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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
2.
J Rehabil Med Clin Commun ; 3: 1000044, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197496

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, characterized by dyspnoea and arterial desaturation while upright, is a rare complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report here 2 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, who were diagnosed with platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome during commencement of rehabilitation, 18 and 9 days respectively after admission to the intensive care unit. Both patients presented with normocapnic hypoxaemia. One patient required mechanical ventilation with supplemental oxygen during intensive care, while the other required high-flow nasal oxygen therapy. The manifestations of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome were most prominent during physiotherapy, when verticalization was attempted, and hindered further mobilization out of bed, including ambulation. This report describes the clinical manifestations of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and the rehabilitative strategies carried out for these 2 patients. The platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome in these patients resolved after 65 and 22 days respectively from the day of detection. This report highlights this potentially under-recognized phenomenon, which may be unmasked during rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Good functional outcomes were achieved with a combination of verticalization training with supplemental oxygen support, respiratory techniques training and progressive endurance and resistance training, whilst awaiting resolution of the platypneaorthodeoxia syndrome.

3.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(5): 1158-1161, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117605

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we describe a case of COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by alveolar air leakage syndrome without prior positive pressure ventilation. Our patient was a 55-year-old nonsmoker male with a previous history of marginal B-cell lymphoma diagnosed ten years ago who presented to the emergency department with cough, dyspnea, and respiratory distress. The COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed based on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The unenhanced chest computed tomography (CT) obtained on the first day of admission demonstrated bilateral multifocal ground-glass opacities and consolidation, extensive pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax, a rim of pneumopericardium, and right-sided subcutaneous emphysema. Despite the initiation of supportive care, antiviral and antibiotic therapy, he passed away due to septic shock. In conclusion, spontaneous alveolar air leakage, characterized by spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema, is a rare complication of COVID-19, which may be linked with a severe course of the disease.

4.
Comput Biol Med ; 130: 104210, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064978

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has infected 77.4 million people worldwide and has caused 1.7 million fatalities as of December 21, 2020. The primary cause of death due to COVID-19 is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), people who are at least 60 years old or have comorbidities that have primarily been targeted are at the highest risk from SARS-CoV-2. Medical imaging provides a non-invasive, touch-free, and relatively safer alternative tool for diagnosis during the current ongoing pandemic. Artificial intelligence (AI) scientists are developing several intelligent computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools in multiple imaging modalities, i.e., lung computed tomography (CT), chest X-rays, and lung ultrasounds. These AI tools assist the pulmonary and critical care clinicians through (a) faster detection of the presence of a virus, (b) classifying pneumonia types, and (c) measuring the severity of viral damage in COVID-19-infected patients. Thus, it is of the utmost importance to fully understand the requirements of for a fast and successful, and timely lung scans analysis. This narrative review first presents the pathological layout of the lungs in the COVID-19 scenario, followed by understanding and then explains the comorbid statistical distributions in the ARDS framework. The novelty of this review is the approach to classifying the AI models as per the by school of thought (SoTs), exhibiting based on segregation of techniques and their characteristics. The study also discusses the identification of AI models and its extension from non-ARDS lungs (pre-COVID-19) to ARDS lungs (post-COVID-19). Furthermore, it also presents AI workflow considerations of for medical imaging modalities in the COVID-19 framework. Finally, clinical AI design considerations will be discussed. We conclude that the design of the current existing AI models can be improved by considering comorbidity as an independent factor. Furthermore, ARDS post-processing clinical systems must involve include (i) the clinical validation and verification of AI-models, (ii) reliability and stability criteria, and (iii) easily adaptable, and (iv) generalization assessments of AI systems for their use in pulmonary, critical care, and radiological settings.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Humans
5.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 216-225, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to explore clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with an imaging feature of COVID-19 pneumonia at disease onset, in order to identify factors that may be evaluable by general practitioners at patient's home, and which may lead to identify a more severe disease, needing hospitalization. DESIGN: this is a retrospective/prospective observational hospital cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study population includes all patients consecutively admitted to the emergency department of Città della salute e della scienza University Hospital from 01.03 to 31.05.2020 with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: patients were classified in two groups according to the findings of X-ray imaging, lung ultrasound and chest computer tomography, as pneumonia or not pneumonia patients. RESULTS: in multivariable analysis, factors most strongly associated with emergency department admission with pneumonia were age, oxygen saturation <90% (adj OR 4.16 ;95%CI 1.44-12.07), respiratory rate >24 breaths/min (adj OR 6.50; 95%CI 2.36-17.87), fever ≥38° (adj OR 3.05; 95%CI 1.53-6.08) and the presence of gastroenteric symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea). A delay (> 7 days) between the appearance of the initial lung symptoms (cough and dyspnea) and the admission to the emergency department was also related to a higher probability of receiving a positive imaging report (OR 4.99; 95%CI 2,02-12,34). CONCLUSIONS: in order to reorganize the management of COVID-19 patients in Italy, in view of the risk of a second wave of epidemic or of local outbreaks, it would be desirable to relocate the triage, and possibly the patient's care, from hospital to home. In this scenario it is important to identify all symptoms and signs associated with COVID-19 pneumonia that would facilitate the decision-making process of GPs leading to patients hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
6.
Physiol Rep ; 9(3): e14715, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059985

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Current knowledge on the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in COVID-19 remains limited to small series and registry data. In the present retrospective monocentric study, we report on our experience, our basic principles, and our results in establishing and managing ECMO in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) related to COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the ICU of the Geneva University Hospitals and supported by VV-ECMO from March 14 to May 31. The VV-ECMO implementation criteria were defined according to an institutional algorithm validated by the local crisis unit and the Swiss Society of Intensive Care Medicine. RESULTS: Out of 137 ARDS patients admitted to our ICU, 10 patients (age 57 ± 4 years, BMI 31.5 ± 5 kg/m2 , and SAPS II score 56 ± 3) were put on VV-ECMO. The mean duration of mechanical ventilation before ECMO and mean time under ECMO were 7 ± 3 days and 19 ± 11 days, respectively. The ICU and hospital length of stay were 26 ± 11 and 35 ± 10 days, respectively. The survival rate for patients on ECMO was 40%. The comparative analysis between survivors and non-survivors highlighted that survivors had a significantly shorter mechanical ventilation duration before ECMO (4 ± 2 days vs. 9 ± 2 days, p = 0.01). All the patients who had more than 150 h of mechanical ventilation before the application of ECMO ultimately died. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that VV-ECMO can be safely utilized in appropriately selected COVID-19 patients with refractory hypoxemia. The main information for clinicians is that late VV-ECMO therapy (i.e., beyond the seventh day of mechanical ventilation) seems futile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , COVID-19/pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Survival Analysis , Time Factors
7.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(5): 995-998, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057247

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we described 2 cases with COVID-19 pneumonia, who developed pulmonary emphysema, bullae, and pneumothorax during therapy. In a 48-year-old man with mechanical ventilation, parts of ground glass opacities and consolidations transformed into emphysema and giant bulla, and bilateral pneumothorax were also observed. In a 35-year-old man, localized emphysema and pulmonary bullae were seen in subpleural area in bilateral upper lobes, where no previous lesions were presented. In conclusion, pulmonary emphysema, bullae, and pneumothorax could be complications of COVID-19. On one hand, surgical emphysema in ventilated COVID-19 patients was observed as in SARS patients. On the other hand, more serious destruction of lung parenchyma was found in COVID-19 patients.

8.
Neurol Sci ; 42(5): 1643-1648, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053009

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of cranial multineuritis after severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus-2. METHODS: Patients' data were obtained from medical records of the clinical chart of dell'Angelo Hospital, Venice, Italy. RESULTS: The first patient is a 42-year-old male patient who developed, 10 days after the resolution of coronavirus-2 pneumonia and intensive care unit hospitalization with hyperactive delirium, a cranial multineuritis with asymmetric distribution (bilateral hypoglossus involvement and right Claude Bernard Horner syndrome). No albumin-cytologic dissociation was found in cerebrospinal fluid; severe bilateral denervation was detected in hypoglossus nerve, with normal EMG of other cranial muscles, blink reflex, and cerebral magnetic resonance with gadolinium. He presented a striking improvement after intravenous human immunoglobulin therapy. The second case is a 67-year-old male patient who developed a cranial neuritis (left hypoglossus paresis), with dyslalia and deglutition difficulties. He had cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities (albumin-cytologic dissociation), no involvement of ninth and 10th cranial nerves, diffuse hyporeflexia, and brachial diparesis. DISCUSSION: Cranial neuritis is a possible neurological manifestation of coronavirus-2 pneumonia. Etiology is not clear: it is possible a direct injury of the nervous structures by the virus through olfactory nasopharyngeal terminations. However, the presence of albumin-cytological dissociation in one patient, the sparing of the sense of smell, and the response to human immunoglobulin therapy suggests an immune-mediated genesis of the disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Neuritis , Adult , Aged , Cranial Nerve Diseases/complications , Humans , Italy , Male , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cureus ; 12(12): e12402, 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049190

ABSTRACT

A 78-year-old man fell from a ladder and suffered a right distal tibial fracture. On the seventh day after injury, he developed a low-grade fever and was isolated in a private room. Polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19 was positive (day 4 from the day of saliva sampling). On day 5, he required 1 liter per minute of oxygen and dexamethasone therapy was initiated. On day 6, his D-dimer level was 25.0 µg/mL, and continuous infusion of heparin was initiated. From day 7, he was administered remdesivir. On day 9, his oxygenation suddenly showed a remarkable deterioration. He received a tentative diagnosis of COVID-19-induced pneumonia accompanied by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and underwent urgent tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. He also received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and was also administered glycyrrhizin. His oxygenation gradually improved and extubation was performed on day 15. Following rehabilitation, he did not require oxygen on day 19. On day 20, his D-dimer level was found to be increased and enhanced computed tomography revealed pulmonary embolism. He was prescribed a direct oral anticoagulant. On day 28 he was transferred to a general ward for rehabilitation. These unspecific antiviral therapies and immune modulation therapy may be useful treatments for the main cause of ARDS, which may explain the favorable outcome that was obtained in the present case.

10.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(1): 21-25, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical observations demonstrated that COVID-19 related pneumonia is often accompanied by hematological and coagulation abnormalities including lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and prolonged prothrombin time. The evaluation of laboratory findings including coagulation and inflammation parameters may represent a promising approach for early determination of COVID-19 severity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In the present study, we aimed to identify laboratory parameters present upon admission in patients with COVID-19 related viral pneumonia and associated with an early in-hospital development of refractory respiratory failure or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring treatment in an intensive care unit. We investigated differences in the C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen levels, prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) between COVID-19 patients who had been transferred to an ICU within two weeks after admission (n = 82) and COVID-19 patients with stable course of the disease (n = 74). RESULTS: Multiple comparisons showed statistically significantly prolonged PT on admission in ICU-transferred COVID-19 patients (14.15 sec, median, CI 95% 13.4 ÷ 14.9) compared to the stable COVID-19 patients (13.25 sec, median, CI 95% 12.9 ÷ 13.6) (p-value = .0005). CRP levels upon admission were statistically significantly higher in ICU-transferred COVID-19 patients (132 mg/L, median, CI95% 113 ÷ 159) compared to the stable COVID-19 patients (51 mg/L, median, CI95% 33 ÷ 72) (p-value < .0001). On-admission fibrinogen and INR levels did not statistically significantly differ between ICU-transferred COVID-19 patients and stable COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: We suggest that CRP and PT levels present on admission in COVID-19 patients may be used as early prognostic markers of severe pneumonia requiring transfer to ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , International Normalized Ratio , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prothrombin Time , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(2): 561-566.e4, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunomodulants have been proposed to mitigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-induced cytokine storm, which drives acute respiratory distress syndrome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine efficacy and safety of the association of IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra plus methylprednisolone in severe COVID-19 pneumonia with hyperinflammation. METHODS: A secondary analysis of prospective observational cohort studies was carried out at an Italian tertiary health care facility. COVID-19 patients consecutively hospitalized (February 25, 2020, to March 30, 2020) with hyperinflammation (ferritin ≥1000 ng/mL and/or C-reactive protein >10 mg/dL) and respiratory failure (oxygen therapy from 0.4 FiO2 Venturi mask to invasive mechanical ventilation) were evaluated to investigate the effect of high-dose anakinra plus methylprednisolone on survival. Patients were followed from study inclusion to day 28 or death. Crude and adjusted (sex, age, baseline PaO2:FiO2 ratio, Charlson index, baseline mechanical ventilation, hospitalization to inclusion lapse) risks were calculated (Cox proportional regression model). RESULTS: A total of 120 COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammation (median age, 62 years; 80.0% males; median PaO2:FiO2 ratio, 151; 32.5% on mechanical ventilation) were evaluated. Of these, 65 were treated with anakinra and methylprednisolone and 55 were untreated historical controls. At 28 days, mortality was 13.9% in treated patients and 35.6% in controls (Kaplan-Meier plots, P = .005). Unadjusted and adjusted risk of death was significantly lower for treated patients compared with controls (hazard ratio, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.15-0.74, P = .007, and HR, 0.18, 95% CI, 0.07-0.50, P = .001, respectively). No significant differences in bloodstream infections or laboratory alterations were registered. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with anakinra plus methylprednisolone may be a valid therapeutic option in COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammation and respiratory failure, also on mechanical ventilation. Randomized controlled trials including the use of either agent alone are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
12.
J Cardiovasc Echogr ; 30(2): 110-112, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796822

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease with a high mortality rate due to severe acute respiratory syndrome. A 57-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with fever, cough, atypical chest pain, and dyspnea. She remained in the ED for about 48 h while waiting for the result of the COVID-19 oropharyngeal swab. Once she tested positive, she was hospitalized in the pneumological department with a diagnosis of pneumonia based on a chest X-ray and biochemical tests. Although azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine were promptly administered, she had a worsening of dyspnea even with a high-flow oxygen mask. D-dimer was increased, and a computed tomography scan with pulmonary and leg angiogram was positive for bilateral pulmonary embolism, deep-venous thrombosis, and multiple consolidated opacities in the lung parenchyma. This case highlights the fact that, in a pandemic situation, there is a potentially fatal risk of overlooking an alternative diagnosis in a COVID-19 patient who is generally considered as suffering only from pneumonia.

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