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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013333, 2020 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Demodex blepharitis is a chronic condition commonly associated with recalcitrant dry eye symptoms though many people with Demodex mites are asymptomatic. The primary cause of this condition in humans is two types of Demodex mites: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis. There are varying reports of the prevalence of Demodex blepharitis among adults, and it affects both men and women equally. While Demodex mites are commonly treated with tea tree oil, the effectiveness of tea tree oil for treating Demodex blepharitis is not well documented. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of tea tree oil on ocular Demodex infestation in people with Demodex blepharitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2019, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Embase.com; PubMed; LILACS; ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the databases on 18 June 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared treatment with tea tree oil (or its components) versus another treatment or no treatment for people with Demodex blepharitis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts and then full text of records to determine their eligibility. The review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using Covidence. A third review author resolved any conflicts at all stages. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (1124 eyes of 562 participants; 17 to 281 participants per study) from the US, Korea, China, Australia, Ireland, and Turkey. The RCTs compared some formulation of tea tree oil to another treatment or no treatment. Included participants were both men and women, ranging from 39 to 55 years of age. All RCTs were assessed at unclear or high risk of bias in one or more domains. We also identified two RCTs that are ongoing or awaiting publications. Data from three RCTs that reported a short-term mean change in the number of Demodex mites per eight eyelashes contributed to a meta-analysis. We are uncertain about the mean reduction for the groups that received the tea tree oil intervention (mean difference [MD] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24 to 1.16) at four to six weeks as compared to other interventions. Only one RCT reported data for long-term changes, which found that the group that received intense pulse light as the treatment had complete eradication of Demodex mites at three months. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. Three RCTs reported no evidence of a difference for participant reported symptoms measured on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) between the tea tree oil group and the group receiving other forms of intervention. Mean differences in these studies ranged from -10.54 (95% CI - 24.19, 3.11) to 3.40 (95% CI -0.70 7.50). We did not conduct a meta-analysis for this outcome given substantial statistical heterogeneity and graded the certainty of the evidence as low. One RCT provided information concerning visual acuity but did not provide sufficient data for between-group comparisons. The authors noted that mean habitual LogMAR visual acuity for all study participants improved post-treatment (mean LogMAR 1.16, standard deviation 0.26 at 4 weeks). We graded the certainty of evidence for this outcome as low. No RCTs provided data on mean change in number of cylindrical dandruff or the proportion of participants experiencing conjunctival injection or experiencing meibomian gland dysfunction. Three RCTs provided information on adverse events. One reported no adverse events. The other two described a total of six participants randomized to treatment with tea tree oil who experienced ocular irritation or discomfort that resolved with re-educating the patient on application techniques and continuing use of the tea tree oil. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current review suggests that there is uncertainty related to the effectiveness of 5% to 50% tea tree oil for the short-term treatment of Demodex blepharitis; however, if used, lower concentrations may be preferable in the eye care arena to avoid induced ocular irritation. Future studies should be better controlled, assess outcomes at long term (e.g. 10 to 12 weeks or beyond), account for patient compliance, and study the effects of different tea tree oil concentrations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Blepharitis/drug therapy , Mite Infestations/drug therapy , Tea Tree Oil/therapeutic use , Adult , Blepharitis/parasitology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mite Infestations/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Heart Views ; 21(3): 220-224, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389617

ABSTRACT

Review of the literature and reported case series has not reported an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in heart transplant recipients. However, this population is at increased risk of a more severe infection with increased mortality because of age and the presence of multiple comorbid conditions There is no significant difference in presenting symptoms in transplant recipients as compared to nontransplant patients, although diarrhea has been reported to be more frequent in transplant patients, a common side effect of immunosuppressive medications. Standard preventive measures have been shown to be equally protective in heart transplant recipients. Risk factors for severe disease and mortality are similar in both transplant recipients and nontransplant patients and include older age and the presence of comorbidities hypertension being the most common. The SARS-CoV-2 infection did not increase the risk of transplant allograft rejection. Currently, there are no specific treatment recommendations for SARS-CoV-2 infection in transplant recipients. However, the International Society of Heart and Lung and Transplant has issued guidance on how to modulate immunosuppressive therapy during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104849, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318926

ABSTRACT

Taking anti-inflammatory drugs, including non-steroidal (NSAIDs), during Covid-19 infection, how much is risky? The French Minister of Health, who has raised an alarm on a possible risk deriving from the use of ibuprofen for the control of fever and other symptoms during the disease, opened the debate a few days ago. In this paper we examine available evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that had analysed the role of COX in the inflammatory process and the effects of NSAIDs in patients with infections. Most of the published studies that suggested not protective effects of NSAIDs were mainly performed in vitro or on animals. Therefore, their meaning in humans is to be considered with great caution. Based also on data suggesting protective effects of NSAIDs, we concluded that currently there is no evidence suggesting a correlation between NSAIDs and a worsening of infections. Further studies will be certainly needed to better define the role of NSAIDs and particularly COX2 inhibitors in patients with infections. In the meantime, we must wait for results of the revision started by the PRAC on May 2019 on the association ibuprofen/ketoprofen​​​​​​ and worsening of infections. Since nowadays no scientific evidence establishes a correlation between NSAIDS and worsening of COVID-19, patients should be advice against any NSAIDs self-medication when COVID-19 like symptoms are present.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Clin Health Psychol ; 22(1): 100253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240382

ABSTRACT

A subset of recovered COVID-19 patients report persistent neurological symptoms. These include non-specific symptoms (e.g., headaches and fatigue) which were found to be affected by psychological processes in other disorders (e.g., post-concussion syndrome, PCS, after mild traumatic brain injury). The current study assessed the impact of diagnosis threat (i.e., information regarding the long-term neurological impact of COVID-19) and suggestibility on endorsed symptoms of both recovered patients and healthy controls. Method: Recovered patients (n = 90) and healthy controls (n = 210) described their cognitive functioning after being randomly assigned to: (a) Experimental group: These participants read an article that explored long-term neurological symptoms among COVID-19 survivors. (b) Control group: These participants read an article providing general information regarding the disease. Results: Recovered patients, but not healthy controls, endorsed more symptoms in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. Moreover, suggestibility was correlated with endorsement of symptoms. Conclusions: Post COVID-19 neurological symptoms may, at least partially, be affected by non-neurological factors such as diagnosis threat. Information regarding long-term effects of COVID-19 may skew reported symptoms with highly suggestible individuals particularly susceptible to these effects. Further research, however, is needed to validate and elaborate upon these initial findings.

5.
Front Neurol ; 11: 613832, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121605

ABSTRACT

Most children with SARS-CoV-2 infection have relatively mild clinical symptoms without fever or pneumonia, although severe cases with multiple-organ failure have been reported. Neurological symptoms, which have been mainly reported in adults, are very rare in children. This article will review 2 different aspects of neurological involvement related to this infection in children. In the first part, we will review the neurological abnormalities reported in children caused by this viral infection. Adults frequently report muscle pain, headache, anosmia, dysgeusia, and occasionally more severe central or peripheral nervous system damage. Neurological involvement seems infrequent in children, although some cases have been reported. In the second part, we will discuss the COVID-19 pandemic impact on the healthcare system of some countries, causing collateral damage to general pediatric care and in particular to those children affected with chronic diseases, mainly neurological conditions, including autism, intellectual disability, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), neuromuscular disorders, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy, and patients needing neurosurgical procedures.

7.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 566221, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119558

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Malaysia's first Movement Control Order (MCO) or "lockdown" was in place for 6 weeks to curb the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Consequently, all universities were forced to close temporarily with abrupt changes to teaching and learning activities. However, there has been a lack of consensus regarding students' actual psychological status and mental health during the MCO implementation. This study investigates the link, state, and differences of negative emotional symptoms, happiness, and work-life balance among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: This study recruited 1,005 university students across Malaysia. Data was collected online using Qualtrics to measure negative emotional symptoms (The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale), happiness (The Oxford Happiness Inventory), and work-life balance (Work-Family Conflict Scale). All data was analyzed using SPSS version 25 and AMOS version 26 using T-test, ANOVA, logistic regression analyses, and path analysis method. Findings: Findings indicated that 22, 34.3, and 37.3% of the university students scored moderate to extremely severe levels of stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms, respectively. Half scored rather happy or very happy (50%) for happiness levels. Meanwhile, 50.4 and 39.4% scored high to very high levels of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict. Significant differences in stress, anxiety, depression, happiness, work-family conflict, and family-work conflict were recorded across different demographic factors. Happiness was found to be a protective factor with a lesser likelihood of experiencing severe stress (OR = 0.240, 95% CI: 0.180, 0.321), anxiety (OR = 0.336, 95% CI: 0.273, 0.414), and depression (OR = 0.121, 95% CI: 0.088, 0.165) with higher happiness levels. Higher score of work-to-family conflict contributes to greater odds of having severe levels of anxiety (OR = 1.453, 95% CI: 1.161, 1.818). While greater likelihood of developing severe stress (OR = 1.468, 95% CI: 1.109, 1.943) and severe anxiety (OR = 1.317, 95% CI: 1.059, 1.638) under increasing score of family-to-work conflict. Besides, happiness is found to negatively linked with lower negative emotional symptoms, while work-family conflict and family-work conflict are positively linked with higher negative emotional symptoms. Conclusion: Lockdown implementation during the COVID-19 pandemic appears to have a significant impact on university students' negative emotional symptoms, happiness, and work-life balance. Happiness was found to be a protective factor while the state of work-life balance is a risk factor that can predict students' negative emotional symptoms.

8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 629933, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094162

ABSTRACT

Meta-analyses have indicated that individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of suffering a severe form of COVID-19 and have a higher mortality rate than the non-diabetic population. Patients with diabetes have chronic, low-level systemic inflammation, which results in global cellular dysfunction underlying the wide variety of symptoms associated with the disease, including an increased risk of respiratory infection. While the increased severity of COVID-19 amongst patients with diabetes is not yet fully understood, the common features associated with both diseases are dysregulated immune and inflammatory responses. An additional key player in COVID-19 is the enzyme, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is essential for adhesion and uptake of virus into cells prior to replication. Changes to the expression of ACE2 in diabetes have been documented, but they vary across different organs and the importance of such changes on COVID-19 severity are still under investigation. This review will examine and summarise existing data on how immune and inflammatory processes interplay with the pathogenesis of COVID-19, with a particular focus on the impacts that diabetes, endothelial dysfunction and the expression dynamics of ACE2 have on the disease severity.

9.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 4(5): 1-5, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093498

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel viral illness originating out of Wuhan China in late 2019. This global pandemic has infected nearly 3 million people and accounted for 200 000 deaths worldwide, with those numbers still climbing. Case summary: We present a 54-year-old patient who developed respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation from her infection with SARS-CoV-2. This patient was subsequently found to have a right ventricular thrombus and bilateral pulmonary emboli, likely contributing to her respiratory status. On the 14th day of hospitalization, the patient was successfully extubated, and 5 days later was discharged to the rehabilitation unit. Discussion: SARS-CoV-2 presents primarily with pulmonary symptoms; however, many patients, particularly those who are severely ill, exhibit adverse events related to hypercoagulability. The exact mechanism explaining this hypercoagulable state has yet to be elucidated, but these thrombotic events have been linked to the increased inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2. This novel viral illness is still largely misunderstood, but the hypercoagulable state, seen in severely ill patients, appears to play a major role in disease progression and prognosis.

10.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(10): 2133-2140, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 outbreak has led to severe health burden in the elderly. Age, morbidity and dementia have been associated with adverse outcome. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on health status in home-dwelling patients. METHODS: 848 home-dwelling outpatients with dementia contacted from April 27 to 30 and evaluated by a semi-structured interview to evaluate possible health complication due to COVID-19 from February 21 to April 30. Age, sex, education, clinical characteristics (including diagnosis of dementia) and flu vaccination history were obtained from previous medical records. Items regarding change in health status and outcome since the onset of the outbreak were collected. COVID-19 was diagnosed in patients who developed symptoms according to WHO criteria or tested positive at nasal/throat swab if hospitalized. Unplanned hospitalization, institutionalization and mortality were recorded. RESULTS: Patients were 79.7 years old (SD 7.1) and 63.1% were females. Ninety-five (11.2%) patients developed COVID-19-like symptoms. Non COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients differed for frequency of diabetes (18.5% vs. 37.9%, p < 0.001), COPD (7.3% vs. 18.9%, p < 0.001), and previous flu vaccination (56.7% vs. 37.9%, p < 0.001). Diabetes and COPD were positively associated with COVID-19, whereas higher dementia severity and flu vaccination showed an inverse association. Among COVID-19 patients, 42 (44.2%) were hospitalized while 32 (33.7%) died. Non COVID-19 patients' hospitalization and mortality rate were 1.9% and 1.2%, respectively. COVID-19 and COPD were significantly associated with the rate of mortality. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of adverse outcome related to COVID-19 was observed in home-dwelling elderly patients with dementia. Active monitoring though telehealth programs would be useful particularly for those at highest risk of developing COVID-19 and its adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/mortality , Health Status , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(3): 449-456, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079929

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), global health problem and it is a threat to health and the development of countries. Currently, the number of people with COVID-19 as well as the resulting death toll is rising sharply worldwide. People with underlying diseases may be at greater risk. AIM: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the chronic non-communicable diseases in the epidemic (COVID-19): Investigation of risk factors, control and care. METERIALS AND METHODS: To access the articles, including international databases Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase were searched using the keywords of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), chronic, risk factors, prevention and control, self-efficacy and self-care and their various combinations using AND/OR operators. No language restrictions were applied to the search process. RESULTS: Based on the evidence, NCDs, exacerbate the negative consequences of COVID-19. according to the results of this study, Among the patients admitted with COVID-19, The most common underlying diseases, were in these people, include, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), smoking, malignancy, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Obesity may be considered as a potential COVID-19 risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: Although lifestyle, nutrition, and medical interventions are important for the early prevention of NCDs, having the tools and resources to use information more effectively is more important One of the determining and effective factors in maintaining health and preventing the aggravation of signs and symptoms of the disease COVID-19, especially in chronic diseases, is to perform self-care behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Epidemics , Humans , Hypertension , Life Style , Obesity , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Risk Factors
12.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(12): 7429-7441, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068179

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the pneumonia cases infected with 2019 novel coronavirus have appeared, posing a critical threat to global health. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to discover the different clinical characteristics between severe and non-severe patients with COVID-19 to find the potential risk factors and predictors of this disease's severity, as well as to serve as a guidance for subsequent epidemic prevention and control work. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and other databases were searched to collect studies on the difference of clinical characteristics of severe and non-severe patients. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software, and the funnel plots could be made to evaluate the publication bias. P>0.05 means no statistical significance. Furthermore, a meta-regression analysis was performed by using Stata 15.0 to find the potential factors of the high degree of heterogeneity (I2>50%). Sixteen studies have been included, with 1,172 severe patients and 2,803 non-severe patients. Compared with non-severe patients, severe patients were more likely to have the symptoms of dyspnea, hemoptysis, and the complications of ARDS, shock, secondary infection, acute kidney injury, and acute cardiac injury. Interestingly, the former smokers were more prevalent in severe cases as compared to non-severe cases, but there was no difference between the two groups of 'current smokers'. Except for chronic liver disease and chronic kidney disease, the underlying comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, cerebrovascular disease, and HIV can make the disease worse. In terms of laboratory indicators, the decreased lymphocyte and platelet count, and the increased levels of white blood cell (WBC), D-dimer, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and C-reactive protein were more prevalent in severe patients. Meta-regression analysis showed that patient age, gender, and proportion of severe cases did not significantly impact on the outcomes of any clinical indexes that showed high degree of heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, the severity of COVID-19 could be evaluated by, radiologic finding, some symptoms like dyspnea and hemoptysis, some laboratory indicators, and smoking history, especially the ex-smokers. Compared with non-severe patients, severe patients were more likely to have complications and comorbidities including hypertension, cardiovascular disease etc., which were the risk factors for the disease to be severer, but the chronic liver disease and chronic kidney disease were not associated the severity of COVID-19 in China.

13.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(6): 913-925, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066285

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has raised questions about Fabry disease (FD) as an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 symptoms. Available real-world data on 22 patients from an international group of healthcare providers reveals that most patients with FD experience mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms with an additional complication of Fabry pain crises and transient worsening of kidney function in some cases; however, two patients over the age of 55 years with renal or cardiac disease experienced critical COVID-19 complications. These outcomes support the theory that pre-existent tissue injury and inflammation may predispose patients with more advanced FD to a more severe course of COVID-19, while less advanced FD patients do not appear to be more susceptible than the general population. Given these observed risk factors, it is best to reinforce all recommended safety precautions for individuals with advanced FD. Diagnosis of FD should not preclude providing full therapeutic and organ support as needed for patients with FD and severe or critical COVID-19, although a FD-specific safety profile review should always be conducted prior to initiating COVID-19-specific therapies. Continued specific FD therapy with enzyme replacement therapy, chaperone therapy, dialysis, renin-angiotensin blockers or participation to clinical trials during the pandemic is recommended as FD progression will only increase susceptibility to infection. In order to compile outcome data and inform best practices, an international registry for patients affected by Fabry and infected by COVID-19 should be established.

14.
Medicine (Madr) ; 13(23): 1311-1321, 2020 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057039

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a significant challenge to public health systems worldwide. Obesity and malnutrition, two silent pandemics that were present before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, condition risk of the disease worsening in infected patients. Patients with this illness present with a high risk of disease-related malnutrition (DRM) and sarcopenia due to symptoms arising from the infection itself, acute inflammation, prolonged bed rest, and the supportive therapies used. Nowadays, along with respiratory support, nutritional support is essential to healthcare for patients with coronavirus infection throughout their progress. The nutritional approach is a dynamic process that includes strengthening the normal diet and specialized nutritional treatment (SNT) with the use of oral supplements, enteral nutrition, or parenteral nutrition according to each patient's requirements and needs. In this update, we review aspects regarding the close relationship between diet, nutrition, and immunity; their impact on the progress of SARS-CoV-2 infection; and the therapeutic strategies proposed by the consensus of experts of scientific societies.

15.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 41(5): 223-230, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, appeared in Wuhan, China. This virus is the cause of the COVID-19 disease. This infection later spread to the whole world. The goal of this article is to present the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with COVID-19 treated in the Faculty Hospital Pilsen. METHODS: In this monocentric, retrospective study, clinical and biochemical data of 89 adult patients with COVID-19 was analyzed. These patients were in the care of the Faculty Hospital Pilsen between March 14 and April 7. RESULTS: In this cohort, made up of 89 patients, 63 were treated as outpatients and 26 were hospitalized. 10 patients required intensive care. The most common symptoms among patients were cough and fever. Dyspnea was present in 29 patients. A CT scan showed bilateral pneumonia in 23 of the admitted patients. Fever and bilateral pneumonia were significantly more common in patients ≥ 60 years old (p=0.047, and p=0.001, respectively). Of lab results, the patients in intensive care had significantly higher values of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin 6, myoglobin and ferritin. CONCLUSION: The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever and cough. These two symptoms are simultaneously present in more than half the cases. Approximately 1/10th of patients requires intensive care. Higher values of lactate dehydrogenase, myoglobin and ferritin on patient admission appear to be a strong predictive factor of the patient's status progressing into requiring ICU attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Arthralgia/physiopathology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Headache/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myoglobin/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(22): 5535-5546, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in China, constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. It is well known that COVID-19 patients may have increased serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the early stage. The clinical changes in LDH may have predictive value in disease evolution and prognosis in critically ill COVID-19 patients. AIM: To examine serum LDH and clinical characteristics in patients with COVID-19 and their predictive value for prognosis. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the clinical data of forty-seven critical COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit of the Third People's Hospital of Yichang City from January 27 to March 25, 2020 and divided them into survivors and non-survivors. The patients were diagnosed according to the World Health Organization interim guidance and critical cases met any one of the following criteria: Respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation, the occurrence of shock, and the combined failure of other organs that required intensive care unit monitoring and treatments, according to the diagnostic criteria of critical COVID-19. Clinical data including symptoms, detection of SARS-CoV-2, chest computed tomography (CT) images, changes in serum LDH in different clinical phases, and prognosis were collected. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. Continuous variables were expressed as median (interquartile range) and compared with the Mann-Whitney U test. Categorical variables were compared with the Chi-square test. Survival data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests. RESULTS: According to chest CT images, we observed the alveolitis and fibrosis stages in all critical patients in this study. Most non-survivors died in the fibrosis stage. Non-survivors had fewer days of hospitalization, shorter disease duration, shorter duration of alveolitis and fibrosis, and had dyspnea symptoms at disease onset (P = 0.05). Both first and lowest LDH values in the alveolitis stage were more pronounced in non-survivors than in survivors (449.0 U/L vs 288.0 U/L, P = 0.0243; 445.0 U/L vs 288.0 U/L, P = 0.0199, respectively), while the first, lowest and highest values of serum LDH in non-survivors were all significantly increased compared to survivors in the fibrosis phase (449.0 U/L vs 225.5 U/L, P = 0.0028; 432.0 U/L vs 191.0 U/L, P = 0.0007; 1303.0 U/L vs 263.5 U/L, P = 0.0001, respectively). The cut-off points of first LDH values in the alveolitis and fibrosis phase for distinction of non-survivors from survivors were 397.0 U/L and 263.0 U/L, respectively. In the fibrosis stage, non-survivors had more days with high LDH than survivors (7.0 d vs 0.0 d, P = 0.0002). Importantly, patients with high LDH had a significantly shorter median survival time than patients with low LDH in the alveolitis phase (22.0 d vs 36.5 d, P = 0.0002), while patients with high LDH also had a significantly shorter median survival time than patients with low LDH in the fibrosis phase (27.5 d vs 40.0 d, P = 0.0008). The proportion of non-survivors with detectable SARS-CoV-2 until death in the alveolitis stage was significantly increased compared with that in the fibrosis stage (100% vs 35.7%, P = 0.0220). CONCLUSION: High LDH and dyspnea symptoms were positive predictors of an adverse outcome in critical COVID-19. The rapid progressive fibrosis stage was more perilous than the alveolitis stage, even if SARS-CoV-2 is undetectable.

17.
Hippokratia ; 24(2): 66-71, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated an association between a new onset of smell or taste loss and COVID-19. We investigated the prevalence of smell and/or taste loss and the clinical characteristics and recovery in a comprehensive cohort of consecutive patients treated by two COVID-19 reference hospitals and evaluated late persistence of hyposmia. METHODS: A retrospective observational questionnaire study was conducted. All consecutive RT-PCR diagnosed patients who had been hospitalized in March-April 2020 in the COVID-19 care wards were contacted, excluding patients with cognitive disorders and severe deconditioning. The patients responded to a survey about the loss of smell and taste, nasal blockage, and rhinorrhea, rated the symptoms' severity from 0 to 4, and reported the recovery of smell and taste with time. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. RESULTS: We contacted 117 patients. Ninety responded to the questionnaire; 38.9 % of them reported olfactory and 36.66 % gustatory disorders during their disease. Smell loss prior to other symptoms was reported by 42.86 %, and severe hyposmia/anosmia by 74.28 % of the hyposmic. Among the non-ICU treated patients, 43.75 % reported hyposmia. Only 8.89 % had nasal blockage, and 6.66 % rhinorrhea. Most of the patients (85.71 %) recovered their sense of smell in 3-61 days (median: 17; IQR: 24), but 8.57 % had persistent hyposmia. For one out of four, the olfactory loss lasted longer than a month. CONCLUSION: Smell and taste loss are highly prevalent and early symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The great majority recover their smell, but nearly one out of ten have not recovered in two months.  HIPPOKRATIA 2020, 24(2): 66-71.

18.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 625781, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032989

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Previous studies showed that quarantine for pandemic diseases is associated with several psychological and medical effects. The consequences of quarantine for COVID-19 pandemic in patients with dementia are unknown. We investigated the clinical changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, and evaluated caregivers' distress during COVID-19 quarantine. Methods: The study involved 87 Italian Dementia Centers. Patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Dementia (VD) were eligible for the study. Family caregivers of patients with dementia were interviewed by phone in April 2020, 45 days after quarantine declaration. Main outcomes were patients' changes in cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms. Secondary outcomes were effects on caregivers' psychological features. Results: 4913 patients (2934 females, 1979 males) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Caregivers reported a worsening in cognitive functions in 55.1% of patients, mainly in subjects with DLB and AD. Aggravation of behavioral symptoms was observed in 51.9% of patients. In logistic regression analysis, previous physical independence was associated with both cognitive and behavioral worsening (odds ratio 1.85 [95% CI 1.42-2.39], 1.84 [95% CI 1.43-2.38], respectively). On the contrary, pandemic awareness was a protective factor for the worsening of cognitive and behavioral symptoms (odds ratio 0.74 [95% CI 0.65-0.85]; and 0.72 [95% CI 0.63-0.82], respectively). Approximately 25.9% of patients showed the onset of new behavioral symptoms. A worsening in motor function was reported by 36.7% of patients. Finally, caregivers reported a high increase in anxiety, depression, and distress. Conclusion: Our study shows that quarantine for COVID-19 is associated with an acute worsening of clinical symptoms in patients with dementia as well as increase of caregivers' burden. Our findings emphasize the importance to implement new strategies to mitigate the effects of quarantine in patients with dementia.

19.
Caspian J Intern Med ; 11(Suppl 1): 484-494, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1022316

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is threatening public health in many ways. The psychological situation of individuals is important and limited data is available from Iran. In this study, we aimed to illustrate the psychological distress of the general population and evaluate the factors affecting it. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from 29th to 31st March 2020 in South Khorasan province, affected later than other parts of the country. We included sociodemographic questions, Hospital Anxiety, and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire, and questions addressing various symptoms and diseases. Most questions had multiple choices to select from and some were open questions. Univariate and multivariate analysis in SPSS software was used to find significant relationships. Results: A total of 844 responses were collected, of which 788 records were included in the analysis. The mean age of responders was 36.61±10.97 (age range: 18-88) and 484 (61.4%) of them were females. The mean scores in the anxiety and depression subscale of the HADS questionnaire were 7.01±3.68 and 6.72±3.71 respectively. Experiencing cardiovascular and COVID-19 related symptoms was significantly associated with a higher number of individuals having abnormal anxiety and depression results (p<0.001). Widowed individuals, females, and those experiencing the above-stated symptoms showed a significant association with increased anxiety and depression in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Although many existing elements influence the psychological well-being of society during a pandemic, experiencing symptoms related to other diseases or having multiple chronic diseases may cause an extra burden on the psychological state of the society.

20.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(10): 5360-5365, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013466

ABSTRACT

Context: Comprehensive management of mild COVID infection calls for better understanding of symptomatology in these group of patients as well as early identification and close monitoring of patients at risk, data on which is limited. Aim: To study association between inflammatory markers and clinical presentation with progression of disease and the duration of resolution of symptoms. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study that has been conducted at a designated COVID -19 medical ward at AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods and Material: Fifty healthcare workers and their dependents who were admitted with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 infection were included. Their records were retrospectively reviewed, entered into a predesigned proforma and analyzed. Results: A total of 50 participants were included in the study of which 70% were healthcare workers. The patients were admitted with mild COVID illness out of which 22 (44%) were males. Most common symptom at presentation was fever (72%). Among patients who had mild disease versus those who progressed to moderate illness (n = 3), the patients with moderate illness were older [mean (SD): 57.33 (10.21) vs. 36.13 (14.05); P = 0.014] and had a longer duration of hospital stay [17 (1.41) days vs. 11.20 (3.86) days; P = 0.04]. Inflammatory markers, C-Reactive Protein (CRP) [2.46 vs. 0.20 (P = 0.024)], and Ferritin [306.15 vs. 72.53 (P = 0.023)] were higher in patients with moderate illness. There is also a significant correlation between the number of days taken for symptoms to resolve with Serum Ferritin (P = 0.007), CRP (P = 0.0256), and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Acute phase reactants/Inflammatory markers serve as good indicators of time taken to resolution of symptoms in acute COVID infection. NLR is a simple and inexpensive method to provide insight into symptomatic phase. These may be utility tools for primary care physician in the management in periphery and timely decision.

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