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1.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100374, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838950

ABSTRACT

The Ministry of AYUSH recommended the use of a decoction of the mixture of Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cinnamomum verum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Vitis vinifera as a preventive measure by boosting the immunity against the severity of infection caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19). The present study aimed to identify the probable modulated pathways by the combined action of AYUSH recommended herbal tea and golden milk formulation as an immune booster against COVID-19. Reported phytoconstituents of all the medicinal plants were retrieved from the ChEBI database, and their targets were predicted using DIGEP-Pred. STRING database and Cytoscape were used to predict the protein-protein interaction and construct the network, respectively. Likewise, MolSoft and admet SAR2.0 were used to predict the druglikeness score and ADMET profile of phytoconstituents. The study identified the modulation of HIF-1, p53, PI3K-Akt, MAPK, cAMP, Ras, Wnt, NF-kappa B, IL-17, TNF, and cGMP-PKG signaling pathways to boost the immune system. Further, multiple pathways were also identified which are involved in the regulation of pathogenesis of the multiple infections and non-infectious diseases due to the lower immune system. Results indicated that the recommended herbal formulation not only modulated the pathways involved in boosting the immunity but also modulated the multiple pathways that are contributing to the progression of multiple disease pathogenesis which would add the beneficial effect in the co-morbid patients of hypertension and diabetes. The study provides the scientific documentation of the role of the Ayurvedic formulation to combat COVID-19.

2.
J Virol ; 95(16): e0018721, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486048

ABSTRACT

Subversion of the host cell cycle to facilitate viral replication is a common feature of coronavirus infections. Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein can modulate the host cell cycle, but the mechanistic details remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein on the cell cycle and the influence on viral replication. Results indicated that PEDV N induced Vero E6 cell cycle arrest at S-phase, which promoted viral replication (P < 0.05). S-phase arrest was dependent on the N protein nuclear localization signal S71NWHFYYLGTGPHADLRYRT90 and the interaction between N protein and p53. In the nucleus, the binding of N protein to p53 maintained consistently high-level expression of p53, which activated the p53-DREAM pathway. The key domain of the N protein interacting with p53 was revealed to be S171RGNSQNRGNNQGRGASQNRGGNN194 (NS171-N194), in which G183RG185 are core residues. NS171-N194 and G183RG185 were essential for N-induced S-phase arrest. Moreover, small molecular drugs targeting the NS171-N194 domain of the PEDV N protein were screened through molecular docking. Hyperoside could antagonize N protein-induced S-phase arrest by interfering with interaction between N protein and p53 and inhibit viral replication (P < 0.05). The above-described experiments were also validated in porcine intestinal cells, and data were in line with results in Vero E6 cells. Therefore, these results reveal the PEDV N protein interacts with p53 to activate the p53-DREAM pathway, and subsequently induces S-phase arrest to create a favorable environment for virus replication. These findings provide new insight into the PEDV-host interaction and the design of novel antiviral strategies against PEDV. IMPORTANCE Many viruses subvert the host cell cycle to create a cellular environment that promotes viral growth. PEDV, an emerging and reemerging coronavirus, has led to substantial economic loss in the global swine industry. Our study is the first to demonstrate that PEDV N-induced cell cycle arrest during the S-phase promotes viral replication. We identified a novel mechanism of PEDV N-induced S-phase arrest, where the binding of PEDV N protein to p53 maintains consistently high levels of p53 expression in the nucleus to mediate S-phase arrest by activating the p53-DREAM pathway. Furthermore, a small molecular compound, hyperoside, targeted the PEDV N protein, interfering with the interaction between the N protein and p53 and, importantly, inhibited PEDV replication by antagonizing cell cycle arrest. This study reveals a new mechanism of PEDV-host interaction and also provides a novel antiviral strategy for PEDV. These data provide a foundation for further research into coronavirus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nuclear Localization Signals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 553: 25-29, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147359

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infections with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A sex-bias has been observed, with increased susceptibility and mortality in male compared to female patients. The gene for the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is located on the X chromosome. We previously generated TP53 mutant pigs that exhibit a sex-specific patho-phenotype due to altered regulation of numerous X chromosome genes. In this study, we explored the effect of p53 deficiency on ACE2 expression in pigs. First, we identified the p53 binding site in the ACE2 promoter and could show its regulatory effect on ACE2 expression by luciferase assay in porcine primary kidney fibroblast cells. Later, quantitative PCR and western blot showed tissue- and gender-specific expression changes of ACE2 and its truncated isoform in p53-deficient pigs. We believe these findings will broaden the knowledge on ACE2 regulation and COVID-19 susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Organ Specificity , Sex Characteristics , Sus scrofa/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fibroblasts , Gene Deletion , Male , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/deficiency , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , X Chromosome/genetics
4.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 33(2): 149-158, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066437

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Virtually all viruses have evolved molecular instruments to circumvent cell mechanisms that may hamper their replication, dissemination, or persistence. Among these is p53, a key gatekeeper for cell division and survival that also regulates innate immune responses. This review summarizes the strategies used by different viruses and discusses the mechanisms deployed by SARS-CoV to target p53 activities. RECENT FINDINGS: We propose a typology for the strategies used by different viruses to address p53 functions: hit and run (e.g. IAV, ZIKV), hide and seek (e.g. HIV1), kidnap and exploit (e.g. EBV, HSV1), dominate and suppress (e.g. HR HPV). We discuss the mechanisms by which SARS nsp3 protein targets p53 for degradation and we speculate on the significance for Covid-19 pathogenesis and risk of cancer. SUMMARY: p53 may operate as an intracellular antiviral defense mechanism. To circumvent it, SARS viruses adopt a kidnap and exploit strategy also shared by several viruses with transforming potential. This raises the question of whether SARS infections may make cells permissive to oncogenic DNA damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Humans
5.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 33(2): 149-158, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012871

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Virtually all viruses have evolved molecular instruments to circumvent cell mechanisms that may hamper their replication, dissemination, or persistence. Among these is p53, a key gatekeeper for cell division and survival that also regulates innate immune responses. This review summarizes the strategies used by different viruses and discusses the mechanisms deployed by SARS-CoV to target p53 activities. RECENT FINDINGS: We propose a typology for the strategies used by different viruses to address p53 functions: hit and run (e.g. IAV, ZIKV), hide and seek (e.g. HIV1), kidnap and exploit (e.g. EBV, HSV1), dominate and suppress (e.g. HR HPV). We discuss the mechanisms by which SARS nsp3 protein targets p53 for degradation and we speculate on the significance for Covid-19 pathogenesis and risk of cancer. SUMMARY: p53 may operate as an intracellular antiviral defense mechanism. To circumvent it, SARS viruses adopt a kidnap and exploit strategy also shared by several viruses with transforming potential. This raises the question of whether SARS infections may make cells permissive to oncogenic DNA damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Humans
6.
Gene Rep ; 20: 100765, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626267

ABSTRACT

mTOR is a serine-threonine kinase and participates in cell proliferation, cellular metabolism was found to be activated during Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection and replication. During viral replication mTOR, downstream target genes such as ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta 1 (S6K1) and Eukaryotic translational initiation factor 4E-binding protein1 (4-E-BP1) are activated result in ribosome biosynthesis and efficient protein synthesis. In plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), mTOR plays a key role in the association of adapter protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-7) leading to the transcriptional activation of type-I interferon (IFN) genes. Viruses also inactivate the interferon α (IFN-α) pathway by impairing the IRF-7 mediated activation of IFN-α gene transcription. Thus, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors can help in suppressing the early stages of viral infection and replication. Interestingly, the key tumor-suppressor p53 protein will undergo degradation by virus-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase Ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) leading to an increased viral survival in host cells. Thus, the mTOR inhibitors and p53 activators or microRNAs that functions as p53 and can target 3'-UTR of mTOR and RPS6KB1 might effectively inhibit viral replication in the human respiratory tract and lung cells.

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