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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 577728, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199315

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of the COVID-19 virus presents an unprecedented event that rapidly introduced widespread life threat, economic destabilization, and social isolation. The human nervous system is tuned to detect safety and danger, integrating body and brain responses via the autonomic nervous system. Shifts in brain-body states toward danger responses can compromise mental health. For those who have experienced prior potentially traumatic events, the autonomic threat response system may be sensitive to new dangers and these threat responses may mediate the association between prior adversity and current mental health. Method: The present study collected survey data from adult U.S. residents (n = 1,666; 68% female; Age M = 46.24, SD = 15.14) recruited through websites, mailing lists, social media, and demographically-targeted sampling collected between March and May 2020. Participants reported on their adversity history, subjective experiences of autonomic reactivity, PTSD and depression symptoms, and intensity of worry related to the COVID-19 pandemic using a combination of standardized questionnaires and questions developed for the study. Formal mediation testing was conducted using path analysis and structural equation modeling. Results: Respondents with prior adversities reported higher levels of destabilized autonomic reactivity, PTSD and depression symptoms, and worry related to COVID-19. Autonomic reactivity mediated the relation between adversity and all mental health variables (standardized indirect effect range for unadjusted models: 0.212-0.340; covariate-adjusted model: 0.183-0.301). Discussion: The data highlight the important role of autonomic regulation as an intervening variable in mediating the impact of adversity on mental health. Because of the important role that autonomic function plays in the expression of mental health vulnerability, brain-body oriented therapies that promote threat response reduction should be investigated as possible therapeutic targets.

2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 266-272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of symptoms of fear and depression among general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to present an emerging problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine levels of fear and depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19 outbreak and to assess other contributing factors in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Link to an anonymous questionnaire, mainly based on The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (Ahorsu et al. 2020) and two-item and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQs) (Maurer et al. 2018) (background information, fear assessment and information regarding depression) was distributed online to general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. RESULTS: Out of 1201 respondents, 217 (18.0%) reported experiencing fear and 341 (28.4%) reported having symptoms of depression during COVID-19 outbreak. The mean age of the subjects was 30.57±11.26. Being older (OR=1.044; 95% CI 1.031-1.057; p<0.001) and having moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.093; 95% CI 1.067-1.120; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing fear; living in rural environment (OR=0.551; 95% Cl 0.325-0.935; p=0.0027) significantly decreased the risk of developing fear; being female (OR=1.750; 95% CI 1.242-2.466; p=0.001), unemployed (OR=1.557; 95% CI 1.040-2.330; p=0.032) or student (OR=1.943; 95% CI 1.450-2.604; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing moderate to severe depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19. Mann Whitney U-test showed that being older was statistically associated with fear (p<0.001) and being younger was statistically associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, based on our findings, fear and depressive symptoms in general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the outbreak of COVID-19 were present in 18.06% (fear) and 28.39% (depression) of subjects and it was statistically associated with age, gender, occupation, living environment and may present a secondary uprising problem connected to outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Health Surveys , Internet , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035354

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) in the Palestinian context and the factorial structure of the instrument. The CSS, a newly emerging internationally standardized measure of stress related to being exposed to or contracting COVID-19, was translated and validated for a Palestinian context to ensure that it can be used to measure COVID-19 stress. The sample of the study consisted of 860 Palestinian adults living in the West Bank of Palestine. Participants' age ranged from 20 to 48 years old (M = 34.7, SD =13.46). They were all recruited from online advertisements, e-mail campaigns, blogs, social media, and SMS campaigns. The CSS was found to be valid in the Arabic language within a Palestinian context. The confirmatory factor analysis yielded six factors: (1) Fears about the dangerousness of COVID-19, (2) fears about the personal social, and economic consequences of COVID-19, fears of disruption in the supply chain, fears of looting or rioting, (3) COVID-19-xenophobia, fears that foreigners are sources of COVID-19, (4) fears about sources of COVID-19-related contamination,(5) traumatic stress symptoms related to COVID-19, and (6) COVID-19-related checking which is consisting with the ordinal structure the scale. The CSS demonstrated a high level of validity and reliability in a Palestinian context and therefore can be considered for future studies as the COVID-19 pandemic persists. Further investigations using the Arabic Language of CSS may have far-reaching implications for measuring and combating the stress of COVID-19 at a personal and societal level for uniquely at-risk populations such as in the occupied territories of Palestine.

4.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(6): 1354-1356, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898685

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel strain of coronavirus that was first identified in Wuhan, China; it has since spread rapidly throughout the world. Most of the patients with COVID-19 present with respiratory symptoms, including cough, nasal symptoms, fever, and shortness of breath. However, several groups have reported that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the central nervous system via the olfactory bulb followed by spread throughout the brain and peripheral nervous system. This brief report illustrated a 78-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) on March 22, 2020, with chief complaints of dizziness and unsteadiness while walking. He had no symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 on arrival. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab test performed at that time due to his atypical presentation and lymphocytopenia was positive for virus nucleic acids. The neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 are frequently non-specific and may emerge several days before the respiratory symptoms; as such, identification of patients presenting with these subtle and seemingly unremarkable COVID-19 symptoms will be quite difficult. Added to this, numerous countries still limit testing for SARS-COV-2 to patients presenting with fever or respiratory symptoms. Frontline physicians should be aware of early, non-specific symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726011

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is due to infection caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus that impacts the lower respiratory tract. The spectrum of symptoms ranges from asymptomatic infections to mild respiratory symptoms to the lethal form of COVID-19 which is associated with severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, and fatality. To address this global crisis, up-to-date information on viral genomics and transcriptomics is crucial for understanding the origins and global dispersion of the virus, providing insights into viral pathogenicity, transmission, and epidemiology, and enabling strategies for therapeutic interventions, drug discovery, and vaccine development. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive overview of COVID-19 epidemiology, genomic etiology, findings from recent transcriptomic map analysis, viral-human protein interactions, molecular diagnostics, and the current status of vaccine and novel therapeutic intervention development. Moreover, we provide an extensive list of resources that will help the scientific community access numerous types of databases related to SARS-CoV-2 OMICs and approaches to therapeutics related to COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
7.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3426-3436, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Headache is an important manifestation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, the aim was to identify factors associated with headache in COVID-19 and headache characteristics. METHODS: This case-control study includes COVID-19 hospitalized patients with pneumonia during March 2020. Controls comprise COVID-19 patients without headache and the cases are COVID-19 patients with headache. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records. Headache characteristics were evaluated by semi-structured telephonic interview after discharge. RESULTS: Of a total of 379 COVID-19 patients, 48 (13%) developed headache. Amongst these, 30 (62%) were men and the median age was 57.9 (47-73) years. Headache was associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities and reduced mortality, as well as with low levels of C-reactive protein, mild acute respiratory distress syndrome and oropharyngeal symptoms. A logistic multiple regression model revealed that headache was directly associated with D-dimer and creatinine levels, the use of high flow nasal cannula and arthromyalgia, whilst urea levels, beta-lactamic treatment and hypertension were negatively associated with headache. COVID-19-associated headache characteristics were available for 23/48 (48%) patients. Headache was the onset symptom in 8/20 (40%) patients, of mild or moderate intensity in 17/20 (85%) patients, with oppressive characteristics in 17/18 (94%) and of holocranial 8/19 (42%) or temporal 7/19 (37%) localization. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that headache is associated with a more benign SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19-associated headache appears as an early symptom and as a novel headache with characteristics of headache attributed to systemic viral infection. Further research addressing the underlying mechanisms to confirm these findings is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
8.
eNeuro ; 8(3)2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551335

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) presents a variability of clinical symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic to severe respiratory and systemic conditions. In a cohort of patients, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), beyond the classical respiratory manifestations, induces anosmia. Evidence has suggested SARS-CoV-2-induced anosmia can be the result of neurodegeneration of the olfactory pathway. Neurologic symptoms associated with COVID-19 have been reported; however, the precise mechanism and possible long-lasting effects remain poorly investigated. Preclinical models are valuable tools for describing and testing new possible treatments for neurologic disorders. In this way, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) organism model represents an attractive tool in the field of neuroscience, showing economic and logistic advantages besides genetic and physiologic similarities with mammalian, including the brain structure and functions. Besides, its external embryonic development, high availability of eggs, and fast development allows easy genetic manipulation and fast replications. In the present review, we suggest that the zebrafish model can be advantageous to investigate the neurologic features of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Animals , Anosmia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Zebrafish
9.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550636

ABSTRACT

Pain is a common symptom accompanying the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Nonspecific discomfort such as sore throat and body ache are frequent. Parainfectious pain such as headache, myalgia, or neuropathic pain has also been reported. The latter seems to be associated with an autoimmune response or an affection of the peripheral neuromuscular system or the central nervous system because of the viral infection. Furthermore, chronic pain can be a complication of intensive care unit treatment due to COVID-19 itself (such as intensive care-acquired weakness) or of secondary diseases associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, polyneuritis, critical illness polyneuropathy, or central pain following cerebrovascular events. Data on long-lasting painful symptoms after clinically manifest COVID-19 and their consequences are lacking. In addition, preexisting chronic pain may be exacerbated by limited and disrupted health care and the psychological burden of the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical providers should be vigilant on pain during and after COVID-19.

10.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(6): e259-e263, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534305

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are highly variable and can be quite severe, but they are rare in children. A careful understanding of the variety of presentations of neurological symptoms related to COVID-19 is critical for the effective management of these patients. Given the smaller numbers of children with these complications, a comprehensive review of neurological presentations in adults with COVID-19 may help facilitate the understanding of those complications that may present in children and how these presentations may be similar. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(6):e259-e263.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/microbiology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 670879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526776

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, studies across diverse countries have strongly pointed toward the emergence of a mental health crisis, with a dramatic increase in the prevalence of depressive psychopathology and suicidal tendencies. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of mental health problems as well as individual responses to stress. Studies have discussed the relationship between low serum vitamin D concentrations and depressive symptoms, suggesting that maintaining adequate concentrations of serum vitamin D seems to have a protective effect against it. Vitamin D was found to contribute to improved serotonergic neurotransmission in the experimental model of depression by regulating serotonin metabolism. The signaling of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D, through vitamin D receptor (VDR) induces the expression of the gene of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), influences the expression of serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) as well as the levels of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), the enzyme responsible for serotonin catabolism. Vitamin D also presents a relevant link with chronobiological interplay, which could influence the development of depressive symptoms when unbalance between light-dark cycles occurs. In this Perspective, we discussed the significant role of vitamin D in the elevation of stress-related depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is suggested that vitamin D monitoring and, when deficiency is detected, supplementation could be considered as an important healthcare measure while lockdown and social isolation procedures last during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2908-e2917, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We projected the clinical and economic impact of alternative testing strategies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence and mortality in Massachusetts using a microsimulation model. METHODS: We compared 4 testing strategies: (1) hospitalized: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing only for patients with severe/critical symptoms warranting hospitalization; (2) symptomatic: PCR for any COVID-19-consistent symptoms, with self-isolation if positive; (3) symptomatic + asymptomatic once: symptomatic and 1-time PCR for the entire population; and (4) symptomatic + asymptomatic monthly: symptomatic with monthly retesting for the entire population. We examined effective reproduction numbers (Re = 0.9-2.0) at which policy conclusions would change. We assumed homogeneous mixing among the Massachusetts population (excluding those residing in long-term care facilities). We used published data on disease progression and mortality, transmission, PCR sensitivity/specificity (70%/100%), and costs. Model-projected outcomes included infections, deaths, tests performed, hospital-days, and costs over 180 days, as well as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, $/quality-adjusted life-year [QALY]). RESULTS: At Re = 0.9, symptomatic + asymptomatic monthly vs hospitalized resulted in a 64% reduction in infections and a 46% reduction in deaths, but required >66-fold more tests/day with 5-fold higher costs. Symptomatic + asymptomatic monthly had an ICER <$100 000/QALY only when Re ≥1.6; when test cost was ≤$3, every 14-day testing was cost-effective at all Re examined. CONCLUSIONS: Testing people with any COVID-19-consistent symptoms would be cost-saving compared to testing only those whose symptoms warrant hospital care. Expanding PCR testing to asymptomatic people would decrease infections, deaths, and hospitalizations. Despite modest sensitivity, low-cost, repeat screening of the entire population could be cost-effective in all epidemic settings.

13.
Rev Rhum Ed Fr ; 88(5): 377-381, 2021 Oct.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIF: Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer la prévalence du coronavirus 2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SARS-CoV-2) 2019 (COVID-19) chez des patients adultes traités par biothérapies ou inhibiteurs des JAK pour des rhumatismes inflammatoires chroniques, en particulier des arthrites inflammatoires chroniques. MÉTHODES: Pour cela, une étude basée sur la population, dans la province d'Udine (466 700 habitants d'âge > 15 ans, région du Frioul-Vénétie-Julienne, Italie) a été planifiée. Le critère principal de jugement était la prévalence du COVID-19 durant les deux premiers mois de l'épidémie. Tous les patients de notre province atteints de maladies rhumatismales et traités par biothérapies ou inhibiteurs des JAK au cours des 6 mois précédents ont été inclus (n = 1051). RÉSULTATS: Du 29 février au 25 avril 2020, 4 patients adultes (4/1051, 3,8/1000, IC 95 % 1,5-9,7/1000) ont été testés positifs au COVID-19 par RT-PCR et écouvillon. Au total, 47/1051 patients (4,5 %) ont été soumis au test COVID-19 par RT-PCR durant la même période, en raison de symptômes compatibles avec le COVID-19 pour 15 d'entre eux. Dans la population générale, la prévalence était de 937 cas/466700 (2/1000, IC 95 % 1,9-2,1/1000, valeur p = 0,33, test du Chi2), et 20 179/466 700 (4,3 %) prélèvements COVID-19 sur écouvillon ont été effectués. CONCLUSION: Le risque de COVID-19 chez les patients atteints de maladies rhumatismales et traités par biothérapies ou inhibiteurs des JAK n'apparaît pas différent de celui observé dans la population générale. Les patients doivent être encouragés à poursuivre en toute sécurité leur traitement et à respecter les mesures de prévention et de protection contre le COVID-19.

14.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(2): 219-222, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384505

ABSTRACT

Using serum samples routinely collected in 9144 adults from a French general population-based cohort, we identified 353 participants with a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test, among whom 13 were sampled between November 2019 and January 2020 and were confirmed by neutralizing antibodies testing. Investigations in 11 of these participants revealed experience of symptoms possibly related to a SARS-CoV-2 infection or situations at risk of potential SARS-CoV-2 exposure. This suggests early circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in Europe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(12): 595-601, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Olfactory and taste dysfunction (OD, TD) have been considered symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, its presence in certain populations, especially those with mild clinical symptoms, has not been clarified. The objective was to estimate the frequency of OD and TD, and its predictive validity in patients detected in Primary Care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Spanish National Health System. An epidemiological survey was administered to patients who were requested the PCR test for SARS-CoV-2. Odds ratio (OR) were estimated to measure the magnitude of the association between OD and TD and the existence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of these symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 infection were calculated. RESULTS: Of 1038 patients screened, 20.1% had SARS-CoV-2 infection. OD and DG were present in 64.4% (95% CI 56.0-72.1) and 56.2% (95% CI 47.9-64.2) of the subjects with infection, respectively. The OR for OD was 12.2 (95% CI 8.26-18.06) and for TD was 7.95 (95% CI 5.48-11.53). TD presented a sensitivity of 41.1% (95% CI 34.4-46.1), a specificity of 91.9% (95% CI 89.8-93.7), a PPV of 56.2% (95% CI48.0-64.2) and a NPV of 86.1% (95% CI 83.6-88.3), while the OD showed a sensitivity of 45.0% (95% CI 37.6-51.5), a specificity of 93.7% (95% CI 91.8-95.0), a PPV of 64.4% (95% CI 56.0-72.1) and a NPV of 87.1% (95% CI 84.7-89.2). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection have OD or TD. The presence of OD or TD could be of diagnostic utility due to its ability to predict infection in more than half of the cases.


ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: La disfunción olfatoria (DO) y gustativa (DG) han demostrado ser síntomas de la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Sin embargo, su presencia en determinadas poblaciones, sobre todo en aquellas con cuadros clínicos leves, aún debe aclararse. El objetivo fue estimar la frecuencia de DO y DG, y su validez predictiva en pacientes detectados en Atención Primaria. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal en el Sistema Nacional de Salud español. Se administró una encuesta epidemiológica dirigida a pacientes a los que se les solicitó la prueba PCR para SARS-CoV-2. Se estimaron las odds ratio (OR) para medir la magnitud de la asociación entre la DO y DG y la existencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2. Se calculó la sensibilidad, la especificidad y los valores predictivos positivos (VPP) y negativos (VPN) de estos síntomas en la infección por SARS-CoV-2. RESULTADOS: Se captaron 1.038 pacientes, de los cuales el 20,1% presentaban infección por SARS-CoV-2. Las DO y DG estuvieron presentes en el 64,4% (IC 95% 56,0­72,1) y el 56,2% (IC 95% 47,9­64,2) de los sujetos con infección, respectivamente. La OR para la DO fue de 12,2 (IC 95% 8,26−18,06) y para la DG de 7,95 (IC 95% 5,48−11.53). La DG presentó una sensibilidad del 41,1% (IC 95% 34,4­46,1), una especificidad del 91,9% (IC 95% 89,8­93,7), un VPP del 56,2% (IC 95% 48,0­64,2) y un VPN de 86,1% (IC 95% 83,6­88,3), mientras que la DO mostró una sensibilidad del 45,0% (IC 95% 37,6­51,5), una especificidad del 93,7% (IC 95% 91,8­95,0), un VPP del 64,4% (IC 95% 56,0­72,1) y un VPN del 87,1% (IC 95% 84,7­89,2). CONCLUSIONES: Más de la mitad de los sujetos con infección por SARS-CoV-2 presentan DO o DG. La presencia de DO o de DG podría ser de utilidad diagnostica por su capacidad para predecir la infección en más de la mitad de las ocasiones.

16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(10): 1135-1140, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is characterised by respiratory symptoms, which deteriorate into respiratory failure in a substantial proportion of cases, requiring intensive care in up to a third of patients admitted to hospital. Analysis of the pathological features in the lung tissues of patients who have died with COVID-19 could help us to understand the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We systematically analysed lung tissue samples from 38 patients who died from COVID-19 in two hospitals in northern Italy between Feb 29 and March 24, 2020. The most representative areas identified at macroscopic examination were selected, and tissue blocks (median seven, range five to nine) were taken from each lung and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for at least 48 h. Tissues were assessed with use of haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining for inflammatory infiltrate and cellular components (including staining with antibodies against CD68, CD3, CD45, CD61, TTF1, p40, and Ki-67), and electron microscopy to identify virion localisation. FINDINGS: All cases showed features of the exudative and proliferative phases of diffuse alveolar damage, which included capillary congestion (in all cases), necrosis of pneumocytes (in all cases), hyaline membranes (in 33 cases), interstitial and intra-alveolar oedema (in 37 cases), type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia (in all cases), squamous metaplasia with atypia (in 21 cases), and platelet-fibrin thrombi (in 33 cases). The inflammatory infiltrate, observed in all cases, was largely composed of macrophages in the alveolar lumina (in 24 cases) and lymphocytes in the interstitium (in 31 cases). Electron microscopy revealed that viral particles were predominantly located in the pneumocytes. INTERPRETATION: The predominant pattern of lung lesions in patients with COVID-19 patients is diffuse alveolar damage, as described in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. Hyaline membrane formation and pneumocyte atypical hyperplasia are frequent. Importantly, the presence of platelet-fibrin thrombi in small arterial vessels is consistent with coagulopathy, which appears to be common in patients with COVID-19 and should be one of the main targets of therapy. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Hyaline Membrane Disease , Inflammation , Italy/epidemiology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/ultrastructure , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Infiltration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/blood supply , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/ultrastructure , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis
17.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 35-47, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372745

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in economic damage. The immune response elicited from this virus is poorly understood. An alarming number of cases have arisen where COVID-19 patients develop complications on top of the symptoms already associated with SARS, such as thrombosis, injuries of vascular system, kidney, and liver, as well as Kawasaki disease. In this review, a bioinformatics approach was used to elucidate the immune response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary human lung epithelial and transformed human lung alveolar. Additionally, examined the potential mechanism behind several complications that have been associated with COVID-19 and determined that a specific cytokine storm is leading to excessive neutrophil recruitment. These neutrophils are directly leading to thrombosis, organ damage, and complement activation via neutrophil extracellular trap release.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Vascular System Injuries/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Vascular System Injuries/virology
18.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 357-359, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339438

ABSTRACT

Awareness of the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and airway diseases can effectively help clinical physician during the coronavirus pandemic. Herein, we elucidated a COVID-19 case coexisting with severe asthma. Budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (BGF) was used as sequential medicine to systemic glucocorticoids for his persisted symptoms related to bronchospasms. Our case suggests patients with long-term airway diseases like asthma probably attribute their symptoms to COVID-19 instead of primary diseases, which make it more difficult in the symptom control. BGF is able to be an effective and convenient choice as sequential medicine to systemic glucocorticoids in some refractory asthmatic patients complicated with COVID-19.

19.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 119, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, nevertheless it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties. To our knowledge there is no literature on telephonic follow up in pediatric patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swab after discharge. The aim of the study is to describe our experience in a telephonic follow up which can allow early and safe discharge from hospital while keeping the patients under close clinical monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five children were admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infection at Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital COVID Center from 16th March to 3rd July. We monitored through a telephonic follow-up, using a specific survey, the patients discharged still presenting a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2. We checked if any symptoms occurred at home until recovery, defined as two consecutive negative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: During the follow up 7 patients had mild and self-limited symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while 2 patients were re-hospitalized. One patient had Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), the other patient had an increase in troponin and D-dimers. We also monitored the average time of viral shedding, resulting in a median duration of 28 days. CONCLUSION: Our experience describes the daily telephonic follow up as safe in pediatric patients discharged with positive PCR. As a matter of fact it could avoid long term hospitalization and allow to promptly re-hospitalize children with major complications such as MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuity of Patient Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Telephone , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
20.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(5): 666-670, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While COVID-19 symptoms impact rhinology (anosmia) and laryngology (airways), two major disciplines of the otolaryngology armamentarium, the virus has seemed to spare the auditory system. A recent study, however, reported changes in otoacoustic emission (OAE) signals measured in SARS-COV-2 positive patients. We sought to assess the effect of COVID-19 infection on auditory performance in a cohort of recovered SARS-COV-2 patients and controls. To avoid a potential bias of previous audiological dysfunction not related to SARS-COV-2 infection, the study encompasses patients with normal auditory history. We hypothesized that if SARS-COV-2 infection predisposes to hearing loss, we would observe subtle and early audiometric deficits in our cohort in the form of subclinical auditory changes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: The Institutional Review Board approved the study and we recruited participants who had been positive for SARS-COV-2 infection, according to an Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test on two nasopharyngeal swabs. The patients included in this study were asymptomatic for the SARS-COV-2 infection and were evaluated following recovery, confirmed by repeated swab testing. The control group comprised healthy individuals matched for age and sex, and with a normal auditory and otologic history. INTERVENTIONS: The eligibility to participate in this study included a normal audiogram, no previous auditory symptoms, normal otoscopy examination with an intact tympanic membrane, and bilateral tympanometry type A. None of our volunteers reported any new auditory symptoms following SARS-COV-2 infection. Ototacoustic emissions (OAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements were used to evaluate the auditory function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: OAE and ABR measurements. RESULTS: We have found no significant differences between recovered asymptomatic SARS-COV-2 patients and controls in any of transitory evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), or ABR responses. CONCLUSIONS: There is no cochlear dysfunction represented by ABR, TEOAE, and DPOAE responses in recovered COVID-19 asymptomatic patients. Retrocochlear function was also preserved as evident by the ABR responses. A long-term evaluation of a larger cohort of SARS-COV-2 patients will help to identify a possible contribution of SARS-COV-2 infection to recently published anecdotal auditory symptoms associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Humans , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous
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