemophagocytic histiocytosis on bone marrow examination (BME). RESULTS: Five of thirteen (38.46%) patients fulfilled five of eight HLH 2004 criteria and/or had a H-score ≥169. Three (23.08%) satisfied four of eight and remainder five (38.46%) satisfied three of eight HLH 2004 criteria. Fever, raised serum ferritin (13/13, 100%), transaminases (9/13, 69.23%), triglycerides (4/13, 30.76%), cytopenias (5/13, 38.46%), hypofibrinogenemia (2/13, 15.38%), and organomegaly (1/13, 7.69%) were observed in our patients. BME showed hemophagocytic histiocytosis without lymphocytosis in all. Contrary to HLH, lymphocytopenia (11/13, 84.61%), leukocytosis (7/13, 53.84%), neutrophilia (7/13, 53.84%), and hyperfibrinogenemia (7/13, 53.84%) were observed. Serum CRP, LDH, and plasma D-dimer were elevated in all, while serum albumin was decreased in 12 of 13 (92.3%) patients. Five patients recovered with high-dose pulsed corticosteroid therapy. CONCLUSION: The immune response associated with severe COVID-19 infection is similar to HLH with few differences. HLH should be suspected in severe COVID-19 infection although all patients may not fulfill required HLH diagnostic criteria. BME should be done in suspected cases so that appropriate therapy may be initiated early.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins/analysis , Bone Marrow Examination , COVID-19/immunology , Creatinine/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment , Triglycerides/blood
8.
Pathologe ; 42(2): 155-163, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is considered a systemic disease. A severe course with fatal outcome is possible and unpredictable. OBJECTIVES: Which organ systems are predominantly involved? Which diseases are predisposed for a fatal course? Which organ changes are found with lethal outcome? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from published autopsy studies (28 cases by our group) with respect to organ changes and possible cause of death. RESULTS: The most severe alterations are found in the lungs by diffuse alveolar damage as a symptom of an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), in part with fibrosis. Thrombosis of small- to mid-sized pulmonary arteries is associated with hemorrhagic lung infarction. Frequent complications are bacterial pneumonias and less frequently fungal pneumonias by aspergillus. Pulmonary thromboembolism is found in 20-30% of lethal courses, also in the absence of deep venous thrombosis. Intestinal involvement of COVID-19 can be associated with intestinal ischemia, caused by shock or local thrombosis. In most cases, the kidneys display acute tubular injury reflecting acute renal failure, depletion of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes and spleen, and hyperplastic adrenal glands. The liver frequently reveals steatosis, liver cell necrosis, portal inflammation, and proliferation of Kupffer cells. Important preexisting diseases in autopsy studies are arterial hypertension with hypertensive and ischemic cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus but large population-based studies reveal increased risk of mortality only for diabetes mellitus not for arterial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of the pulmonary circulation with pulmonary arterial thrombosis, infarction, and bacterial pneumonia are important and often lethal complications of COVID-19-associated ARDS. Findings from autopsy studies have influenced therapy and prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 661052, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229177

ABSTRACT

While lymphocytopenia is a common characteristic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the mechanisms responsible for this lymphocyte depletion are unclear. Here, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and immunological data from 18 fatal COVID-19 cases, results showed that these patients had severe lymphocytopenia, together with high serum levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10), and elevation of many other mediators in routine laboratory tests, including C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and natriuretic peptide type B. The spleens and hilar lymph nodes (LNs) from six additional COVID-19 patients with post-mortem examinations were also collected, histopathologic detection showed that both organs manifested severe tissue damage and lymphocyte apoptosis in these six cases. In situ hybridization assays illustrated that SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA accumulates in these tissues, and transmission electronic microscopy confirmed that coronavirus-like particles were visible in the LNs. SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Nucleocapsid protein (NP) accumulated in the spleens and LNs, and the NP antigen restricted in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) positive macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 triggered the transcription of Il6, Il8 and Il1b genes in infected primary macrophages and DCs in vitro, and SARS-CoV-2-NP+ macrophages and DCs also manifested high levels of IL-6 and IL-1ß, which might directly decimate human spleens and LNs and subsequently lead to lymphocytopenia in vivo. Collectively, these results demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 induced lymphocytopenia by promoting systemic inflammation and direct neutralization in human spleen and LNs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spleen/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Lymph Nodes/ultrastructure , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spleen/ultrastructure
10.
Cureus ; 13(3): e14194, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217163

ABSTRACT

A 21-year-old previously healthy Caucasian female presented to the emergency department (ED) in the pre-COVID-19 era for evaluation of thrombocytopenia after a flu-like illness. The patient reported fever, cough, headache and myalgias for one week. She was on oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for five years but discontinued one week ago. She was found to be in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and her hospital course was complicated by intraparenchymal hemorrhage, deep vein thrombus (DVT) in the right arm veins, bilateral pulmonary embolus (PE) and multiple splenic infarcts. An extensive workup was negative but nasopharyngeal swab came back positive for adenovirus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178130

ABSTRACT

Worldwide deployment of COVID-19 vaccines is in progress. Recent immune activation following vaccination can sometimes be seen in fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F]-FDG PET/CT). As previously evidenced, FDG-avid axillary lymph node(s) are common in patients receiving vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, or human papillomavirus, and reflect a regional immune response. In addition, these findings may also be accompanied by an increased spleen glucose metabolism after the COVID-19 vaccine, which captures a systemic immune response. Hence, we provide here a clinical example demonstrating that immune response could be associated with increased glucose metabolism in lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes and the spleen, which are critical modulators of T cell immunity. We believe that it is of paramount importance that nuclear physicians should be able to recognize clinical and imaging features of such immune responses upon vaccination for COVID-19 and beyond.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 636222, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177977

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes (DC EXO), natural nanoparticles of endosomal origin, are under intense scrutiny in clinical trials for various inflammatory diseases. DC EXO are eobiotic, meaning they are well-tolerated by the host; moreover, they can be custom-tailored for immune-regulatory or -stimulatory functions, thus presenting attractive opportunities for immune therapy. Previously we documented the efficacy of immunoregulatory DCs EXO (regDCs EXO) as immunotherapy for inflammatory bone disease, in an in-vivo model. We showed a key role for encapsulated TGFß1 in promoting a bone sparing immune response. However, the on- and off-target effects of these therapeutic regDC EXO and how target signaling in acceptor cells is activated is unclear. In the present report, therapeutic regDC EXO were analyzed by high throughput proteomics, with non-therapeutic EXO from immature DCs and mature DCs as controls, to identify shared and distinct proteins and potential off-target proteins, as corroborated by immunoblot. The predominant expression in regDC EXO of immunoregulatory proteins as well as proteins involved in trafficking from the circulation to peripheral tissues, cell surface binding, and transmigration, prompted us to investigate how these DC EXO are biodistributed to major organs after intravenous injection. Live animal imaging showed preferential accumulation of regDCs EXO in the lungs, followed by spleen and liver tissue. In addition, TGFß1 in regDCs EXO sustained downstream signaling in acceptor DCs. Blocking experiments suggested that sustaining TGFß1 signaling require initial interaction of regDCs EXO with TGFß1R followed by internalization of regDCs EXO with TGFß1-TGFß1R complex. Finally, these regDCs EXO that contain immunoregulatory cargo and showed biodistribution to lungs could downregulate the main severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) target receptor, ACE2 on recipient lung parenchymal cells via TGFß1 in-vitro. In conclusion, these results in mice may have important immunotherapeutic implications for lung inflammatory disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Mice , Proteomics , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type I/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/immunology
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928837, 2021 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. To further reveal the pathologic associations between coronavirus and hypoxemia, we report the findings of 4 complete systematic autopsies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-positive individuals who died of multiple organ failure caused by severe hypoxemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS We examined the donated corpses of 4 deceased patients who had been diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. A complete post-mortem examination was carried out on each corpse, and multiple organs were macroscopically examined. RESULTS The 4 corpses were 2 males and 2 females, with an average age of 69 years. Bilateral lungs showed various degrees of atrophy and consolidation, with diffusely tough and solid texture in the sections. A thromboembolism was found in the main pulmonary artery extending into the atrium in 1 corpse, and significant atherosclerotic plaques tagged in the inner wall of the aortic arch were found in 2 corpses. Two corpses were found to have slightly atrophied bilateral renal parenchyma. Atrophic changes in the spleen were found in 2 corpses. Notably, there were significantly expanded alveolar septa and prominent fibroblastic proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The laboratory data of these corpses showed a progressive decrease in blood oxygen saturation, followed by refractory and irreversible hypoxemia. Clinical and laboratory information and autopsy and histologic presentations of multiple organs showed insufficient air exchange due to abnormalities in the respiratory system, and reduced erythropoiesis in bone marrow may play a role.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Aggregation , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucus/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Necrosis , Pneumonia/complications , Thoracic Cavity/pathology
14.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(1): 205-211, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130760

ABSTRACT

Amyloidosis is described by the deposition of misfolded proteins in the tissues. Amyloidoses are classified into two as systemic and localized. Out of the systemic forms, AL (light chain) amyloidosis is the most prevalent type; however, amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is more frequently encountered in the rheumatology practice. AA amyloidosis stands out as a major complication of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Splenic and renal involvement is more likely in FMF-associated systemic amyloidosis. The involvement of thyroid and adrenal glands has also been described, although infrequently. Amyloidoses have a heterogeneous plethora of clinical manifestations, with certain phenotypes associated with specific amyloid forms. Gynecological amyloidosis is a rare condition. Uterine involvement may occur in a localized fashion or may also arise as a part of systemic involvement, albeit at a lesser ratio. Several cases of uterine AL amyloidosis have been documented so far as an organ involvement in systemic AL amyloidosis. On the other hand, uterine amyloidosis associated with AA amyloidosis has been described merely in one case with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we presented a 40-year-old female patient with FMF known for 38 years who underwent splenectomy and hysterectomy due to massive splenomegaly, deep anemia, and persistent menometrorrhagia. Histological examinations of materials revealed uterine and splenic AA amyloidosis. This case report is first-of-its-kind to describe FMF-associated uterine AA amyloidosis and also provides a discussion of possible mechanisms of amyloidosis-induced uterine bleeding.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis/etiology , Familial Mediterranean Fever/complications , Menorrhagia/etiology , Adult , Amyloidosis/drug therapy , Amyloidosis/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1680-1683, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although pulmonary involvement represents the primary and most characteristic presentation of Sars-Cov-2 infection, due to its innate tropism for endothelium, it is also associated with systemic pro-coagulative changes and thromboses. This paper describes a COVID-19 atypical presentation with massive thrombotic occlusion of the splenoportal-mesenteric axis and the splenic artery in the absence of clinical or radiological manifestation of pulmonary involvement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Female patient, with no history of disease, trauma or fever in the last 30 days, was admitted to ER for persistent left subcostal pain. Laboratory exams, including inflammation, coagulation markers and Sars-CoV-2 serology, were requested. Whole-body CT with contrast media injection was performed. RESULTS: Laboratory exams showed elevated reactive C-protein, bilirubin, γ-GT and D-dimer. Whole-body CT showed: splenic artery occlusion, thrombosis of splenic, mesenteric and portal veins with portal intra-hepatic branches ectasia, juxta-hilar portal cavernomatosis of probable acute onset (absence of signs of chronic hepatopathy and of varices), a hypodense area in the spleen indicating ischemic parenchymal suffering. The patient resulted positive for Sars-CoV-2 IgG, thus in the absence of typical clinics or pulmonary parenchymal abnormality at chest CT. CONCLUSIONS: A case of acute venous thrombosis and arterial occlusion as primary manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Mesenteric Veins/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/blood supply , Splenic Artery/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/blood , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/etiology , Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(7): e290-e299, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) targets multiple organs and causes severe coagulopathy. Histopathological organ changes might not only be attributable to a direct virus-induced effect, but also the immune response. The aims of this study were to assess the duration of viral presence, identify the extent of inflammatory response, and investigate the underlying cause of coagulopathy. METHODS: This prospective autopsy cohort study was done at Amsterdam University Medical Centers (UMC), the Netherlands. With informed consent from relatives, full body autopsy was done on 21 patients with COVID-19 for whom autopsy was requested between March 9 and May 18, 2020. In addition to histopathological evaluation of organ damage, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and the composition of the immune infiltrate and thrombi were assessed, and all were linked to disease course. FINDINGS: Our cohort (n=21) included 16 (76%) men, and median age was 68 years (range 41-78). Median disease course (time from onset of symptoms to death) was 22 days (range 5-44 days). In 11 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 tropism, SARS-CoV-2 infected cells were present in multiple organs, most abundantly in the lungs, but presence in the lungs became sporadic with increased disease course. Other SARS-CoV-2-positive organs included the upper respiratory tract, heart, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. In histological analyses of organs (sampled from nine to 21 patients per organ), an extensive inflammatory response was present in the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, and brain. In the brain, extensive inflammation was seen in the olfactory bulbs and medulla oblongata. Thrombi and neutrophilic plugs were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, and brain and were most frequently observed late in the disease course (15 patients with thrombi, median disease course 22 days [5-44]; ten patients with neutrophilic plugs, 21 days [5-44]). Neutrophilic plugs were observed in two forms: solely composed of neutrophils with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), or as aggregates of NETs and platelets.. INTERPRETATION: In patients with lethal COVID-19, an extensive systemic inflammatory response was present, with a continued presence of neutrophils and NETs. However, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells were only sporadically present at late stages of COVID-19. This suggests a maladaptive immune response and substantiates the evidence for immunomodulation as a target in the treatment of severe COVID-19. FUNDING: Amsterdam UMC Corona Research Fund.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Pathologe ; 42(2): 155-163, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is considered a systemic disease. A severe course with fatal outcome is possible and unpredictable. OBJECTIVES: Which organ systems are predominantly involved? Which diseases are predisposed for a fatal course? Which organ changes are found with lethal outcome? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from published autopsy studies (28 cases by our group) with respect to organ changes and possible cause of death. RESULTS: The most severe alterations are found in the lungs by diffuse alveolar damage as a symptom of an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), in part with fibrosis. Thrombosis of small- to mid-sized pulmonary arteries is associated with hemorrhagic lung infarction. Frequent complications are bacterial pneumonias and less frequently fungal pneumonias by aspergillus. Pulmonary thromboembolism is found in 20-30% of lethal courses, also in the absence of deep venous thrombosis. Intestinal involvement of COVID-19 can be associated with intestinal ischemia, caused by shock or local thrombosis. In most cases, the kidneys display acute tubular injury reflecting acute renal failure, depletion of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes and spleen, and hyperplastic adrenal glands. The liver frequently reveals steatosis, liver cell necrosis, portal inflammation, and proliferation of Kupffer cells. Important preexisting diseases in autopsy studies are arterial hypertension with hypertensive and ischemic cardiomyopathy and diabetes mellitus but large population-based studies reveal increased risk of mortality only for diabetes mellitus not for arterial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of the pulmonary circulation with pulmonary arterial thrombosis, infarction, and bacterial pneumonia are important and often lethal complications of COVID-19-associated ARDS. Findings from autopsy studies have influenced therapy and prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(5): 999-1004, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081312

ABSTRACT

Multiple studies and reports have suggested that coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) promotes arterial and venous thrombotic events in multiple organ systems, although the mechanism leading to a hypercoagulable state is still unknown. Few cases of splenic infarction associated with COVID-19 have been reported, of which half were found incidentally upon autopsy. This may be due to a clinically silent presentation or the symptoms being wrongfully attributed to pain caused by the effects of COVID-19. Due to the rarity of the condition and its lack of consistent symptomatology, splenic thromboembolism can be difficult to diagnose. Awareness of the condition and high clinical suspicion will help the clinician identify and manage the problem. Hemorrhage in patients with COVID-19 is uncommon in the hypercoagulable state that threatens thrombus formation in patients with COVID-19 infection. Despite prophylactic treatment with anticoagulation therapies, patients are more prone to developing clots. It is also well-known that therapeutic anticoagulation can place patients at a higher risk of bleeding. Thus, this unique population is at risk of developing both thrombotic and hemorrhagic events. We report a rare case of splenic infarction in a patient with confirmed COVID-19 infection despite prophylactic treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin which was found incidentally during workup for 2 other rare conditions: spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma and microhemorrhage or thrombus of the mesenteric vessels.

19.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 39-45, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084651

ABSTRACT

Infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (IAHS), a severe complication of various infections, is potentially fatal. This study aims to determine whether IAHS occurs in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a retrospective observational study on 268 critically ill patients with COVID-19 between February 1st, 2020 and February 26th, 2020. Demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, information on concurrent treatments and outcomes were collected. A diagnosis of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) was made when the patients had an HScore greater than 169. Histopathological examinations were performed to confirm the presence of hemophagocytosis. Of 268 critically ill patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 17 (6.3%) patients had an HScore greater than 169. All the 17 patients with sHLH died. The interval from the onset of symptom of COVID-19 to the time of a diagnosis of sHLH made was 19 days and the interval from the diagnosis of sHLH to death was 4 days. Ten (59%) patients were infected with only SARS-CoV-2. Hemophagocytosis in the spleen and the liver, as well as lymphocyte infiltration in the liver on histopathological examinations, was found in 3 sHLH autopsy patients. Mortality in sHLH patients with COVID-19 is high. And SARS-CoV-2 is a potential trigger for sHLH. Prompt recognition of IAHS in critically ill patients with COVID-19 could be beneficial for improving clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069887

ABSTRACT

The rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the USA and worldwide necessitates the development of multiple vaccines to combat the COVID-19 global pandemic. Previously, we showed that a particulate adjuvant system, quil-A-loaded chitosan (QAC) nanoparticles, can elicit robust immunity combined with plasmid vaccines when used against avian coronavirus. Here, we report on the immune responses elicited by mucosal homologous plasmid and a heterologous immunization strategy using a plasmid vaccine and a Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens. Only the heterologous intranasal immunization strategy elicited neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage of mice, suggesting a protective vaccine. The same prime/boost strategy led to the induction of type 1 and type 17 T-cell responses and polyfunctional T-cells expressing multiple type 1 cytokines (e.g., IFN-γ, TNFα, IL-2) in the lungs and spleens of vaccinated mice. In contrast, the plasmid homologous vaccine strategy led to the induction of local mono and polyfunctional T-cells secreting IFN-γ. Outcomes of this study support the potential of QAC-nano vaccines to elicit significant mucosal immune responses against respiratory coronaviruses.

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