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1.
Cardiol Young ; 31(6): 1021-1023, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701004

ABSTRACT

A 12-year-old girl presented with fever and signs of systemic inflammation, and was found to have junctional tachycardia. She was subsequently diagnosed with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids, which led to resolution of the arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/etiology
2.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 435-438, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were approved to prevent COVID-19 infection, with reported vaccine efficacy of 95%. Liver transplant (LT) recipients are at risk of lower vaccine immunogenicity and were not included in the registration trials. We assessed vaccine immunogenicity and safety in this special population. METHODS: LT recipients followed at the Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and healthy volunteers were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies directed against the Spike-protein (S) and Nucleocapsid-protein (N) 10-20 days after receiving the second Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose. Information regarding vaccine side effects and clinical data was collected from patients and medical records. RESULTS: Eighty LT recipients were enrolled. Mean age was 60 years and 30% were female. Twenty-five healthy volunteer controls were younger (mean age 52.7 years, p = 0.013) and mostly female (68%, p = 0.002). All participants were negative for IgG N-protein serology, indicating immunity did not result from prior COVID-19 infection. All controls were positive for IgG S-protein serology. Immunogenicity among LT recipients was significantly lower with positive serology in only 47.5% (p <0.001). Antibody titer was also significantly lower in this group (mean 95.41 AU/ml vs. 200.5 AU/ml in controls, p <0.001). Predictors for negative response among LT recipients were older age, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and treatment with high dose steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. No serious adverse events were reported in either group. CONCLUSION: LT recipients developed substantially lower immunological response to the Pfizer-BioNTech SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccine. Factors influencing serological antibody responses include age, renal function and immunosuppressive medications. The findings require re-evaluation of vaccine regimens in this population. LAY SUMMARY: The Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicited substantially inferior immunity in liver transplant recipients. Less than half of the patients developed sufficient levels of antibodies against the virus, and in those who were positive, average antibody levels were 2x less compared to healthy controls. Factors predicting non-response were older age, renal function and immunosuppressive medications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Liver Transplantation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013101, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely given to children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an attempt to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Their use is still controversial and the decision to administer the intervention can vary by centre and/or by individual doctors within that centre. OBJECTIVES: This review is designed to assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic corticosteroids in children between birth and 18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science in June 2020. We also searched four clinical trials registers and conducted backward and forward citation searching of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies of prophylactic administration of corticosteroids, including single and multiple doses, and all types of corticosteroids administered via any route and at any time-point in the perioperative period. We excluded studies if steroids were administered therapeutically. We included individually randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with two or more groups (e.g. multi-drug or dose comparisons with a control group) but not 'head-to-head' trials without a placebo or a group that did not receive corticosteroids. We included studies in children, from birth up to 18 years of age, including preterm infants, undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB. We also excluded studies in patients undergoing heart or lung transplantation, or both; studies in patients already receiving corticosteroids; in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and in patients given steroids at the time of cardiac surgery for indications other than cardiac surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the Covidence systematic review manager to extract and manage data for the review. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus or by consultation with a third review author. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We found 3748 studies, of which 888 were duplicate records. Two studies had the same clinical trial registration number, but reported different populations and interventions. We therefore included them as separate studies. We screened titles and abstracts of 2868 records and reviewed full text reports for 84 studies to determine eligibility. We extracted data for 13 studies. Pooled analyses are based on eight studies. We reported the remaining five studies narratively due to zero events for both intervention and placebo in the outcomes of interest. Therefore, the final meta-analysis included eight studies with a combined population of 478 participants. There was a low or unclear risk of bias across the domains. There was moderate certainty of evidence that corticosteroids do not change the risk of in-hospital mortality (five RCTs; 313 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 2.07) for children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. There was high certainty of evidence that corticosteroids reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation (six RCTs; 421 participants; mean difference (MD) 11.37 hours lower, 95% CI -20.29 to -2.45) after the surgery. There was high-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay (six RCTs; 421 participants; MD 0.28 days lower, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.24) and moderate-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of the postoperative hospital stay (one RCT; 176 participants; mean length of stay 22 days; MD -0.70 days, 95% CI -2.62 to 1.22). There was moderate certainty of evidence for no effect of the intervention on all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up (five RCTs; 313 participants; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.07) or cardiovascular mortality at the longest follow-up (three RCTs; 109 participants; RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.46). There was low certainty of evidence that corticosteroids probably make little to no difference to children separating from CPB (one RCT; 40 participants; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.92). We were unable to report information regarding adverse events of the intervention due to the heterogeneity of reporting of outcomes. We downgraded the certainty of evidence for several reasons, including imprecision due to small sample sizes, a single study providing data for an individual outcome, the inclusion of both appreciable benefit and harm in the confidence interval, and publication bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids  probably do not change the risk of mortality for children having heart surgery using CPB at any time point. They probably reduce the duration of postoperative ventilation in this context, but have little or no effect on the total length of postoperative ICU stay or total postoperative hospital stay. There was inconsistency in the adverse event outcomes reported which, consequently, could not be pooled. It is therefore impossible to provide any implications and policy-makers will be unable to make any recommendations for practice without evidence about adverse effects. The review highlighted the need for well-conducted RCTs powered for clinical outcomes to confirm or refute the effect of corticosteroids versus placebo in children having cardiac surgery with CPB. A core outcome set for adverse event reporting in the paediatric major surgery and intensive care setting is required.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Bias , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Heart-Lung Machine/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/etiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
4.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 69(1): 48-53, 2022 Jan.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437566

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 who are admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk of developing secondary infections, including invasive fungal infections such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The main purpose was to analyse the putative COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA) patients in our setting. In these patients, we performed mycological culture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for isolation of Aspergillus sp. We followed the AspICU algorithm to diagnose putative IPA. Moreover, we considered relevant the positivity of galactomannan in BAL. We diagnosed putative IPA in 3 patients. The common features of these 3 patients were: more than 21 days of stay in ICU, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and treatment with steroids (1 mg/kg per day). Therefore, CAPA has to be systematically considered although a new algorithm to diagnose it is needed to treat patients in early stages in order to avoid catastrophic outcomes.

5.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 13: 1759720X211002593, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344021

ABSTRACT

Refractory Kawasaki disease (KD) is related to a major risk of coronary arteries abnormalities and its treatment is not standardized. In this regard, anakinra (ANA), an interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, represents an emerging therapeutic option. We report two cases of children, diagnosed with KD, nonresponsive to two doses of intravenous immunoglobulins, successfully treated with ANA, without a prior use of steroids. Patient 2 developed a coronary dilatation, that improved significantly after ANA therapy. Our experience highlights IL-1 blockade effectiveness in reducing KD inflammation and suggests ANA adoption as second-line therapy, with a timesaving and steroid-sparing strategy. Our results, combined with the evidence of the IL-1 key role in KD and coronary arteritis pathogenesis and to the recent clinical evidence reported by the KAWAKINRA trial, encourage an earlier recourse to ANA in patients with refractory KD, in order to fight inflammation, and to treat and prevent the development of coronary artery aneurysms. Further studies are needed to better define the place of IL-1 blockade in KD step-up treatment.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(7): 763-772, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple early reports of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 showed that patients with chronic respiratory disease were significantly under-represented in these cohorts. We hypothesised that the widespread use of inhaled glucocorticoids among these patients was responsible for this finding, and tested if inhaled glucocorticoids would be an effective treatment for early COVID-19. METHODS: We performed an open-label, parallel-group, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (Steroids in COVID-19; STOIC) of inhaled budesonide, compared with usual care, in adults within 7 days of the onset of mild COVID-19 symptoms. The trial was done in the community in Oxfordshire, UK. Participants were randomly assigned to inhaled budsonide or usual care stratified for age (≤40 years or >40 years), sex (male or female), and number of comorbidities (≤1 and ≥2). Randomisation was done using random sequence generation in block randomisation in a 1:1 ratio. Budesonide dry powder was delivered using a turbohaler at a dose of 400 µg per actuation. Participants were asked to take two inhalations twice a day until symptom resolution. The primary endpoint was COVID-19-related urgent care visit, including emergency department assessment or hospitalisation, analysed for both the per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) populations. The secondary outcomes were self-reported clinical recovery (symptom resolution), viral symptoms measured using the Common Cold Questionnare (CCQ) and the InFLUenza Patient Reported Outcome Questionnaire (FLUPro), body temperature, blood oxygen saturations, and SARS-CoV-2 viral load. The trial was stopped early after independent statistical review concluded that study outcome would not change with further participant enrolment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04416399. FINDINGS: From July 16 to Dec 9, 2020, 167 participants were recruited and assessed for eligibility. 21 did not meet eligibility criteria and were excluded. 146 participants were randomly assigned-73 to usual care and 73 to budesonide. For the per-protocol population (n=139), the primary outcome occurred in ten (14%) of 70 participants in the usual care group and one (1%) of 69 participants in the budesonide group (difference in proportions 0·131, 95% CI 0·043 to 0·218; p=0·004). For the ITT population, the primary outcome occurred in 11 (15%) participants in the usual care group and two (3%) participants in the budesonide group (difference in proportions 0·123, 95% CI 0·033 to 0·213; p=0·009). The number needed to treat with inhaled budesonide to reduce COVID-19 deterioration was eight. Clinical recovery was 1 day shorter in the budesonide group compared with the usual care group (median 7 days [95% CI 6 to 9] in the budesonide group vs 8 days [7 to 11] in the usual care group; log-rank test p=0·007). The mean proportion of days with a fever in the first 14 days was lower in the budesonide group (2%, SD 6) than the usual care group (8%, SD 18; Wilcoxon test p=0·051) and the proportion of participants with at least 1 day of fever was lower in the budesonide group when compared with the usual care group. As-needed antipyretic medication was required for fewer proportion of days in the budesonide group compared with the usual care group (27% [IQR 0-50] vs 50% [15-71]; p=0·025) Fewer participants randomly assigned to budesonide had persistent symptoms at days 14 and 28 compared with participants receiving usual care (difference in proportions 0·204, 95% CI 0·075 to 0·334; p=0·003). The mean total score change in the CCQ and FLUPro over 14 days was significantly better in the budesonide group compared with the usual care group (CCQ mean difference -0·12, 95% CI -0·21 to -0·02 [p=0·016]; FLUPro mean difference -0·10, 95% CI -0·21 to -0·00 [p=0·044]). Blood oxygen saturations and SARS-CoV-2 load, measured by cycle threshold, were not different between the groups. Budesonide was safe, with only five (7%) participants reporting self-limiting adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Early administration of inhaled budesonide reduced the likelihood of needing urgent medical care and reduced time to recovery after early COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre and AstraZeneca.


Subject(s)
Budesonide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
8.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 307-315, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323440

ABSTRACT

Steroids are expected to be effective in the treatment of cytokine release syndrome, which is considered to be associated with severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the use of steroids and its effects. We conducted a retrospective chart review and an analysis of 226 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. Patients were divided into those who received steroids (steroid group) and those who did not (no steroid group). Inverse probability weighted analysis was performed to assess the effect of steroids on in-hospital mortality. The steroid group had higher rates of preexisting hypertension and peripheral vascular disease as well as higher lactate dehydrogenase levels, d-dimer levels, and inflammatory markers than the no steroid group (all P <0.05). The steroid group had significantly higher rates of multifocal pneumonia than the no steroid group at admission (75.4% vs. 50.3%, P = 0.001). Notably, the steroid group had higher rates of developing bacterial infection (25% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.041) and fungal infection (12.7% versus 0.7%, P <0.001) during the hospital course than the no steroid group. After adjustment, it was observed that steroids did not decrease or increase in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.02 [0.60-1.73, P = 0.94]). There was an increase in bacterial and fungal infections with steroid use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Steroids/therapeutic use
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(8): 5182-5187, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298501

ABSTRACT

Infections due to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are frequent during early childhood. Usually, they have a favorable clinical course. Conversely, HHV-6 congenital infections occur in about 1% of neonates and may present with more severe clinical pictures. HHV-6 can be found in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from patients with pneumonia and in immunocompromised patients can cause mild to severe pneumonia. In neonates, the role of HHV-6 in the genesis of severe pneumonia is poorly defined still now. We describe a healthy infant with a late-onset (15 days of life) severe interstitial pneumonia and heavy HHV-6 genome load, persistently detected in its BAL fluid. The baby underwent high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, hydroxychloroquine, steroids, and ganciclovir for 6 weeks and at 9 months she died. Next-generation sequencing of genes known to cause neonatal respiratory insufficiency revealed the presence of a "probably pathogenetic" heterozygous variant in the autosomal recessive DRC1 gene, a heterozygous variant of unknown significance (VUS) in the autosomal recessive RSPH9 gene, and a heterozygous VUS in the autosomal recessive MUC5B gene. HHV-6 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of late-onset severe respiratory distress in neonates and the co-occurrence of genetic predisposing factors or modifiers should be tested by specific molecular techniques. The intensity of HHV-6 genome load in BAL fluid could be an indicator of the response to antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/genetics , Roseolovirus Infections/genetics , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Fatal Outcome , Female , Genetic Variation , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , Mucin-5B/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Viral Load
10.
QJM ; 114(9): 670-671, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269603
11.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211024431, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268186

ABSTRACT

The term "COVID arm" has been coined to describe a harmless delayed hypersensitivity reaction occurring approximately a week after administration of the novel SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. It appears as a red, warm, pruritic, indurated, or swollen area in the vicinity of the vaccine site. These reactions, especially if accompanied by systemic symptoms, have been mistaken for cellulitis. We report 3 cases of COVID arm, 2 of which were mistaken for cellulitis. Distinguishing features of COVID arm from cellulitis include pruritus as a common finding, occurrence approximately a week after vaccination, a lack of progression of symptoms, rapid response to topical steroids, and/or spontaneous resolution usually over 4 to 5 days.Practice Points:• Patients receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may experience delayed hypersensitivity reactions characterized by erythema, swelling, and itching occurring near the vaccination site (COVID arm), approximately a week after vaccination.• Clinicians can distinguish SARS-CoV-2 vaccine reactions from cellulitis by the time of onset (approximately a week vs 5 days), by the lack of progression of symptoms, and resolution over 4 to 5 days.• Severe cases of COVID arm may be treated with topical steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Vaccines , Arm , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cellulitis/chemically induced , Cellulitis/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/chemically induced , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721211024809, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268183

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Treating chronic macular edema (CME) post endophthalmitis is a challenge. Use of steroids may reactivate the infection and repeated intravitreal therapy with anti-vascular growth factor inhibitors (Anti-VEGF) puts the patient again at the risk of exacerbation of inflammation or endophthalmitis. We describe a case of CME post traumatic endophthalmitis successfully treated with topical interferon therapy. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 34-year-old Asian Indian lady with a history of cat bite to her right eye and treated elsewhere as traumatic endophthalmitis with recurrent macular edema, presented to us 1 year after the injury. She had received anti-VEGF injection for same. Her medical history was non-contributory except for close contact with her cat. Therapeutic trials with oral doxycycline followed by oral albendazole with steroids, as well as repeated anti-VEGF therapy failed to prevent recurrence of CME. Patient's steroid responsiveness and reluctance for injections, made us to opt for a novel topical Interferon therapy. Macular edema resolved in 2 months. Interruption of interferon therapy due to COVID-lock down resulted in recurrence of the CME, which again responded well to interferon monotherapy. CONCLUSION: Topical interferon may have a role in the treatment of inflammatory macular edema and can serve as a, safer, economical and non-invasive treatment option compared to intravitreal steroids and anti-VEGFs.

13.
Acta Haematol ; 144(6): 620-626, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263968

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. Although most patients present a mild infection, effective strategies are required for patients who develop the severe disease. Anti-inflammatory treatment with JAK inhibitors has been considered in SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this study, we presented our experience in a group of severe SARS-CoV-2 Chilean patients. This prospective study was performed on consecutive patients presenting severe respiratory failure owing to COVID-19 or high-risk clinical condition associated with SARS-CoV-2, and who were treated with ruxolitinib for management of associated inflammation. Overall, 18 patients presenting SARS-CoV-2 viral-induced hyperinflammation were treated with ruxolitinib, with 16 patients previously treated with steroids, 4 with tocilizumab, and 3 with both treatments. RESULTS: Ten patients evolved with favorable response, including 7 patients admitted with severe respiratory failure (PaFi less than 200 mm Hg in high-flow nasal cannula), presenting complete regression of hyperinflammation, regression of the lung lesions, and subsequent discharge. In the remaining 8 patients, 25% showed reduced inflammation, but early discharge was not achieved owing to the slow evolution of respiratory failure. Unfortunately, 3 patients demonstrated a severe respiratory failure. The early initiation of ruxolitinib was found to be associated with better clinical evolution (p < 0.005). CONCLUSION: In this study, ruxolitinib resolved hyperinflammatory state in 55% of the patients, regardless of the previous steroid or tocilizumab therapy. Unfortunately, few patients demonstrated severe evolution despite ruxolitinib therapy. Notably, the treatment starting time appears to play an important role in achieving good outcomes. Further validation in randomized controlled trials is crucial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chile , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nitriles/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Treatment Outcome
14.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; 83(6): 387-394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited treatment options for postinfectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD). Olfactory training has recently been used in clinical practice, but no medical treatment is widely accepted. Although there is weak evidence for their value, some physicians use oral corticosteroids as first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to compare combined oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training with olfactory training alone in the management of PIOD. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 131 patients with PIOD over a 2-year period before the COVID-19 pandemic. Seventy-eight patients who were treated with oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training (group A) were compared with 53 patients who were treated with olfactory training only (group B). Olfactory function was evaluated with "Sniffin' Sticks" at baseline and 2, 8, and 16 weeks after initial assessment. Patients who improved after steroid treatment underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the paranasal sinuses, skin prick tests, lung spirometry, and sputum eosinophil assessment. RESULTS: Oral steroids improved 19.23% of patients (n = 15) of group A. History, clinical evaluation, imaging, and laboratory tests identified an inflammatory background in half of them (n = 8). The remaining 7 had no findings of nasal inflammation, and all had a short history of olfactory dysfunction. Both groups significantly improved in olfactory testing results at the end of the olfactory training scheme without significant difference between them. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of improved patients after oral methylprednisolone was relatively low to suggest it as first-line treatment. Half of the improved patients had an underlying upper airway inflammatory condition not related to the infection that caused the acute loss of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids
15.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 3(9): 1843-1847, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261839

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can be associated with ophthalmic manifestations like conjunctivitis, retinal haemorrhages, retinal vascular occlusions, papillophlebitis, and Adie's syndrome. We herein report for a case of a unilateral acute anterior uveitis which was quiescent for 13 years and was reactivated post COVID-19 infection in a 43-year-old Asian Indian male. He had a past history of recurrent unilateral granulomatous anterior and intermediate uveitis in the right eye (RE), and all the investigations done 14 years ago were negative and had been on treatment with topical and oral steroids. He developed cataract 6 months later in the RE and underwent surgery. Patient was in remission for the past 13 years. Uveitis investigations for the present episode were all negative. Topical steroid and cycloplegic helped in resolution of the uveitis. This may be the first instance of reactivation of a quiescent unilateral anterior uveitis following COVID-19 infection.

16.
Clin Transplant ; 35(8): e14376, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247159

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been wide heterogeneity in the medical management of transplant recipients. We aimed to pragmatically capture immunosuppression practices globally following the early months of the pandemic. From June to September 2020, we surveyed 1267 physicians; 40.5% from 71 countries participated. Management decisions were made on a case-by-case basis by the majority (69.6%) of the programs. Overall, 76.8% performed ≥1 transplantation and many commented on avoiding high-risk transplantations. For induction, 26.5% were less likely to give T-cell depletion and 14.8% were more likely to give non-depleting agents. These practices varied by program-level factors more so than the COVID-19 burden. In patients with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 symptoms 59.7%, 76.0%, and 79.5% decreased/stopped anti-metabolites, 23.2%, 45.4%, and 68.2% decreased/stopped calcineurin inhibitors, and 25.7%, 43.9%, and 57.7% decreased/stopped mTOR inhibitors, respectively. Also, 2.1%, 30.6%, and 46.0% increased steroids in patients with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 symptoms. For prevalent transplant recipients, some programs also reported decreasing/stopping steroids (1.8%), anti-metabolites (10.3%), calcineurin inhibitors (4.1%), and mTOR inhibitors (5.5%). Transplant programs changed immunosuppression practices but also avoided high-risk transplants and increased maintenance steroids. The long-term ramifications of these practices remain to be seen as programs face the aftermath of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1415-1416, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242819
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238493

ABSTRACT

We present a 47-year-old, South-African origin, woman with a background of stable monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) who attended A&E with a history of coryzal symptoms associated with persistent fever, lymphadenopathy and a new onset of rash, not responding to antibiotics and paracetamol. A trial of high-dose steroids resolved symptoms. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed a progression of MGUS into multiple myeloma and her axillary lymph node biopsy analysis supported a diagnosis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD). This is an unusual presentation where KFD has been noted alongside MGUS progression to multiple myeloma. Haematology follow-up is underway.


Subject(s)
Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Lymphadenopathy , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance , Multiple Myeloma , Biopsy , Female , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/complications , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/drug therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
19.
World J Pediatr ; 17(4): 335-340, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been spreading rapidly around the world, while "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children" (MIS-C) is a new type of syndrome that has now been reported in many countries. Similar and different characteristics between KD and MIS-C have been reported in a variety of literature. We aimed to focus on reviewing clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment of KD and MIS-C. METHODS: We searched articles in the electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library database, EMBASE, and MEDLINE with the keywords "multiple inflammatory syndrome" and/or "COVID-19" and/or "Kawasaki disease" and "children". RESULTS: Main presentations of MIS-C and KD include fever, rashes, mucous membrane involvement, conjunctivitis, hands and feet erythema/edema, and cervical lymphadenopathy. However, compared with the highest incidence of KD among some Asian countries, MIS-C is common among Black and Hispanic children. MIS-C is common in older children and teenagers, whereas classic KD is common in children under five years of age. Gastrointestinal symptoms, shock, and coagulopathy are common in MIS-C patients but are not common in classic KD. Cardiac manifestations are more common than KD, including myocarditis with cardiac dysfunction and coronary artery dilation or aneurysms. Severe cases in MIS-C present with vasodilated or cardiogenic shock that requires fluid resuscitation, muscular support, and even mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), whereas KD rarely presents with these manifestations and requires these treatments. Increased serum ferritin, leukopenia, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia are common in MIS-C. However, thrombocytosis is a characteristic feature of KD. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and moderate-high dose aspirin are still a standard recommended treatment for KD. In addition to the above-mentioned medications, steroids and biological drugs are frequently used in patients with MIS-C. Most of the children with KD have a good prognosis; however, the long-term clinical outcomes of MIS-C are not clear. CONCLUSIONS: The overall presentation and treatment of MIS-C appear to overlap with KD. However, there are still great differences between the syndromes, and it is controversial to say whether MIS-C is a new entity or is a "severe type" of KD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(4): 342-352, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Epidemiologic studies are warranted to improve the disease understanding, evaluate the care procedure and prepare for futures waves. The aim of the study was to describe epidemiologic characteristics associated with hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This real-world, observational, multicenter and retrospective study screened all consecutive patients admitted to 8 Spanish private hospitals. Inclusion criteria: hospitalized adults (age≥18 years old) with clinically and radiologically findings compatible with COVID-19 disease from March 1st to April 5th, 2020. Exclusion criteria: patients presenting negative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 during the first 7 days from hospital admission, transfer to a hospital not belonging to the HM consortium, lack of data and discharge against medical advice in emergency departments. RESULTS: One thousand and three hundred thirty-one COVID-19 patients (medium age 66.9 years old; males n= 841, medium length of hospital stayed 8 days, non-survivors n=233) were analyzed. One hundred and fifteen were admitted to intensive care unit (medium length of stay 16 days, invasive mechanical ventilation n= 95, septic shock n= 37 and renal replacement therapy n= 17). Age, male gender, leukocytes, platelets, oxygen saturation, chronic therapy with steroids and treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin were independent factors associated with mortality. The proportion of patients that survive and received tocilizumab and steroids were lesser and higher respectively than those that die, but their association was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Overall crude mortality rate was 17.5%, rising up to 36.5% in the subgroup of patients that were admitted to the intensive care unit. Seven factors impact in hospital mortality. No immunomodulatory intervention were associated with in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Spain , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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