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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 588008, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237533

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the buffering role of hope between perceived stress and health outcomes among front-line medical staff treating patients with suspected COVID-19 infection in Shenzhen, China. In the cross-sectional study with online questionnaires, medical staff's perceived stress, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and hope were measured by the 10-item Chinese Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Locus-of-Hope Scale, respectively. A total of 319 eligible front-line medical staff participated. The prevalence of anxiety (29.70%), depression (28.80%), poor sleep quality (38.90%) indicated that a considerable proportion of medical staff experienced mood and sleep disturbances during the COVID-19 pandemic. Internal locus-of-hope significantly moderated the effects of stress on anxiety, depression, and sleep quality. Moreover, external family locus-of-hope and external peer locus-of-hope significantly moderated the association between perceived stress and depression. The prevalence of symptoms indicates that both mental and physical health outcomes of front-line medical staff deserve more attention. Internal and external locus-of-hope functioned differently as protective factors for medical staffs' health and might be promising targets for intervention.

2.
Can J Psychiatry ; 67(12): 918-927, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: New coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic socioeconomically affected the world. In this study, we measured the perceived stress in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among Iranians to determine the groups at both extremes of the spectrum followed by identifying the stressors and coping mechanisms. METHODS: This study was a mixed-methods study. We distributed a web-based 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS-10), to measure perceived stress score (PSS), through social networks from March 12 to 23, 2020. Then, we interviewed 42 students, 31 homemakers, 27 healthcare providers, and 21 male participants to identify the sources of stress and coping mechanisms. RESULTS: Finally, 13,454 participants completed the questionnaires. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of the participants' PSS was 21 (15-25). Students, homemakers, and healthcare workers (HCWs) showed a higher median (IQR) of PSS compared to other groups (23 [18 to 27], 22 [16 to 26], and 19 [14 to 24], respectively). Male participants showed a lower median (IQR) PSS (17 [12 to 23]). Content analysis of 121 participants' answers showed that the most common stressors were school-related issues mentioned by students, family-related issues mentioned by homemakers, and COVID-19-related issues mentioned by healthcare providers. Male participants' coping mechanisms were mostly related to the perception of their abilities to cope with the current crisis. CONCLUSION: Our participants clinically showed a moderate level of PSS. The main stressors among students, homemakers, and HCWs were related to their principal role in this period, and male participants' coping mechanisms were inspired by the self-image retrieved from the social perspectives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Pandemics , Iran/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
3.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 871-881, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major challenge for medical students' learning and has become a potential stressor, with a profound influence on their psychological well-being. We aimed to determine the effect of the current pandemic on undergraduate medical students' learning. We also explored the association of their stress level with coping strategies, educational, and psychological variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional design study, and participants were the 1st to 5th year medical students. A self-administered questionnaire (18 items) and a well-known Kessler 10 Psychological Distress questionnaire (10 items) were used to collect the data related to perceived stress with an association of educational, psychological, and coping variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of overall stress was significantly higher (χ 2= 16.3; P=0.000) in female medical students, ie, (40%) as compared to the male students (16.6%), and was highest (48.8%) during the 3rd medical year. It was also noted that the most effective strategy, embraced by students to cope with the severe stress, was "indulging in religious activities" (OR= 1.08; P=0.81). Furthermore, 22.3% of students had perceived severe stress as they did not prefer online learning. Similarly, those students who have not believed or refused the online learning or disagree in "there is pleasure in the study due to COVID" they have significantly higher stress (χ 2=39.7; P=0.000) 21.5% mild, 17.8% of moderate, and 21.2% severe. CONCLUSION: We found that the COVID-19 pandemic has induced stress and changes in medical students' educational attitudes and strategies. The results exhibited that the predominance of stress is higher in females than males, and also more stress was perceived by the students during their transitional year, ie, 3rd medical year (from pre-clinical to clinical) and also the respondents who regularly did religious meditation were at lower levels of stress. COVID-19's influence on medical education and students' well-being will be felt at an extended level, which necessitates an appropriate plan for preparedness.

4.
J Clin Nurs ; 31(5-6): 601-611, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Faced with this critical situation and directly involved in the treatment and care of COVID-19 patients, front-line healthcare workers are at high risk in terms of mental health symptoms. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the stress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia levels of intensive care nurses during the pandemic with a structural equation model. DESIGN: A multi-site survey study. METHODS: The study was performed with 194 nurses working in the intensive care units of five hospitals in Istanbul in July 2020. Data were collected using the Depression Anxiety Stress-21 Scale and Insomnia Severity Index electronically. The data were evaluated with descriptive statistics in SPSS package program. In order to test the structural model and hypotheses of the research, path analysis was performed with LISREL statistical software program. A validation study for the suitability of these scales to the study sample was done by the researchers using the confirmatory factor analysis method. The study conforms to the TREND checklist. RESULTS: In this study, the majority of the intensive care nurses had moderate to extremely severe depression (65.5%), anxiety (58.3%) and stress (72.3%) scores; in addition, 39.7% of the nurses experienced moderate or severe insomnia. Within the framework of a structural model; the effects of stress, anxiety and insomnia on depression, which is the dependent variable, were found to be statistically significant (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the majority of the intensive care nurses fighting COVID-19 on the front-line experienced stress, anxiety, depression and insomnia at levels ranging from moderate to extremely severe; in addition, it was determined that there is a positive relationship between stress, anxiety, insomnia and depression. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study, in which we have determined the mental health symptoms and insomnia levels of intensive care nurses, who are in the front-line during the COVID-19 pandemic, constitutes the scientific basis for the effective coping strategies that the authorities will take in this subject.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Front Psychol ; 12: 648000, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research during 2020 has been rapidly attending to the impact of COVID-19 on various dimensions of wellbeing (e.g., physical, psychological, lifestyle and routines) on adults and children around the world. However, less attention has focused on the psychoeducational impact on children and their families. To our knowledge, no currently available studies have looked specifically at the impact of COVID-19 on students with dyslexia and their families. Research on this topic is needed to offer greater support for this population of students and their families. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this paper is to examine the psychoeducational impact of the required COVID-19 quarantine in Spain among children with dyslexia and their families. METHOD: A sample of 32 children with dyslexia and their mothers participated in this study. MEASURES: Children and adolescents with dyslexia and their mother completed several measures before the required national quarantine in Spain and again during the quarantine. Children completed measures of depression, state anxiety, reading activity, and reading motivation. Mothers provided demographic information and completed measures related to students' emotional and behavioral difficulties as well as parenting stress, parental distress, and a questionnaire about educational problems during quarantine. RESULTS: Major findings showed that during quarantine, children with dyslexia had increased levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, and parents perceived their children as having more emotional symptoms, hyperactivity-inattention, and conduct problems. During quarantine, children and adolescents with dyslexia also showed less reading activity and less reading motivation. Parents also reported significantly more stress, during quarantine compared to pre-quarantine conditions. Some demographic and psychological variables predicted children's state anxiety as well parental stress. The questionnaire related to impacts of quarantine also revealed several important findings. For example, nearly all parents of children with dyslexia reported (a) difficulties in establishing study routines, (b) that the quarantine negatively affected their child's learning, and (c) that they did not receive sufficient help from teachers on how to support their child's learning. Additionally, the vast majority of the parents were very worried about the child's learning and school success, the child's motivation and interest in reading, the child's peer relations, and the professional skills of the child's teacher. CONCLUSION: This study offers a preliminary investigation into this topic and elucidates several psychoeducational challenges that children with dyslexia and their families have experienced during the quarantine in Spain. Study findings highlight the need to provide immediate support for children with dyslexia and emphasizes the importance of developing prevention programs to mitigate any future negative impacts of COVID-19 on children with dyslexia and their parents.

6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 654813, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268235

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease with devastating economic and public health impacts globally. Being a novel disease, current research is focused on a clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis and viable therapeutic strategies. Oxidative stress and inflammation are intertwined processes that play roles in disease progression and response to therapy via interference with multiple signaling pathways. The redox status of a host cell is an important factor in viral entry due to the unique conditions required for the conformational changes that ensure the binding and entry of a virus into the host cell. Upon entry into the airways, viral replication occurs and the innate immune system responds by activating macrophage and dendritic cells which contribute to inflammation. This review examines available literature and proposes mechanisms by which oxidative stress and inflammation could contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis. Further, certain antioxidants currently undergoing some form of trial in COVID-19 patients and the corresponding required research gaps are highlighted to show how targeting oxidative stress and inflammation could ameliorate COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , COVID-19 , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Humans , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization
7.
Work ; 69(2): 331-349, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 and its associated measures has resulted in a sizeable working population transitioning to working from home (WFH), bringing additional challenges, and increasing work-related stress. Research has indicated that yoga has promising potential in reducing stress in the workplace. However, there are very few studies exploring the impact of online streamed yoga on stress management for people-WFH. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and outcome of an online streamed yoga intervention on stress and wellbeing of people-WFH during COVID-19. METHODS: A six-week pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) yoga intervention was designed with yoga (n = 26) and a wait-list control group (n = 26). A mixed two-way ANOVA was used to assess changes in standardised outcome measures at baseline and post-intervention. Likert and open-ended questions assessed enjoyment, acceptability and perceived benefits of the program, which were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Compared with the control, the yoga group reported significant improvements in perceived stress, mental wellbeing, depression and coping self-efficacy, but not stress and anxiety. Participants experienced physical and mental health benefits and reported high acceptability and enjoyment of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: An online yoga intervention can help people WFH manage stress and enhance wellbeing and coping abilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meditation , Yoga , Feasibility Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 626456, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201975

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused numerous unexpected challenges for many families, and these long-lasting demands likely contribute to higher stress for parents. The aim of this study was to describe changes in parent stress longitudinally from before (retrospective) to two timepoints during COVID-19. Stressors that influenced parenting and strategies to manage parenting difficulties at each timepoint during COVID-19 are also described. Methods: Parents (N = 433; 95% female) in the US with >1 child aged 5-18 years completed an online survey in May 2020 (T1; at the peak of stay-at-home mandates) and in September 2020 (T2; children's return to school). Surveys included the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and questions on parenting-specific stress, stressors that influenced parenting, and strategies to manage parenting difficulties during COVID-19. Retrospective report of pre-COVID-19 stress was assessed at T1; current stress was assessed at T1 and T2. Repeated measures analysis of variance examined changes in stress over time. Results: Parent's stress increased from before COVID-19 to T1 (PSS score: 16.3 ± 5.7 to 22.0 ± 6.4, respectively; p < 0.01), and decreased by T2 (19.2 ± 6.0), but remained elevated above pre-COVID-19 values (p < 0.01). Most parents (71.1%) reported an increase parenting-specific stress from before COVID-19 to T1, which continued to increase for 55% of parents at T2. Common stressors that impacted parenting during COVID-19 were changes in children's routines, worry about COVID-19, and online schooling demands. Common strategies parents used to manage parenting difficulties included doing family activities together, keeping in touch with family/friends virtually, and keeping children on daily routines. Conclusions: Parent stress increased substantially during COVID-19 and has not returned to pre-COVID-19 levels, suggesting the need for enhanced mental health resources and supports. Public health interventions should address parenting-specific stressors and effective strategies for managing parenting difficulties to mitigate their deleterious impact.

9.
J Gen Psychol ; 149(4): 456-467, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132183

ABSTRACT

This study is designed to investigate the mental health status of college students under the current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and explore potential influential factors. We surveyed 1128 people including 435 medical students and 693 nonmedical students by a self-designed questionnaire containing general demographic characteristics, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Chinese Perceived Stress Scale. SPSS 23.0 software was used for statistical analysis. The incidence of anxiety, depression, and perceived stress were 8.4, 22.7, and 42.9% among college students during the COVID-19, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis showed that sex, specialty, and Family conflict were all positively associated with SAS, SDS, and CPSS (p<0.05). Stepwise linear retrospective analysis showed that family conflicts and specialty were the influencing factors of SAS, SDS, and CPSS. There were significantly differences between medical students and nonmedical students in the frequency of SDS abnormality score (Z=-4.125, p<0.001) and the frequency of CPSS abnormality (χ2=7.836, p=0.005). According to the results, we can come to the conclusion that college students have different degrees of psychological problems during the COVID-19. Family conflicts and specialty were the influencing factors of anxiety, depression, and perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed health care workers under psychological stress. Previous reviews show a high prevalence of mental disorders among health care workers, but these need updating and inclusion of studies written in Chinese. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide updated prevalence estimates for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, benefitting from the inclusion of studies published in Chinese. METHODS: Systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar and the Chinese databases SinoMed, WanfangMed, CNKI and CQVIP, for studies conducted between December 2019 and August 2020 on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD in health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies published in both English and Chinese were included. RESULTS: Data on the prevalence of moderate depression, anxiety and PTSD was pooled across 65 studies involving 97,333 health care workers across 21 countries. The pooled prevalence of depression was 21.7% (95% CI, 18.3%-25.2%), of anxiety 22.1% (95% CI, 18.2%-26.3%), and of PTSD 21.5% (95% CI, 10.5%-34.9%). Prevalence estimates are also provided for a mild classification of each disorder. Pooled prevalence estimates of depression and anxiety were highest in studies conducted in the Middle-East (34.6%; 28.9%). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted across covariates, including sampling method and outcome measure. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis has identified a high prevalence of moderate depression, anxiety and PTSD among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Appropriate support is urgently needed. The response would benefit from additional research on which interventions are effective at mitigating these risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
11.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(9): 836-842, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 has had an enormous impact worldwide and is still spreading. Globally confirmed infections have surpassed 41.1 million, of which more than 1 million resulted in deaths. Considering the relationship between public health disasters and emotional disorders, it is essential to examine psychological well-being related to this pandemic. METHOD: We performed a systematic search on psychological problems from PubMed to 10 October 2020, and conducted a meta-analysis using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis V.3 software. RESULTS: The results showed a 19.4% and 26.8% pooled incidence for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively, during the SARS and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-related coronavirus outbreaks. However, overall prevalence of depression was somewhat higher at 27.0% during the COVID-19 period. The pooled incidence of PTSD during COVID-19 compared with SARS and MERS outbreaks, was lower, at 16.4%. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there are shared and distinct psychological responses following SARS, MERS and COVID-19, and show pessimistic estimates of a wide range of potentially upcoming psychological problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Mental Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Incidence , Mental Disorders/epidemiology
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 568929, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106051

ABSTRACT

Objective: The differences between the physical and mental health of people living in a lower-middle-income country (LMIC) and upper-middle-income country (UMIC) during the COVID-19 pandemic was unknown. This study aimed to compare the levels of psychological impact and mental health between people from the Philippines (LMIC) and China (UMIC) and correlate mental health parameters with variables relating to physical symptoms and knowledge about COVID-19. Methods: The survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms, contact history, and knowledge about COVID-19. The psychological impact was assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Findings: The study population included 849 participants from 71 cities in the Philippines and 861 participants from 159 cities in China. Filipino (LMIC) respondents reported significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress than Chinese (UMIC) during the COVID-19 (p < 0.01) while only Chinese respondents' IES-R scores were above the cut-off for PTSD symptoms. Filipino respondents were more likely to report physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection (p < 0.05), recent use of but with lower confidence on medical services (p < 0.01), recent direct and indirect contact with COVID (p < 0.01), concerns about family members contracting COVID-19 (p < 0.001), dissatisfaction with health information (p < 0.001). In contrast, Chinese respondents requested more health information about COVID-19. For the Philippines, student status, low confidence in doctors, dissatisfaction with health information, long daily duration spent on health information, worries about family members contracting COVID-19, ostracization, and unnecessary worries about COVID-19 were associated with adverse mental health. Physical symptoms and poor self-rated health were associated with adverse mental health in both countries (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest the need for widely available COVID-19 testing in MIC to alleviate the adverse mental health in people who present with symptoms. A health education and literacy campaign is required in the Philippines to enhance the satisfaction of health information.

13.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 94(7): 1721-1737, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100967

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus 2019 pandemic has placed all intensive care unit (ICU) staff at increased risk of psychological distress. To date, measurement of this distress has largely been by means of validated assessment tools. We believe that qualitative data may provide a richer view of staff experiences during this pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study using online and written questionnaires to all ICU staff which consisted of validated tools to measure psychological distress (quantitative findings) and open-ended questions with free-text boxes (qualitative findings). Here, we report our qualitative findings. We asked four questions to explore causes of stress, need for supports and barriers to accessing supports. A conventional content analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: In total, 269 of the 408 respondents (65.9%) gave at least one response to a free-text question. Seven overarching themes were found, which contribute to our proposed model for occupational stress amongst critical care staff. The work environment played an important role in influencing the perceived psychological impact on healthcare workers. Extra-organisational factors, which we termed the "home-work interface" and uncertainty about the future, manifested as anticipatory anxiety, had a proportionally larger influence on worker well-being than would be expected in non-pandemic conditions. CONCLUSION: Our findings have important implications for appropriate allocation of resources and ensuring well-being of the ICU multidisciplinary team for this and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Communication , Critical Care/organization & administration , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environment , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/organization & administration , Mental Health , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Professional Role , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Work-Life Balance , Workplace/psychology
14.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 49, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102341

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Both inpatient and outpatient providers may be at increased risk of stress, anxiety and depression from their roles as health providers during the COVID-19 epidemic. This study explores how the US COVID-19 epidemic has increased feelings of stress, anxiety and depression among outpatient reproductive health providers. METHODS: We conducted a survey with open-ended responses among outpatient reproductive health providers across the U.S. engaged in contraceptive care to collect data on their experiences with stress, anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 epidemic. The study population included physicians, nurses, social workers, and other health professions [n = 288]. Data were collected from April 21st-June 24th 2020. We used content analysis of free text responses among providers reporting increased stress, anxiety or depression. RESULTS: Two-thirds (184) of providers reported increased stress and one-third (96) reported increased anxiety or depression related to care provision during the COVID-19 epidemic. The major sources of stress, anxiety and depression were due to patient care, worry about becoming infected or infecting family members, work- and home-related concerns, experiencing provider burnout, and fear of the unknown. Concerns about quality of patient care, providers' changing responsibilities, lack of personal protective equipment, and difficulty coping with co-worker illness and absence all contributed to provider stress and anxiety. Worries about unemployment and childcare responsibilities were also highlighted. Providers attributed their stress, anxiety or depression to feeling overwhelmed, being unable to focus, lacking sleep, and worrying about the unknown. CONCLUSIONS: US outpatient providers are experiencing significant stress, anxiety, and depression during the US COVID-19 epidemic. Policy and programmatic responses are urgently needed to address the widespread adverse mental health consequences of this epidemic on outpatient providers, including reproductive health providers, across the US. Both inpatient and outpatient providers may be at increased risk of stress, anxiety and depression from their roles as health providers during the COVID-19 epidemic. This study explores how the US COVID-19 epidemic has increased feelings of stress, anxiety and depression among outpatient reproductive health providers across the US. We conducted a survey from April 21st to June 24th, 2020 among outpatient reproductive health providers, including physicians, nurses, social workers and other health professions. We asked open-ended questions to understand why providers reported increased stress, anxiety and/or depression. Two-thirds (184) of providers reported increased stress and one-third (96) reported increased anxiety or depression from care provision during the COVID-19 epidemic. Major sources of stress, anxiety and depression were due to patient care, worry about becoming infected or infecting family members, work- and home-related concerns, experiencing provider burnout, and fear of the unknown. Concerns about quality of patient care, providers' changing responsibilities, lack of personal protective equipment, and difficulty coping with co-worker illness and absence all contributed to provider stress and anxiety. Worries about unemployment and childcare responsibilities were also highlighted. Providers attributed their stress, anxiety or depression to feeling overwhelmed, being unable to focus, lacking sleep, and worrying about the unknown. This study highlights that US outpatient reproductive health providers are experiencing significant stress, anxiety, and depression during the US COVID-19 epidemic. Policy and programmatic responses are urgently needed to address the widespread adverse mental health consequences of this epidemic on outpatient providers, including reproductive health providers, across the US.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Ambulatory Care/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
15.
Glob Adv Health Med ; 10: 2164956120982956, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges for healthcare globally, the brunt of which has been borne by the health care providers (HCPs). These challenges are felt more keenly in India, as they stretch an insufficiently resourced healthcare system. The long hours, cross over of responsibilities, lack of resources to adequately care for patients, and concerns around safety of self and loves ones, have led to a spike in anxiety, depression, insomnia and other stress - related disorders in healthcare providers. Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) is a mind-body intervention that has been studied in multiple clinical populations. Prior to this study, there has been no exploration of the impact of SKY on healthcare providers, specifically the impact of a mind-body intervention like SKY on HCPs during a pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the impact of SKY on the well-being of HCPs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a pilot feasibility study with a single arm pre-post design. SKY was taught to participants in a 4-day online breath and meditation workshop. We measured outcomes related to depression, anxiety, resilience, life satisfaction, and quality of sleep. RESULTS: Ninety-two subjects completed the study survey before and after the intervention. A significant reduction was observed in the levels of stress, anxiety and depression immediately after the program. In addition, the participants reported sig1nificant improvement in life satisfaction, resilience, and the quality of their sleep. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that SKY breathing technique had a positive impact on the well-being of healthcare professionals during the pandemic. Participants experienced improved quality of sleep, enhanced satisfaction with life, and increased resilience after SKY. This pilot study provides important data for future multi-site randomized controlled trials to study the impact of yogic techniques on well-being of the HCPs.

16.
Curr Psychol ; 40(11): 5749-5752, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092770

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, school closures have affected over 1.5 billion children worldwide. Many countries implemented a rapid transition to distance education (DE), but the effects of such transition on family life remain largely underexplored. The current study used a cross-sectional, correlational survey design to explore the role of DE and family resources (parenting self-efficacy and family functioning) in perceived stress among Italian parents of first-grade children (N = 89). Results of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that, after controlling for stressful events experienced during school closure, parents' difficulty to manage children's DE was positively linked to levels of stress. However, this association became nonsignificant after adding family resources to the model, with more parental self-efficacy and good family functioning predicting less perceived stress. The findings underscore the importance of supporting positive resources within the family environment to reduce DE-related parental stress in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 18(70): 48-52, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089410

ABSTRACT

Background The frequent lockdown in Nepal during COVID-19 pandemic had brought various kinds of complexities such as stress among college students. This situation had created uncertainty of future academic career of undergraduate students in medical colleges. Some previously published literature showed gaming as a coping mechanism against stress. Objective To assess the gaming behavior of Medical college students during lockdown in COVID-19 pandemic. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted during lockdown period of July to August 2020. A total of 412 college students were enrolled. Online Google forms were shared to all the eligible students through email, viber and messenger with the help of class representative. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS version 20.0. Result The prevalence of gaming disorder was 8.5% among 260 internet gaming users. About 69.2% of the participants reported that their gaming behavior had increased due to stress of COVID-19 pandemic. Gender and spending more time online per day showed significant associations with greater scores on the internet gaming disorder. Conclusion During lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic, the gaming behavior of medical college students has increased.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(1): 265-279, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084485

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of and risk factors for uncertainty stress among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic remain unclear. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore and identify the risk factors for high perceived uncertainty stress among the general public in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Information about the respondents' socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of and attitudes towards COVID-19, perceived uncertainty stress, social capital, anxiety, and depressive symptoms was collected and analysed. Among the 1205 respondents, 45.3% (546) reported a high level of uncertainty stress. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that anxiety (ß=3.871,P<0.001) and depression symptoms (ß=2.458, P<0.001), family residence (in towns or rural areas) (ß=0.947, P<0.001), lack of support for local epidemic control strategies (ß=1.253, P<0.001), worry about the pandemic (ß=1.191, P<0.001), and symptoms of weakness among family members (ß=1.525, P=0.002) were positively associated with perceived uncertainty stress. Cognitive social capital (ß=-0.883, P<0.001) and social networks (ß=-0.726, P<0.001) were negatively, but social participation (ß=0.714, P<0.001) was positively associated with perceived uncertainty stress. Our findings identify factors associated with a higher level of uncertainty stress and should be helpful in the consideration of effective policies and interventions for uncertainty stress during the initial phases of public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uncertainty
19.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 166: 11-17, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082230

ABSTRACT

Thiol-disulphide homeostasis (TDH) is a new parameter indicating oxidative stress that plays a role in the pathogenesis of various clinical disorders. Our study planned to investigate TDH in COVID-19 patients. Age and gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 70) and COVID-19 patients (n = 144) were included in the study. In addition to the routine laboratory parameters of the groups, their native thiol (NT), total thiol (TT) and disulphide levels were measured. Primarily, we compared COVID-19 patients to the healthy control group for inflammatory parameters, NT, TT and disulphide levels. Then, COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of the disease as mild to moderate and severe COVID-19, and the three groups were compared with each other. Predictive value of thiol parameters in the diagnosis of COVID-19 and in the determining its severity, and its correlation with presence and duration of symptoms were investigated. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower NT and TT levels compared with healthy controls and mild to moderate patients (P < 0.001 for both). The results of ROC analysis show that the greatest AUC was IL-6 and NT (AUC = 0.97, AUC = 0.96, respectively) between control and COVID-19 patients, while it was CRP and NT (AUC = 0.85, AUC = 0.83) between mild to moderate and severe patients. A negative correlation was found between duration of symptoms of dyspnoea, cough, fever, and sore throat and NT (r = -0.45, P = 0.017, r = -0.418, P < 0.001, r = -0.131, P = 0.084, r = -0.452, P = 0.040, respectively). NT and TT levels have a strong predictive value in the diagnosis of COVID-19 and in determining disease severity. Our results support that changing TDH parameters appears to have an important role in disease pathogenesis and it can be used in clinical management of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Disulfides/analysis , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Predictive Value of Tests , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(9): 818-824, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082202

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in health-system pharmacists during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, professional pharmacy organization listserver-based online survey of a target group of health-system pharmacists across the United States was conducted. The survey was sent out through professional organization listservers and was anonymous and voluntary. The survey questionnaire included items regarding demographics and employment characteristics, COVID-19-related questions, a survey of respondents' perceptions of the prevalence and severity of burnout, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL). The ProQOL assessed respondents for compassion satisfaction (subcategorized as burnout and STS) and compassion fatigue. Descriptive statistics was used to assess the prevalence of burnout and STS. RESULTS: Four hundred eighty-four health-system pharmacists completed the survey. Based on respondents' self-ratings of burnout, 47% were identified as having current burnout and 81% as having a history of burnout. Based on ProQOL scoring, 65.3% of respondents were identified as having a moderate or high likelihood of burnout, which was a prevalence higher than that indicated by respondents' self-ratings. Additionally, 51.4% of respondents were identified as having a moderate or high probability of STS and 99.4% as having a moderate or high probability of compassion satisfaction. CONCLUSION: The survey found that over half of health-system pharmacists were affected with burnout, half with STS, and all with compassion satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Unfortunately, the development of burnout and STS in these health-system pharmacists may lead to several work-related consequences (eg, increase risk of medical errors, depression); therefore, addressing burnout and STS is crucial. Further studies of the consequences of burnout and STS during the COVID-19 pandemic are needed.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Pharmacists/psychology , Wounds and Injuries/psychology , COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
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