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Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104872, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318931


The rapidly progressing of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global concern. This meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of current option of therapies for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS) besides COVID-19, in an attempt to identify promising therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and WANFANG DATA for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort, and retrospective cohort studies that evaluated therapies (hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapy, and ribavirin-based therapy, etc.) for SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. The primary outcomes were mortality, virological eradication and clinical improvement, and secondary outcomes were improvement of symptoms and chest radiography results, incidence of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), utilization of mechanical ventilation, and adverse events (AEs). Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models, and the quality of evidence was appraised using GRADEpro. Eighteen articles (5 RCTs, 2 prospective cohort studies, and 11 retrospective cohort studies) involving 4,941 patients were included. Compared with control treatment, anti-coronary virus interventions significantly reduced mortality (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.96; I2 = 81.3%), remarkably ameliorate clinical improvement (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.19) and radiographical improvement (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.11-2.36, I2 = 11.0 %), without manifesting clear effect on virological eradication, incidence of ARDS, intubation, and AEs. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the combination of ribavirin and corticosteroids remarkably decreased mortality (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.68). The lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination showed superior virological eradication and radiographical improvement with reduced rate of ARDS. Likewise, hydroxychloroquine improved radiographical result. For safety, ribavirin could induce more bradycardia, anemia and transaminitis. Meanwhile, hydroxychloroquine could increase AEs rate especially diarrhea. Overall, the quality of evidence on most outcomes were very low. In conclusion, although we could not draw a clear conclusion for the recommendation of potential therapies for COVID-19 considering the very low quality of evidence and wide heterogeneity of interventions and indications, our results may help clinicians to comprehensively understand the advantages and drawbacks of each anti-coronavirus agents on efficacy and safety profiles. Lopinavir/ritonavir combinations might observe better virological eradication capability than other anti-coronavirus agents. Conversely, ribavirin might cause more safety concerns especially bradycardia. Thus, large RCTs objectively assessing the efficacy of antiviral therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infections should be conducted with high priority.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
CNS Spectr ; 26(2): 164, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228225


BACKGROUND: Deutetrabenazine is approved to treat tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults and is titrated weekly by 6 mg/day, from 12 to 48 mg/day, based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. This analysis compared the safety of deutetrabenazine during titration versus maintenance. METHODS: Safety was assessed during titration versus maintenance using integrated data from two 12-week placebo-controlled studies (ARM-TD and AIM-TD) and the open-label extension study. Rates were compared for overall and serious adverse events (AEs), AEs leading to discontinuation, treatment-related AEs, common AEs (≥4%), and specific AEs (parkinsonism, suicidal ideation, akathisia, restlessness). RESULTS: In titration versus maintenance, AE rates with placebo (n=130) were: overall, 43.1% vs 25.4%; serious, 4.6% vs 2.3%; leading to discontinuation, 3.1% vs 0; treatment-related, 26.9% vs 10.0%. For placebo, common AEs during titration were somnolence, headache, nausea, fatigue, and dry mouth; none occurred during maintenance. In titration versus maintenance, AE rates in fixed-dose deutetrabenazine 12-36 mg (n=216) were: overall, 33.3-38.9% vs 22.2-29.2%; serious, 2.8-6.9% vs 0-1.4%; leading to discontinuation, 2.8-5.6% vs 0; treatment-related, 8.3-16.7% vs 8.3-13.9%. For fixed-dose deutetrabenazine, common AEs during titration were headache, diarrhea, nasopharyngitis, depression, hypertension, and dry mouth; headache was the only common AE during maintenance. In titration versus maintenance, AE rates with flexible-dose deutetrabenazine (n=168) were: overall, 49.4% vs 32.7%; serious, 3.6% vs 2.4%; leading to discontinuation, 2.4% vs 0.6%. For flexible-dose deutetrabenazine, the only common AE during titration was somnolence; none occurred during maintenance. Rates of parkinsonism, suicidal ideation, akathisia, and restlessness were low and comparable in titration and maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: Deutetrabenazine was well-tolerated, with AE rates similar to placebo during both phases; AE rates were higher during titration and decreased during maintenance. FUNDING: Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel.

Tardive Dyskinesia/drug therapy , Tetrabenazine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Tetrabenazine/adverse effects , Tetrabenazine/therapeutic use
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 578465, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886181


Older people living in nursing homes (NHs) are particularly vulnerable in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, due to the high prevalence of chronic diseases and disabilities (e.g., dementia). The phenomenon of adverse events (AEs), intended as any harm or injury resulting from medical care or to the failure to provide care, has not yet been investigated in NHs during the pandemic. We performed a national survey on 3,292 NHs, either public or providing services both privately and within the national health system, out of the 3,417 NHs covering the whole Italian territory. An online questionnaire was addressed to the directors of each facility between March 24 and April 27, 2020. The list of NHs was provided by the Dementia Observatory, an online map of Italian services for people with dementia, which was one of the objectives of the implementation of the Italian National Dementia Plan. About 26% of residents in the Italian NHs for older people listed within the Dementia Observatory site had dementia. The objective of our study was to report the frequency of AEs that occurred during the months when SARS-CoV-2 spreading rate was at its highest in the Italian NHs and to identify which conditions and attributes were most associated with the occurrence of AEs by means of multivariate regression logistic analysis. Data are referred to 1,356 NHs that participated in the survey. The overall response rate was 41.2% over a time-period of six weeks (from March 24 to May 5). About one third of the facilities (444 out of 1,334) (33.3%) reported at least 1 adverse event, with a total of 2,000 events. Among the included NHs, having a bed capacity higher than the median of 60 beds (OR=1.57, CI95% 1.17-2.09; p=0.002), an observed increased in the use of psychiatric drugs (OR=1.80, CI95% 1.05-3.07; p=0.032), adopting physical restraint measures (OR=1.97, CI95% 1.47-2.64; p<0.001), residents hospitalized due to flu-like symptoms (OR =1.73, CI95% 1.28-2.32; p<0.001), and being located in specific geographic areas (OR=3.59, CI95% 1.81-7.08; OR = 2.90, CI95% 1.45-5.81 and OR = 4.02, CI05% 2.01-8.04 for, respectively, North-West, North-East and Centre vs South, p<0.001) were all factors positively associated to the occurrence of adverse events in the facility. Future recommendations for the management and care of residents in NHs during the COVID-19 pandemic should include specific statements for the most vulnerable populations, such as people with dementia.