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1.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(4): 3168-3180, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883208

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lactobacilli strains in preventing the recurrences of vaginal candidiasis (VC) in 78 pregnant women with VC (lactobacilli, n = 39; placebo, n = 39) and the potential benefits on quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: The lactobacilli putative probiotic (SynForU-HerCare; two capsules/day of 9·5 log CFU per capsule) or placebo was administered for 8-weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were assessed for vaginal and gut health conditions at baseline, week-4 and week-8 via questionnaires. The vulvovaginal symptom questionnaire not only covered aspects pertaining to vulvovaginal symptoms but also the quality of life impacts such as emotional, social and sexual. The administration of lactobacilli reduced symptoms of irritation (P = 0·023) and discharge (P = 0·011) starting week-4 and continued after week-8 (P < 0·05), accompanied by reduced symptoms for burning after week-8 (P = 0·046) as compared to the placebo. Patients consuming lactobacilli also showed reduced concern about symptoms after week-4 (P = 0·010) and continued after week-8 (P = 0·001), accompanied by reduced impairment of daily activities attributed to vulvovaginal symptoms (P = 0·012) and continued after week-8 (P = 0·026). Insignificant differences were observed for sexual impacts between treatment groups. The administration of lactobacilli also reduced recurrences of both emotional and social stress as compared to the placebo at both week-4 and week-8 (P < 0·05). Patients consuming lactobacilli showed higher defecation times per week at week-4 (P = 0·010) and week-8 (P = 0·001) as compared to the placebo group, indicating the potential to reduce risks of pregnancy-induced constipation. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacilli probiotics are beneficial towards pregnant women, especially in reducing vulvovaginal symptoms and recurrences of VC, accompanied by improved emotional and social distress attributed to VC. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study demonstrated the preventive and modulatory roles of lactobacilli strains against VC in pregnant women. Taken altogether, our present data illustrated that lactobacilli probiotics are beneficial towards pregnant women, especially in reducing vulvovaginal symptoms and recurrences of VC, accompanied by improved emotional and social distress attributed to VC, thus could be a potential strategy for the maintenance of vaginal health during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Probiotics , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Lactobacillus , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Vagina
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210202, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858185

ABSTRACT

Importance: Owing to concerns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks, many congregant settings are forced to close when cases are detected because there are few data on the risk of different markers of transmission within groups. Objective: To determine whether symptoms and laboratory results on the first day of COVID-19 diagnosis are associated with development of a case cluster in a congregant setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of trainees with COVID-19 from May 11 through August 24, 2020, was conducted at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, the primary site of entry for enlistment in the US Air Force. Symptoms and duration, known contacts, and cycle threshold for trainees diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were collected. A cycle threshold value represents the number of nucleic acid amplification cycles that occur before a specimen containing the target material generates a signal greater than the predetermined threshold that defines positivity. Cohorts with 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection were defined as clusters. Participants included 10 613 trainees divided into 263 parallel cohorts of 30 to 50 people arriving weekly for 7 weeks of training. Exposures: All trainees were quarantined for 14 days on arrival. Testing was performed on arrival, on day 14, and anytime during training when indicated. Protective measures included universal masking, physical distancing, and rapid isolation of trainees with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between days of symptoms, specific symptoms, number of symptoms, or cycle threshold values of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent transmission within cohorts. Results: In this cohort study of 10 613 US Air Force basic trainees in 263 cohorts, 403 trainees (3%) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 in 129 cohorts (49%). Among trainees with COVID-19 infection, 318 (79%) were men, and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 20 (19-23) years; 204 (51%) were symptomatic, and 199 (49%) were asymptomatic. Median (IQR) cycle threshold values were lower in symptomatic trainees compared with asymptomatic trainees (21.2 [18.4-27.60] vs 34.8 [29.3-37.4]; P < .001). Cohorts with clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection were predominantly men (204 cohorts [89%] vs 114 cohorts [64%]; P < .001), had more symptomatic trainees (146 cohorts [64%] vs 53 cohorts [30%]; P < .001), and had more median (IQR) symptoms per patient (3 [2-5] vs 1 [1-2]; P < .001) compared with cohorts without clusters. Within cohorts, subsequent development of clusters of 5 or more individuals with COVID-19 infection compared with those that did not develop clusters was associated with cohorts that had more symptomatic trainees (31 of 58 trainees [53%] vs 43 of 151 trainees [28%]; P = .001) and lower median (IQR) cycle threshold values (22.3 [18.4-27.3] vs 35.3 [26.5-37.8]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US Air Force trainees living in a congregant setting during the COVID-19 pandemic, higher numbers of symptoms and lower cycle threshold values were associated with subsequent development of clusters of individuals with COVID-19 infection. These values may be useful if validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/transmission , Cohort Studies , Cough/physiopathology , Female , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Residence Characteristics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100420, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838954

ABSTRACT

In ongoing viral pandemic named as COVID-19 also Severe Acute Respiratory illness (SARI) or Flue Like illness (FLI) reported surging in many cities of India and many of the patients opted for traditional medicine, in spite of they have been given a option of contemporary line of treatment instructed by health authorities, they opted to take traditional indian medicine that is Ayurvedic medicine. Present case series is a same novel experience of early diagnosing and treating mid aged, morbid individuals who took only Ayurvedic treatment and could get out of the disease without any complications. This case series had 10 mid aged, morbid patients with maximum symptoms of COVID-19 disease and their hemogram and CRP was suggestive of moderate to severe type COVID-19/FLI/SARI. They were diagnosed by contemporary methods of pathology and treated with Ayurvedic classical medicines Tamra Sinduradi Yoga and Bhunimbadi Kwath for 20 days along with continuing the medicines for their ongoing morbidities. All 10 patients showed recoveries without any complications, they reduced their all symptoms, drastic reduction in their CRP and corrections in their hemograms were observed and also they showed any complications neither physically nor in their pathological tests. Hence it can be concluded that early diagnosis and treating it with Ayurvedic medicine can manage viral pandemic issue in a very successful way.

4.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100365, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838948

ABSTRACT

The ancient Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda has a treatment for symptom complexes of a variety of diseases. One such combination of Ayurvedic medications has potential for use in COVID 19 infection, and hence a prospective study was conducted with this formulation as an add-on, in COVID positive patients in a dedicated COVID hospital. The objective of the study was to evaluate the additional benefit of an Ayurvedic regime in COVID positive patients on the basis of rate of clinical improvement. The Ayurvedic formulation was administered as an add-on to Standard of Care (SoC) in patients with mild to moderate symptoms, in this prospective, open-label, comparative study. Control group received SoC only. Patients receiving Dasamoolkaduthrayam Kashaya and Guluchyadi Kwatham in tablet form in addition to the SoC showed a faster recovery from breathlessness with reduced ageusia. Patients on the treatment group could be discharged earlier than those from the control group. Addition of Dasamoolkaduthrayam Kashaya and Guluchyadi Kwatham to SoC appeared to accelerate recovery of patients hospitalized for COVID 19 infection, in terms of reduction of symptoms and duration of hospital stay.

5.
JMIR Form Res ; 4(10): e22043, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had numerous worldwide effects. In the United States, there have been 8.3 million cases and nearly 222,000 deaths as of October 21, 2020. Based on previous studies of mental health during outbreaks, the mental health of the population will be negatively affected in the aftermath of this pandemic. The long-term nature of this pandemic may lead to unforeseen mental health outcomes and/or unexpected relationships between demographic factors and mental health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This research focused on assessing the mental health status of adults in the United States during the early weeks of an unfolding pandemic. METHODS: Data was collected from English-speaking adults from early April to early June 2020 using an online survey. The final convenience sample included 1083 US residents. The 71-item survey consisted of demographic questions, mental health and well-being measures, a coping mechanisms checklist, and questions about COVID-19-specific concerns. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to explore associations among demographic variables and mental health outcomes. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine associations among demographic variables, COVID-19-specific concerns, and mental health and well-being outcomes. RESULTS: Approximately 50% (536/1076) of the US sample was aged ≥45 years. Most of the sample was White (1013/1054, 96%), non-Hispanic (985/1058, 93%), and female (884/1073, 82%). Participants reported high rates of depression (295/1034, 29%), anxiety (342/1007, 34%), and stress (773/1058, 73%). Older individuals were less likely to report depressive symptomology (OR 0.78, P<.001) and anxiety symptomology (OR 0.72, P<.001); in addition, they had lower stress scores (-0.15 points, SE 0.01, P<.001) and increased well-being scores (1.86 points, SE 0.22, P<.001). Individuals who were no longer working due to COVID-19 were 2.25 times more likely to report symptoms of depression (P=.02), had a 0.51-point increase in stress (SE 0.17, P=.02), and a 3.9-point decrease in well-being scores (SE 1.49, P=.009) compared to individuals who were working remotely before and after COVID-19. Individuals who had partial or no insurance coverage were 2-3 times more likely to report depressive symptomology compared to individuals with full coverage (P=.02 and P=.01, respectively). Individuals who were on Medicare/Medicaid and individuals with no coverage were 1.97 and 4.48 times more likely to report moderate or severe anxiety, respectively (P=.03 and P=.01, respectively). Financial and food access concerns were significantly and positively related to depression, anxiety, and stress (all P<.05), and significantly negatively related to well-being (both P<.001). Economy, illness, and death concerns were significantly positively related to overall stress scores (all P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that many US residents are experiencing high stress, depressive, and anxiety symptomatology, especially those who are underinsured, uninsured, or unemployed. Longitudinal investigation of these variables is recommended. Health practitioners may provide opportunities to allay concerns or offer coping techniques to individuals in need of mental health care. These messages should be shared in person and through practice websites and social media.

6.
Am J Surg ; 221(2): 277-284, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic has placed tremendous physical and mental strain on the US healthcare system. Studies examining the effects of outbreaks have demonstrated both an increased prevalence and long-term development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in healthcare providers. We sought to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological well-being of medical providers, medical trainees, and administrators at a large academic center to identify stressors and moderators to guide future mental health and hospital-system interventions. METHODS: A 42-item survey examining specific stressors, grit, and resilience was widely distributed to physicians, residents, fellows, and administrators a large academic institution for departmental distribution. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariate linear regressions. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 785 participants completed the survey. The majority of respondents rated their stress to be significantly increased during the pandemic. Respondents' fear of transmitting the virus to their family members was a significant stressor. Higher resilience was associated with lower stress, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. Overall, respondents felt supported by their departments and institution and felt contingency plans and personal protective equipment were adequate. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers have increased resilience in the face of heightened stress during a pandemic. Higher resilience and grit were protective factors in managing personal and system-level stressors at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in our institution. Implementing an intervention designed to enhance healthcare workers' resilience in response to the COVID-19 pandemic is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
7.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2113-2119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808755

ABSTRACT

AIM: The global impact of COVID-19 on mental health increases from time to time. Several studies show that depression is highly prevalent among quarantined individuals. COVID-19 is a pandemic with a rapidly increasing incidence of infections and deaths. People are depressed and psychologically overwhelmed by the illness and possible loss of their friends and loved ones. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals in Tigrai treatment center, Tigrai, Ethiopia, 2020. METHODS: A multicenter Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed among individuals in the Tigrai quarantine centers. A simple random sampling technique was used between April and October 2020 until an adequate sample size was reached. Depression was assessed by using the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS). Epi data manager version 4.4 was used to enter data and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression was carried out and an odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was computed to identify factors associated with depression. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and the strength of the association was presented by an odds ratio of 95% CI. RESULTS: The finding of the present study on the prevalence of depression among quarantined individuals was 18.1 with 95% CI (14.8-22.9). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed and factors such as being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic was 18.1%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. So, clinicians, mental health professionals, and policymakers should work together to address the problem.

8.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2111-2118, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) not only caused physical abnormalities, but also caused psychological distress, especially for undergraduate students who are facing the pressure of academic study and work. We aimed to explore the prevalence rate of probable anxiety and probable insomnia and to find the risk factors among a longitudinal study of undergraduate students using the approach of machine learning. METHODS: The baseline data (T1) were collected from freshmen who underwent psychological evaluation at two months after entering the university. At T2 stage (February 10th to 13th, 2020), we used a convenience cluster sampling to assess psychological state (probable anxiety was assessed by general anxiety disorder-7 and probable insomnia was assessed by insomnia severity index-7) based on a web survey. We integrated information attained at T1 stage to predict probable anxiety and probable insomnia at T2 stage using a machine learning algorithm (XGBoost). RESULTS: Finally, we included 2009 students (response rate: 80.36%). The prevalence rate of probable anxiety and probable insomnia was 12.49% and 16.87%, respectively. The XGBoost algorithm predicted 1954 out of 2009 students (translated into 97.3% accuracy) and 1932 out of 2009 students (translated into 96.2% accuracy) who suffered anxiety and insomnia symptoms, respectively. The most relevant variables in predicting probable anxiety included romantic relationship, suicidal ideation, sleep symptoms, and a history of anxiety symptoms. The most relevant variables in predicting probable insomnia included aggression, psychotic experiences, suicidal ideation, and romantic relationship. CONCLUSION: Risks for probable anxiety and probable insomnia among undergraduate students can be identified at an individual level by baseline data. Thus, timely psychological intervention for anxiety and insomnia symptoms among undergraduate students is needed considering the above factors.

9.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S86-S89, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the trend of prevalence of symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some studies have been conducted outside India, but for Indian patients, there is no such study available. Therefore, this study was designed to analyze the trends of symptoms in Indian patients during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients (73 males, 24 females, and 3 transgenders) admitted under institutional isolation at a tertiary care center in India using a self-designed survey-based questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of results done based on age and sex. RESULTS: COVID incidence recorded is high in male (73%) as compared to female (24%), yet female patients have a higher prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. CONCLUSION: Male patients are more as far as COVID incidence is concerned, while female patients show high prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. Patients presenting with COVID-positive report suffer a significant burden of symptoms, and timely recognition of symptoms and their management can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19.

10.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785755

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an epidemiological threat and a worldwide concern. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 210 countries worldwide and more than 6,500,000 confirmed cases and 384,643 deaths have been reported, while the number of both confirmed and fatal cases is continually increasing. COVID-19 is a viral disease that can affect every age group-from infants to the elderly-resulting in a wide spectrum of various clinical manifestations. COVID-19 might present different degrees of severity-from mild or even asymptomatic carriers, even to fatal cases. The most common complications include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fever, dry cough, muscle weakness, and chest pain are the most prevalent and typical symptoms of COVID-19. However, patients might also present atypical symptoms that can occur alone, which might indicate the possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize all of the findings regarding clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients, which include respiratory, neurological, olfactory and gustatory, gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, dermatological, cardiac, and rheumatologic manifestations, as well as specific symptoms in pediatric patients.

11.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(10): 1424-1430, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777852

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Risk to healthcare workers treating asymptomatic patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the operating room depends on multiple factors. This review examines the evidence for asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic carriage of SARS-CoV-2, the risk of transmission from asymptomatic patients, and the specific risks associated with aerosol-generating procedures. Protective measures, such as minimization of aerosols and use of personal protective equipment in the setting of treating asymptomatic patients, are also reviewed. SOURCE: We examined the published literature as well as Societal guidelines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There is evidence that a proportion of those infected with SARS-CoV-2 have detectable viral loads prior to exhibiting symptoms, or without ever developing symptoms. The degree of risk of transmission from asymptomatic patients to healthcare providers will depend on the prevalence of disease in the population, which is difficult to assess without widespread population screening. Aerosol-generating procedures increase the odds of viral transmission from infected symptomatic patients to healthcare providers, but transmission from asymptomatic patients has not been reported. Techniques to minimize aerosolization and appropriate personal protective equipment may help reduce the risk to healthcare workers in the operating room. Some societal guidelines recommend the use of airborne precautions during aerosol-generating procedures on asymptomatic patients during the coronavirus disease pandemic, although evidence supporting this practice is limited. CONCLUSION: Viral transmission from patients exhibiting no symptoms in the operating room is plausible and efforts to reduce risk to healthcare providers include reducing aerosolization and wearing appropriate personal protective equipment, the feasibility of which will vary based on geographic risk and equipment availability.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Le risque encouru par les travailleurs de la santé traitant des patients asymptomatiques infectés par le syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère du coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) en salle d'opération dépend de plusieurs facteurs. Ce compte rendu examine les données probantes concernant la présence asymptomatique ou pré-symptomatique du SARS-CoV-2, le risque de transmission des patients asymptomatiques, et les risques spécifiques associés aux interventions générant des aérosols. Nous passons également en revue différentes mesures de protection, telles que la minimisation des aérosols et l'utilisation d'équipements de protection individuelle, dans un contexte de traitement de patients asymptomatiques. SOURCE: Nous avons examiné la littérature publiée ainsi que les directives sociétales. CONSTATATIONS PRINCIPALES: Selon certaines données probantes, une proportion des personnes infectées par le SARS-CoV-2 possèdent des charges virales détectables avant la présence de symptômes, voire même sans manifestation de symptômes. Le degré de risque de transmission des patients asymptomatiques aux travailleurs de la santé dépendra de la prévalence de la maladie dans la population, une donnée difficile à évaluer sans dépistage généralisé. Les interventions générant des aérosols augmentent le risque de transmission virale des patients symptomatiques infectés aux travailleurs de la santé, mais la transmission de patients asymptomatiques n'a pas été rapportée. Les techniques visant à minimiser l'aérosolisation et les équipements de protection individuelle adaptés pourraient être utiles pour réduire le risque des travailleurs de la santé en salle d'opération. Certaines directives régionales et nationales recommandent le recours à des précautions contre la transmission par voie aérienne durant les interventions générant des aérosols pratiquées sur des patients asymptomatiques pendant la pandémie de coronavirus, bien que les données probantes appuyant cette pratique soient limitées. CONCLUSION: La transmission virale des patients asymptomatiques en salle d'opération est plausible et les efforts visant à réduire le risque pour les travailleurs de la santé comprennent la réduction de l'aérosolisation et le port d'équipements de protection individuelle adaptés, deux mesures dont la faisabilité variera en fonction du risque géographique et de la disponibilité des équipements.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aerosols , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 64(2): 107-113, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Immediately before the state of emergency was declared, there was an outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among special training participants with severe physical stress. For promoting the optimization of infection prevention measures by identifying acts and situations with high risk of infection, we conducted a survey and analysis to understand the detailed process of infection spread in these cases. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted for the special training participants on their health status, changes in symptoms, training methods, and behavior history in their private lives. Additionally, a patrol of the training facility was carried out to understand the training environment, and antibody tests were conducted on the close contacts for more accurately grasping the spread of infection, by identifying subclinical infected persons. RESULTS: Within 10 days of COVID-19 onset in the first patient, 15 of the 19 original training participants developed symptoms, and 14 patients tested positive for RT-PCR. PCR tests were also performed on four patients who did not develop the disease - two were positive and negative, each. The two negatives turned positive on a later antibody test, suggesting that there was an asymptomatic infection. In addition, all five patients who participated in the training for only a day developed symptoms and tested positive for PCR in a few days. Of the 64 people who underwent testing for antibodies as close contacts, all but one who was living together with a patient were negative on antibody testing. CONCLUSIONS: The onset of COVID-19 occurred after the start of practice-based training continuously; therefore, the practice-based training was thought to be the main cause of the transmission. We speculate that the main factors behind the rapid spread of infection are as follows: during practice-based training, increased ventilation made it difficult to wear a mask; repeated loud vocalizations at close range; and the training pair was not fixed. Physical training without shouting and desk work, however, did not possess the risk of COVID-19, and avoiding certain situations at high risk of respiratory infections may have significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 transmission. If personnel become infected with SARS-CoV-2, emergency measures should be devised by identifying patients and close contacts and facilitating the investigation of their behavioral history. Furthermore, evaluating and improving the effectiveness of infection control measures is necessary by ascertaining potentially infected persons by performing PCR tests, antigen tests, antibody tests, etc. in combination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Inservice Training , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
QJM ; 114(9): 625-635, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746245

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been linked to the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The objective of the present study is to identify specific clinical features of cases of GBS reported in the literature associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched Pubmed, and included single case reports and case series with full text in English, reporting original data of patients with GBS and a confirmed recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical data were extracted. We identified 28 articles (22 single case reports and 6 case series), reporting on a total of 44 GBS patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed through serum reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 72.7% of cases. A total of 40 patients (91%) had symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection before the onset of the GBS. The median period between the onset of symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms of the GBS was 11.2 days (range, 2-23). The most common clinical features were: leg weakness (61.4%), leg paresthesia (50%), arm weakness (50.4%), arm paresthesia (50.4%), hyporeflexia/areflexia (48%) and ataxia (22.7%). In total, 38.6% (n = 17) were found to have facial paralysis. Among 37 patients in whom nerve-conduction studies and electromyography were performed, of which 26 patients (59.1%) were consistent with the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy subtype of the GBS. The present retrospective analysis support the role of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the development of the GBS, may trigger GBS as para-infectious disease, and lead to SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Infect Dis ; 225(6): 965-970, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740882

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 16 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and neurological symptoms were assessed using 2 independent methods. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) specific for the virus spike protein was found in 81% of patients in serum and in 56% in CSF. SARS-CoV-2 IgG in CSF was observed in 2 patients with negative serological findings. Levels of IgG in both serum and CSF were associated with disease severity (P < .05). All patients with elevated markers of central nervous system damage in CSF also had CSF antibodies (P = .002), and CSF antibodies had the highest predictive value for neuronal damage markers of all tested clinical variables.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Formation , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 48(1): 22-27, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736080

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Routine ultrasound may be used in abortion services to determine gestational age and confirm an intrauterine pregnancy. However, ultrasound adds complexity to care and results may be inconclusive, delaying abortion. We sought to determine the rate of ectopic pregnancy and the utility of routine ultrasound in its detection, in a community abortion service. METHODS: Retrospective case record review of women requesting abortion over a 5-year period (2015-2019) with an outcome of ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) at a service (Edinburgh, UK) conducting routine ultrasound on all women. Records were searched for symptoms at presentation, development of symptoms during clinical care, significant risk factors and routine ultrasound findings. RESULTS: Only 29/11 381 women (0.25%, 95% CI 0.18%, 0.33%) had an ectopic pregnancy or PUL (tubal=18, caesarean scar=1, heterotopic=1, PUL=9). Eleven (38%) cases had either symptoms at presentation (n=8) and/or significant risk factors for ectopic pregnancy (n=4). A further 12 women developed symptoms during their clinical care. Of the remaining six, three were PUL treated with methotrexate and three were ectopic (salpingectomy=2, methotrexate=1). In three cases, the baseline ultrasound indicated a probable early intrauterine pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Ectopic pregnancies are uncommon among women presenting for abortion. The value of routine ultrasound in excluding ectopic pregnancy in symptom-free women without significant risk factors is questionable as it may aid detection of some cases but may provide false reassurance that a pregnancy is intrauterine.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Spontaneous , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Abortion, Induced/adverse effects , Abortion, Spontaneous/diagnostic imaging , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Ectopic/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy, Ectopic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
16.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S12-S16, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and demographical profile of corona-virus illness among Tablighi Jamaat and Zaireen kept in quarantine / isolation center at Sukkur and Hyderabad Sindh. METHODS: The cross-sectional descriptive study (late March-2020 to mid of April-2020) was conducted at Diagnostic & Research Laboratory LUMHS Jamshoro / Hyderabad. All the suspected cases for COVID-19 were recruited and screened for corona virus infection. The study explored the data of the suspected and diagnosed (confirmed) case of COVID-2019 (Tablighi Jamaat and Zaireen) reported by Diagnostic Research Laboratory Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) Jamshoro who belonged to various parts of the country in general and province Sindh in particular. All the individuals regardless of age and gender presented either as asymptomatic, critical ill or having non-specific symptoms as fever, flu, cough; sore throat and shortness of breath were screened for COVID-19 by real time PCR after taking informed consent whereas the frequency / percentages (%) and means ±SD computed for study variables. RESULTS: During study period total 920 patients were explored and screened for Corona virus infection. The mean ± SD for age (yrs) of overall population of city Sukkur and Hyderabad was 57.83±8.84 and 59.62±9.72 respectively. The 700 people from Sukkur city was screened and out of them 276 (39.4%) were positive and 424 (60.5) were negative while the cure rate was 245 (88.7%) along with mean ± SD for recovery time was 9.41±2.97. The 220 people from Hyderabad city was screened and out of them 106 (48.1%) were positive and 114 (51.8%) were negative while the cure rate was 106 (100%) along with mean ± SD for recovery time was 11.54±3.42. The majority of cases at both centers were asymptomatic (90%), symptomatic (7%) and critically ill (3%). The mortality accounted for 2.8% cases at Hyderabad isolation center and all were having smoking history and co-morbidities as ischemic heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, obstructive lung disease and cerebrovascular accident whereas no mortality was observed at Sukkur isolation center. CONCLUSION: RT-PCR measure allowed fast, delicate, and explicit discovery of SARS-CoV in biochemical diagnosis. The majority of cases at both centers were asymptomatic while the mortality was identified in 2.8% cases (having co-morbidities) at Hyderabad isolation center whereas no mortality was observed at Sukkur isolation center.

17.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S17-S21, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate basic knowledge of Health Care Professionals (HCPs) of Pakistan in managing COVID 19 patients. It includes information regarding infection control measures, administrative and professional support. This was followed by evaluation of psychological factor that can act as a barrier in effective management of these patients. METHODS: The survey was conducted on line using Google Form. After approval from hospital ethical committee survey link was disseminated to HCPs using social media. RESULTS: Four hundred fifteen HCPs were participated. Most of them were younger than 30 years and majority of them were postgraduate trainees. Results showed gaps in the knowledge about basic infection control measure like donning/doffing and understanding about high-risk procedures. On job training, professional and administrative support is compromising. Many of HCPs are anxious nowadays, having symptoms related to burn out with logical reasons behind. Even with all those hurdles they are committed and ready to volunteer themselves. CONCLUSION: The HCPs of Pakistan needs urgent attention for providing them Formal training regarding infection control measure. Administrative and professional support is required from institutions and scientific societies. Online teaching modules and webinar is a suitable option. The symptoms of burn out are significant and would increase with passage of time. This needs to be supported by occupational health committees.

18.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S124-S125, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726821

ABSTRACT

The WHO has declared a Pandemic due to Novel Corona virus-19 (COVID-19). Patients usually have respiratory symptoms but gastrointestinal and hepatic dysfunction are not uncommon presentations and can lead to a delay in diagnosis and management. Virus shedding can continue even after the nasopharyngeal swab gets negative and could lead to faecal-oral transmission. The effects of COVID-19 on patients with decompensated liver disease is still not clear. Managing immunosuppressive drugs in liver transplant and inflammatory bowel disease is a major challenge without clear guidelines. Only emergency endoscopy is to be done with personal protection equipment. Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine has shown some beneficial effects and is being used off-label. Without effective treatment, it is imperative to take precautionary measures.

19.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726022

ABSTRACT

There is currently debate about human coronavirus (HCoV) seasonality and pathogenicity, as epidemiological data are scarce. Here, we provide epidemiological and clinical features of HCoV patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) examined in primary care general practice. We also describe HCoV seasonality over six influenza surveillance seasons (week 40 to 15 of each season) from the period 2014/2015 to 2019/2020 in Corsica (France). A sample of patients of all ages presenting for consultation for influenza-like illness (ILI) or ARI was included by physicians of the French Sentinelles Network during this period. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of 21 respiratory pathogens by real-time RT-PCR. Among the 1389 ILI/ARI patients, 105 were positive for at least one HCoV (7.5%). On an annual basis, HCoVs circulated from week 48 (November) to weeks 14-15 (May) and peaked in week 6 (February). Overall, among the HCoV-positive patients detected in this study, HCoV-OC43 was the most commonly detected virus, followed by HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. The HCoV detection rates varied significantly with age (p = 0.00005), with the age group 0-14 years accounting for 28.6% (n = 30) of HCoV-positive patients. Fever and malaise were less frequent in HCoV patients than in influenza patients, while sore throat, dyspnoea, rhinorrhoea, and conjunctivitis were more associated with HCoV positivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HCoV subtypes appear in ARI/ILI patients seen in general practice, with characteristic outbreak patterns primarily in winter. This study also identified symptoms associated with HCoVs in patients with ARI/ILI. Further studies with representative samples should be conducted to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and clinical features of HCoVs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Primary Health Care , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
20.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726016

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached over five million confirmed cases worldwide, and numbers are still growing at a fast rate. Despite the wide outbreak of the infection, a remarkable asymmetry is observed in the number of cases and in the distribution of the severity of the COVID-19 symptoms in patients with respect to the countries/regions. In the early stages of a new pathogen outbreak, it is critical to understand the dynamics of the infection transmission, in order to follow contagion over time and project the epidemiological situation in the near future. While it is possible to reason that observed variation in the number and severity of cases stems from the initial number of infected individuals, the difference in the testing policies and social aspects of community transmissions, the factors that could explain high discrepancy in areas with a similar level of healthcare still remain unknown. Here, we introduce a binary classifier based on an artificial neural network that can help in explaining those differences and that can be used to support the design of containment policies. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection frequency positively correlates with particulate air pollutants, and specifically with particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), while ozone gas is oppositely related with the number of infected individuals. We propose that atmospheric air pollutants could thus serve as surrogate markers to complement the infection outbreak anticipation.


Subject(s)
Atmosphere/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Ozone , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Ozone/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
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