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1.
Heart Views ; 21(3): 220-224, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389617

ABSTRACT

Review of the literature and reported case series has not reported an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in heart transplant recipients. However, this population is at increased risk of a more severe infection with increased mortality because of age and the presence of multiple comorbid conditions There is no significant difference in presenting symptoms in transplant recipients as compared to nontransplant patients, although diarrhea has been reported to be more frequent in transplant patients, a common side effect of immunosuppressive medications. Standard preventive measures have been shown to be equally protective in heart transplant recipients. Risk factors for severe disease and mortality are similar in both transplant recipients and nontransplant patients and include older age and the presence of comorbidities hypertension being the most common. The SARS-CoV-2 infection did not increase the risk of transplant allograft rejection. Currently, there are no specific treatment recommendations for SARS-CoV-2 infection in transplant recipients. However, the International Society of Heart and Lung and Transplant has issued guidance on how to modulate immunosuppressive therapy during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104849, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318926

ABSTRACT

Taking anti-inflammatory drugs, including non-steroidal (NSAIDs), during Covid-19 infection, how much is risky? The French Minister of Health, who has raised an alarm on a possible risk deriving from the use of ibuprofen for the control of fever and other symptoms during the disease, opened the debate a few days ago. In this paper we examine available evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that had analysed the role of COX in the inflammatory process and the effects of NSAIDs in patients with infections. Most of the published studies that suggested not protective effects of NSAIDs were mainly performed in vitro or on animals. Therefore, their meaning in humans is to be considered with great caution. Based also on data suggesting protective effects of NSAIDs, we concluded that currently there is no evidence suggesting a correlation between NSAIDs and a worsening of infections. Further studies will be certainly needed to better define the role of NSAIDs and particularly COX2 inhibitors in patients with infections. In the meantime, we must wait for results of the revision started by the PRAC on May 2019 on the association ibuprofen/ketoprofen​​​​​​ and worsening of infections. Since nowadays no scientific evidence establishes a correlation between NSAIDS and worsening of COVID-19, patients should be advice against any NSAIDs self-medication when COVID-19 like symptoms are present.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 566221, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119558

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Malaysia's first Movement Control Order (MCO) or "lockdown" was in place for 6 weeks to curb the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Consequently, all universities were forced to close temporarily with abrupt changes to teaching and learning activities. However, there has been a lack of consensus regarding students' actual psychological status and mental health during the MCO implementation. This study investigates the link, state, and differences of negative emotional symptoms, happiness, and work-life balance among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: This study recruited 1,005 university students across Malaysia. Data was collected online using Qualtrics to measure negative emotional symptoms (The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale), happiness (The Oxford Happiness Inventory), and work-life balance (Work-Family Conflict Scale). All data was analyzed using SPSS version 25 and AMOS version 26 using T-test, ANOVA, logistic regression analyses, and path analysis method. Findings: Findings indicated that 22, 34.3, and 37.3% of the university students scored moderate to extremely severe levels of stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms, respectively. Half scored rather happy or very happy (50%) for happiness levels. Meanwhile, 50.4 and 39.4% scored high to very high levels of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict. Significant differences in stress, anxiety, depression, happiness, work-family conflict, and family-work conflict were recorded across different demographic factors. Happiness was found to be a protective factor with a lesser likelihood of experiencing severe stress (OR = 0.240, 95% CI: 0.180, 0.321), anxiety (OR = 0.336, 95% CI: 0.273, 0.414), and depression (OR = 0.121, 95% CI: 0.088, 0.165) with higher happiness levels. Higher score of work-to-family conflict contributes to greater odds of having severe levels of anxiety (OR = 1.453, 95% CI: 1.161, 1.818). While greater likelihood of developing severe stress (OR = 1.468, 95% CI: 1.109, 1.943) and severe anxiety (OR = 1.317, 95% CI: 1.059, 1.638) under increasing score of family-to-work conflict. Besides, happiness is found to negatively linked with lower negative emotional symptoms, while work-family conflict and family-work conflict are positively linked with higher negative emotional symptoms. Conclusion: Lockdown implementation during the COVID-19 pandemic appears to have a significant impact on university students' negative emotional symptoms, happiness, and work-life balance. Happiness was found to be a protective factor while the state of work-life balance is a risk factor that can predict students' negative emotional symptoms.

4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 629933, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094162

ABSTRACT

Meta-analyses have indicated that individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of suffering a severe form of COVID-19 and have a higher mortality rate than the non-diabetic population. Patients with diabetes have chronic, low-level systemic inflammation, which results in global cellular dysfunction underlying the wide variety of symptoms associated with the disease, including an increased risk of respiratory infection. While the increased severity of COVID-19 amongst patients with diabetes is not yet fully understood, the common features associated with both diseases are dysregulated immune and inflammatory responses. An additional key player in COVID-19 is the enzyme, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is essential for adhesion and uptake of virus into cells prior to replication. Changes to the expression of ACE2 in diabetes have been documented, but they vary across different organs and the importance of such changes on COVID-19 severity are still under investigation. This review will examine and summarise existing data on how immune and inflammatory processes interplay with the pathogenesis of COVID-19, with a particular focus on the impacts that diabetes, endothelial dysfunction and the expression dynamics of ACE2 have on the disease severity.

5.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 4(5): 1-5, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093498

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel viral illness originating out of Wuhan China in late 2019. This global pandemic has infected nearly 3 million people and accounted for 200 000 deaths worldwide, with those numbers still climbing. Case summary: We present a 54-year-old patient who developed respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation from her infection with SARS-CoV-2. This patient was subsequently found to have a right ventricular thrombus and bilateral pulmonary emboli, likely contributing to her respiratory status. On the 14th day of hospitalization, the patient was successfully extubated, and 5 days later was discharged to the rehabilitation unit. Discussion: SARS-CoV-2 presents primarily with pulmonary symptoms; however, many patients, particularly those who are severely ill, exhibit adverse events related to hypercoagulability. The exact mechanism explaining this hypercoagulable state has yet to be elucidated, but these thrombotic events have been linked to the increased inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2. This novel viral illness is still largely misunderstood, but the hypercoagulable state, seen in severely ill patients, appears to play a major role in disease progression and prognosis.

6.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(10): 2133-2140, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 outbreak has led to severe health burden in the elderly. Age, morbidity and dementia have been associated with adverse outcome. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on health status in home-dwelling patients. METHODS: 848 home-dwelling outpatients with dementia contacted from April 27 to 30 and evaluated by a semi-structured interview to evaluate possible health complication due to COVID-19 from February 21 to April 30. Age, sex, education, clinical characteristics (including diagnosis of dementia) and flu vaccination history were obtained from previous medical records. Items regarding change in health status and outcome since the onset of the outbreak were collected. COVID-19 was diagnosed in patients who developed symptoms according to WHO criteria or tested positive at nasal/throat swab if hospitalized. Unplanned hospitalization, institutionalization and mortality were recorded. RESULTS: Patients were 79.7 years old (SD 7.1) and 63.1% were females. Ninety-five (11.2%) patients developed COVID-19-like symptoms. Non COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients differed for frequency of diabetes (18.5% vs. 37.9%, p < 0.001), COPD (7.3% vs. 18.9%, p < 0.001), and previous flu vaccination (56.7% vs. 37.9%, p < 0.001). Diabetes and COPD were positively associated with COVID-19, whereas higher dementia severity and flu vaccination showed an inverse association. Among COVID-19 patients, 42 (44.2%) were hospitalized while 32 (33.7%) died. Non COVID-19 patients' hospitalization and mortality rate were 1.9% and 1.2%, respectively. COVID-19 and COPD were significantly associated with the rate of mortality. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of adverse outcome related to COVID-19 was observed in home-dwelling elderly patients with dementia. Active monitoring though telehealth programs would be useful particularly for those at highest risk of developing COVID-19 and its adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/mortality , Health Status , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(12): 7429-7441, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068179

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the pneumonia cases infected with 2019 novel coronavirus have appeared, posing a critical threat to global health. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to discover the different clinical characteristics between severe and non-severe patients with COVID-19 to find the potential risk factors and predictors of this disease's severity, as well as to serve as a guidance for subsequent epidemic prevention and control work. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and other databases were searched to collect studies on the difference of clinical characteristics of severe and non-severe patients. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software, and the funnel plots could be made to evaluate the publication bias. P>0.05 means no statistical significance. Furthermore, a meta-regression analysis was performed by using Stata 15.0 to find the potential factors of the high degree of heterogeneity (I2>50%). Sixteen studies have been included, with 1,172 severe patients and 2,803 non-severe patients. Compared with non-severe patients, severe patients were more likely to have the symptoms of dyspnea, hemoptysis, and the complications of ARDS, shock, secondary infection, acute kidney injury, and acute cardiac injury. Interestingly, the former smokers were more prevalent in severe cases as compared to non-severe cases, but there was no difference between the two groups of 'current smokers'. Except for chronic liver disease and chronic kidney disease, the underlying comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, cerebrovascular disease, and HIV can make the disease worse. In terms of laboratory indicators, the decreased lymphocyte and platelet count, and the increased levels of white blood cell (WBC), D-dimer, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and C-reactive protein were more prevalent in severe patients. Meta-regression analysis showed that patient age, gender, and proportion of severe cases did not significantly impact on the outcomes of any clinical indexes that showed high degree of heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, the severity of COVID-19 could be evaluated by, radiologic finding, some symptoms like dyspnea and hemoptysis, some laboratory indicators, and smoking history, especially the ex-smokers. Compared with non-severe patients, severe patients were more likely to have complications and comorbidities including hypertension, cardiovascular disease etc., which were the risk factors for the disease to be severer, but the chronic liver disease and chronic kidney disease were not associated the severity of COVID-19 in China.

8.
Hippokratia ; 24(2): 66-71, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated an association between a new onset of smell or taste loss and COVID-19. We investigated the prevalence of smell and/or taste loss and the clinical characteristics and recovery in a comprehensive cohort of consecutive patients treated by two COVID-19 reference hospitals and evaluated late persistence of hyposmia. METHODS: A retrospective observational questionnaire study was conducted. All consecutive RT-PCR diagnosed patients who had been hospitalized in March-April 2020 in the COVID-19 care wards were contacted, excluding patients with cognitive disorders and severe deconditioning. The patients responded to a survey about the loss of smell and taste, nasal blockage, and rhinorrhea, rated the symptoms' severity from 0 to 4, and reported the recovery of smell and taste with time. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. RESULTS: We contacted 117 patients. Ninety responded to the questionnaire; 38.9 % of them reported olfactory and 36.66 % gustatory disorders during their disease. Smell loss prior to other symptoms was reported by 42.86 %, and severe hyposmia/anosmia by 74.28 % of the hyposmic. Among the non-ICU treated patients, 43.75 % reported hyposmia. Only 8.89 % had nasal blockage, and 6.66 % rhinorrhea. Most of the patients (85.71 %) recovered their sense of smell in 3-61 days (median: 17; IQR: 24), but 8.57 % had persistent hyposmia. For one out of four, the olfactory loss lasted longer than a month. CONCLUSION: Smell and taste loss are highly prevalent and early symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The great majority recover their smell, but nearly one out of ten have not recovered in two months.  HIPPOKRATIA 2020, 24(2): 66-71.

9.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11774, 2020 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011758

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was designated as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews documents that COVID-19 has a wide range of common symptoms, which have made it difficult to characterize the disease. To date, the neurological symptoms of stuttering and word-finding difficulties have not been reported in confirmed COVID-19 cases. This case report describes the clinical course of a 53-year-old female that presented to the emergency department (ED) twice with varying symptoms consistent with COVID-19. At the second ED visit, she complained of new-onset stuttering and word-finding difficulties and tested positive for COVID-19 using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) nasopharynx test. When contacted, the patient stated that her speech issues persisted at least seven days after discharge from her second ED visit. As a result, the virus may cause symptoms of an acute neurological event and should be taken into diagnostic consideration. These neurological findings may be explained by the recent discovery of the COVID-19 spike protein's ability to destabilize the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter the central nervous system (CNS). Increased classification of unrecognized COVID-19 symptoms and complications may aid in the characterization, surveillance, and prevention of the disease.

10.
Eur J Dent ; 14(S 01): S152-S158, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005528

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is a major threat to the health and prosperity of human life at present. It has resulted in loss of thousands of lives globally and has brought countries to the brink of economic, social, and health collapse. A major issue of this infection is the ease with which it transmits through salivary droplets and its survival for long durations outside the body. Therefore, its early detection is critical in prevention, diagnostic, and management efforts of COVID-19 patients. Loss of taste and smell is one of the early symptoms reported in these patients and the virus is abundantly found in the salivary secretion of the infected symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Infection and inflammation of salivary glands are common among viral infections, particularly in the early stages, which lead to salivary composition changes. Chemosensory sensation of taste is critically dependent on the salivary flow rate and its inorganic constituents, protein levels, specific 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, ghrelins, pH levels, and enzymes. Therefore, the question arises, "Does COVID-19 infection alter the salivary components and composition leading to early transient symptoms of Ageusia and hypogeusia?" This review shows association of the COVID-19 and Ageusia, in addition to the early viral infection of salivary glands and possible changes in salivary flow and content. Therefore, suggesting a potential association between early ageusia in COVID-19 infection and salivary compositional changes.

11.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-3, 2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronarvirus disease (COVID-19) has had a major impact on provision of spinal neurosurgery across the world, especially in the UK, with a significant fall in operating and patient volumes, and elective clinical activities. It is unclear whether the pandemic has affected the volume of urgent spinal procedures in the UK, especially surgical decompressions for cauda equina syndrome (CES). METHODS: Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of theatre records and electronic operation notes at our institution to identify all procedures performed for CES before (December 2019 to February 2020) and during (March 2020 to May 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. Statistical analyses were performed on SPSS v22 (IBM). RESULTS: Forty-four patients underwent surgical decompressions during the study period. Over half (54.5%) were female and the median age was 45 years (range = 22-78 years). Three in four procedures were performed at L4-5 and L5-S1 levels (79.5%). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of decompressions performed each month [χ2(5)=1.818; p = 0.874]. On the other hand, the number of referrals for suspected or confirmed CES fell by 81.8% between December 2019 and April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not show any statistically significant decline in the volume of surgical decompressions performed for CES despite the considerable fall in electronic referrals for CES and degenerative spinal conditions. This suggests that patients with critical neurological symptoms continued to present and were treated appropriately despite the restrictions imposed on spinal surgeons during the pandemic.

12.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(4): 1343-1353, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982796

ABSTRACT

Since the initial reports of COVID-19 in December 2019, the world has been gripped by the disastrous acute respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. There are an ever-increasing number of reports of neurological symptoms in patients, from severe (encephalitis), to mild (hyposmia), suggesting the potential for neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2. This Perspective investigates the hypothesis that the reliance on self-reporting of hyposmia has resulted in an underestimation of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients. While the acute effect of the virus on the nervous system function is vastly overshadowed by the respiratory effects, we propose that it will be important to monitor convalescent individuals for potential long-term implications that may include neurodegenerative sequelae such as viral-associated parkinsonism. As it is possible to identify premorbid harbingers of Parkinson's disease, we propose long-term screening of SARS-CoV-2 cases post-recovery for these expressions of neurodegenerative disease. An accurate understanding of the incidence of neurological complications in COVID-19 requires long-term monitoring for sequelae after remission and a strategized health policy to ensure healthcare systems all over the world are prepared for a third wave of the virus in the form of parkinsonism.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Parkinsonian Disorders/psychology , Parkinsonian Disorders/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Agnosia/virology , COVID-19 , Coinfection/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology
13.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4417-4427, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974858

ABSTRACT

Over 5 million people around the world have tested positive for the beta coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 as of May 29, 2020, a third of which are in the United States alone. These infections are associated with the development of a disease known as COVID-19, which is characterized by several symptoms, including persistent dry cough, shortness of breath, chills, muscle pain, headache, loss of taste or smell, and gastrointestinal distress. COVID-19 has been characterized by elevated mortality (over 100 thousand people have already died in the US alone), mostly due to thromboinflammatory complications that impair lung perfusion and systemic oxygenation in the most severe cases. While the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with the severity of the disease, little is known about the impact of IL-6 levels on the proteome of COVID-19 patients. The present study provides the first proteomics analysis of sera from COVID-19 patients, stratified by circulating levels of IL-6, and correlated to markers of inflammation and renal function. As a function of IL-6 levels, we identified significant dysregulation in serum levels of various coagulation factors, accompanied by increased levels of antifibrinolytic components, including several serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs). These were accompanied by up-regulation of the complement cascade and antimicrobial enzymes, especially in subjects with the highest levels of IL-6, which is consistent with an exacerbation of the acute phase response in these subjects. Although our results are observational, they highlight a clear increase in the levels of inhibitory components of the fibrinolytic cascade in severe COVID-19 disease, providing potential clues related to the etiology of coagulopathic complications in COVID-19 and paving the way for potential therapeutic interventions, such as the use of pro-fibrinolytic agents. Raw data for this study are available through ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD020601.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/analysis , Complement System Proteins/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Interleukin-6/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Proteome/analysis , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Hemolysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 953, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a world-wide health crisis. Limited information is available regarding which patients will experience more severe disease symptoms. We evaluated hospitalized patients who were initially diagnosed with moderate COVID-19 for clinical parameters and radiological feature that showed an association with progression to severe/critical symptoms. METHODS: This study, a retrospective single-center study at the Central Hospital of Wuhan, enrolled 243 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Forty of these patients progressed from moderate to severe/critical symptoms during follow up. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between moderate- and severe/critical-type symptoms. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors associated with symptom progression. RESULTS: Patients with severe/critical symptoms were older (p < 0.001) and more often male (p = 0.046). A combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and high maximum chest computed tomography (CT) score was associated with disease progression. Maximum CT score (> 11) had the greatest predictive value for disease progression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.861 (95% confidence interval: 0.811-0.902). CONCLUSIONS: Maximum CT score and COPD were associated with patient deterioration. Maximum CT score (> 11) was associated with severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , ROC Curve , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 570031, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971456

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease resulting from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, primarily in the respiratory tract. This pandemic disease has affected the entire world, and the pathobiology of this disease is not yet completely known. The Interactions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins with different cellular components in the host cell may be necessary for understanding the disease mechanism and identifying crucial pharmacological targets in COVID-19. Studies have suggested that the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on other organs, including the brain, maybe critical for understanding the pathobiology of COVID-19. Symptoms in COVID-19 patients, including impaired consciousness dizziness, headache, loss of taste and smell, vision problems, and neuromuscular pain, suggest that neuronal complications comprise a crucial component of COVID-19 pathobiology. A growing body of literature indicates that SARS-CoV-2 can enter the brain, leading to neuronal defects in COVID-19 patients. Other studies suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may aggravate neuronal complications due to its effects on the cerebrovascular system. Emerging pieces of evidence show that stroke can be one of the leading neurological complications in COVID-19. In this review, we describe the observations about neuronal complications of COVID-19 and how SARS-CoV-2 may invade the brain. We will also discuss the cerebrovascular problems and occurrence of stroke in COVID-19 patients. We will also present the observations and our views about the potential pharmacological strategies and targets in COVID-19. We hope this review will help comprehend the current knowledge of neuronal and cerebrovascular complications from SARS-CoV-2 infections and highlight the possible long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 on the human brain.

16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 163, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to better understand the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), for that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. This paper was to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases such as avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) virus infections. METHODS: We included patients who had been hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2 (n = 83), H7N9 (n = 36), H1N1 (n = 44) viruses. Clinical presentation, chest CT features, and progression of patients were compared. We used the Logistic regression model to explore the possible risk factors. RESULTS: Both COVID-19 and H7N9 patients had a longer duration of hospitalization than H1N1 patients (P < 0.01), a higher complication rate, and more severe cases than H1N1 patients. H7N9 patients had higher hospitalization-fatality ratio than COVID-19 patients (P = 0.01). H7N9 patients had similar patterns of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and those seen in H1N1 patients, which were all significantly different from patients with COVID-19 (P < 0.01). Either H7N9 or H1N1 patients had more obvious symptoms, like fever, fatigue, yellow sputum, and myalgia than COVID-19 patients (P < 0.01). The mean duration of viral shedding was 9.5 days for SARS-CoV-2 vs 9.9 days for H7N9 (P = 0.78). For severe cases, the meantime from illness onset to severity was 8.0 days for COVID-19 vs 5.2 days for H7N9 (P < 0.01), the comorbidity of chronic heart disease was more common in the COVID-19 patients than H7N9 (P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed that chronic heart disease was a possible risk factor (OR > 1) for COVID-19, compared with H1N1 and H7N9. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of severe cases were higher for H7N9 and SARS-CoV-2 infections, compared with H1N1. The meantime from illness onset to severity was shorter for H7N9. Chronic heart disease was a possible risk factor for COVID-19.The comparison may provide the rationale for strategies of isolation and treatment of infected patients in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/mortality , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
17.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(43): 3419-3424, 2020 Nov 24.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948085

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the severity of stress, anxiety, depression and insomnia during the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in adults outside Hubei Province, China. Methods: An online survey of psychological and sleep by using Questionnaire Star program from 5th to 19th February 2020 was conducted. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised was used to assess COVID-19 outbreak-related stress symptoms. Meanwhile, Questionnaires of Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Insomnia Severity Index were respectively used to assess the severity of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 3 134 subjects were included. Among the included subjects, 15.5% (487), 24.9% (779), 28.7% (899) and 30.9% (968) of the subjects had COVID-19-related stress symptoms, anxiety, depression and insomnia after the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. The severity levels of anxiety, depression and insomnia were significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to prior to the outbreak (all P<0.01). Furthermore, the subjects' stress response to the COVID-19 outbreak was an independent risk factor for increased anxiety, depression and insomnia after the outbreak. Conclusion: The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in related stress response and widespread increase in anxiety, depression, and insomnia outside Hubei Province, China in the general population. The aggravation of anxiety, depression and insomnia is associated with stress levels. Our data demonstrate that the widespread psychological and insomnia problems in the general population need to be addressed at the early phase of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
18.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2205-2208, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935121

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome and coagulopathy played an important role in morbidity and mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. A higher frequency of pulmonary embolism (PE) than expected in COVID-19 patients was recently reported. The presenting symptoms for PE were untypical including dyspnea, which is one of the major symptoms in severe COVID-19, especially in those patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We reported two COVID-19 cases with coexisting complications of PE and ARDS, aiming to consolidate the emerging knowledge of this global health emergency and raise the awareness that the hypoxemia or severe dyspnea in COVID-19 may be related to PE and not necessarily always due to the parenchymal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acute Disease , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 304, 2020 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reach pandemic proportions globally. For patients with symptoms of fever and cough accompanied by rapid lung damage progression, COVID-19 needs to be distinguished from interstitial lung disease (ILD) attributed to connective tissue disease (CTD), especially dermatomyositis (DM)/clinical amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) associated rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD). CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a woman observed with fever, cough, and rapid lung damage during the epidemic. The patient had a suspicious epidemiological history, and her chest CT scans showed lung damage similar to that caused by COVID-19, but anti-Ro52 antibody was strongly positive. She was diagnosed with CADM associated RP-ILD and died 1 month later. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, it is critical to carefully assess patients with CTD related ILD, especially RP-ILD associated with CADM. Repeated nucleic acid tests for COVID-19 are necessary to achieve accurate case diagnosis. High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest is presently deemed an inefficient technique to distinguishing between COVID-19 and CADM associated RP-ILD. The characteristic rashes of dermatomyositis require careful observation and can often provide diagnostic clues. For patients with CADM, a high titers of anti-Ro52 antibody may be related to the pathogenesis of RP-ILD, suggesting a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dermatomyositis/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
20.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 93(5): 323-333, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932757

ABSTRACT

Introduction: At this time there are still major questions about the characteristics of disease caused by the new coronavirus (COVID-19) in children as well as factors associated with the development of severe forms of the disease. Study design: Retrospective study including patients under 18 years of age admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection from March 1 to April 30, 2020. Infection was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antibody testing. We describe the epidemiological and clinical data, laboratory and imaging findings, as well as treatment and outcome in these patients. In light of these findings, patients were classified into two severity groups and then compared. Results: Thirty-nine children were included, with a median age of 9 years (range 12 days-16 years); 23 were boys. Cases with uncomplicated disease course (24) mostly presented to the emergency department (ED) with fever and/or respiratory symptoms without significant alterations in laboratory findings. Of the 15 children with a complicated course, 12 developed shock. In addition to fever, they frequently presented altered appearance, extreme tachycardia, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, and/or conjunctival hyperemia. They also showed greater lymphopenia (p = 0.001), elevated neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.001), C-reactive protein (p < 0.001), procalcitonin (p = 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.001), and ferritin (p < 0.001). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection in admitted children presents with great clinical variability. When provided supportive care, patients with predominant respiratory symptoms without altered laboratory-test results generally have an uncomplicated course. Patients with complicated disease present mainly with fever and abdominal and/or mucocutaneous symptoms. Most develop shock. Elevation of inflammatory markers may allow for early detection and the final outcome is good.

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