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1.
Curr Med Chem ; 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607841

ABSTRACT

There is a new public health crisis threatening the world with the emergence and spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was later named as a novel Coronavirus disease or COVID-19. It was then declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019. As of February 5, 2021, 103 million laboratory-confirmed cases and nearly 2.3 million deaths have been reported globally. The number of death tolls continue to rise, and a large number of countries have been forced to implement social distancing and lockdown. As per literature, Coronavirus is transmitted human to human or human to animal via airborne droplets. Coronavirus enters the human cell through membrane ACE-2 exopeptidase receptor. WHO, ECDC, and ICMR advised to avoid public places and close contact with infected persons and pet animals. To date, there is no evidence of any effective treatment for COVID-19. The main therapies being used to treat the disease are antiviral drugs, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, and respiratory therapy. Although several therapies have been proposed, quarantine is the only intervention that appears to be effective in decreasing the contagion rate. We conducted a literature review of publicly available information to summarize knowledge about the pathogen and the current epidemic. In the present literature review, the causative agents of the pandemic, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis techniques are discussed. Further, currently used treatment and prevention strategies along with vaccine trials and computational tools are all described in detail.

2.
J Immunotoxicol ; 18(1): 23-29, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593522

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 of 2019 (COVID-19) causes a pandemic that has been diagnosed in more than 70 million people worldwide. Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms include coughing, fever, myalgia, shortness of breath, and acute inflammatory lung injury (ALI). In contrast, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure occur in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19. ARDS is mediated, at least in part, by a dysregulated inflammatory response due to excessive levels of circulating cytokines, a condition known as the "cytokine-storm syndrome." Currently, there are FDA-approved therapies that attenuate the dysregulated inflammation that occurs in COVID-19 patients, such as dexamethasone or other corticosteroids and IL-6 inhibitors, including sarilumab, tocilizumab, and siltuximab. However, the efficacy of these treatments have been shown to be inconsistent. Compounds that activate the vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, such as the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, GTS-21, attenuate ARDS/inflammatory lung injury by decreasing the extracellular levels of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the airways and the circulation. It is possible that HMGB1 may be an important mediator of the "cytokine-storm syndrome." Notably, high plasma levels of HMGB1 have been reported in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19, and there is a significant negative correlation between HMGB1 plasma levels and clinical outcomes. Nicotine can activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, which attenuates the up-regulation and the excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Therefore, we hypothesize that low molecular weight compounds that activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, such as nicotine or GTS-21, may represent a potential therapeutic approach to attenuate the dysregulated inflammatory responses in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Benzylidene Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nicotine/metabolism , Pyridines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Humans , Pandemics , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/agonists
3.
Turk J Med Sci ; 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580296

ABSTRACT

Background-aim: As the number of case reports related to the new type of coronavirus (Covid-19) increases, knowledge of and experience with the virus and its complications also increase. Pleural complications are one relevant issue. We aimed in this study to analyse pleural complications, such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and empyema, in patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of Covid-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The files of patients who have pleural complications of Covid-19 pneumonia and were consulted about thoracic surgery between March 2020 and December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The data of the patients were analyzed according to age, gender, length of stay, treatment method for pleural complications, mortality, severity of covid-19 pneumonia, tube thoracostomy duration and presence of a mechanical ventilator. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. There were 11 female (35.5%) and 20 male (65.5%) patients. The most common complication was pneumothorax in 20 patients (65%). The median duration of hospitalization was 22 days and the mortality rate was 71%. Mortality was significantly higher in patients on mechanical ventilation (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The mortality rate is very high in patients with pleural complications of Covid-19 pneumonia. Pneumothorax is a fatal complication in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574052

ABSTRACT

Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) biologicals, Dexamethasone and rIL-7 are of considerable interest in treating COVID-19 patients who are in danger of, or have become, seriously ill. Yet reducing sepsis mortality by lowering circulating levels of TNF lost favour when positive endpoints in earlier simplistic models could not be reproduced in well-conducted human trials. Newer information with anti-TNF biologicals has encouraged reintroducing this concept for treating COVID-19. Viral models have had encouraging outcomes, as have the effects of anti-TNF biologicals on community-acquired COVID-19 during their long-term use to treat chronic inflammatory states. The positive outcome of a large scale trial of dexamethasone, and its higher potency late in the disease, harmonises well with its capacity to enhance levels of IL-7Rα, the receptor for IL-7, a cytokine that enhances lymphocyte development and is increased during the cytokine storm. Lymphoid germinal centres required for antibody-based immunity can be harmed by TNF, and restored by reducing TNF. Thus the IL-7- enhancing activity of dexamethasone may explain its higher potency when lymphocytes are depleted later in the infection, while employing anti-TNF, for several reasons, is much more logical earlier in the infection. This implies dexamethasone could prove to be synergistic with rIL-7, currently being trialed as a COVID-19 therapeutic. The principles behind these COVID-19 therapies are consistent with the observed chronic hypoxia through reduced mitochondrial function, and also the increased severity of this disease in ApoE4-positive individuals. Many of the debilitating persistent aspects of this disease are predictably susceptible to treatment with perispinal etanercept, since they have cerebral origins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Interleukin-17/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 123, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571835

ABSTRACT

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a member of the NLR family of inherent immune cell sensors. The NLRP3 inflammasome can detect tissue damage and pathogen invasion through innate immune cell sensor components commonly known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs promote activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, thus increasing the transcription of genes encoding proteins related to the NLRP3 inflammasome. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a complex with multiple components, including an NAIP, CIITA, HET-E, and TP1 (NACHT) domain; apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC); and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. After ischemic stroke, the NLRP3 inflammasome can produce numerous proinflammatory cytokines, mediating nerve cell dysfunction and brain edema and ultimately leading to nerve cell death once activated. Ischemic stroke is a disease with high rates of mortality and disability worldwide and is being observed in increasingly younger populations. To date, there are no clearly effective therapeutic strategies for the clinical treatment of ischemic stroke. Understanding the NLRP3 inflammasome may provide novel ideas and approaches because targeting of upstream and downstream molecules in the NLRP3 pathway shows promise for ischemic stroke therapy. In this manuscript, we summarize the existing evidence regarding the composition and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the molecules involved in inflammatory pathways, and corresponding drugs or molecules that exert effects after cerebral ischemia. This evidence may provide possible targets or new strategies for ischemic stroke therapy.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2073-2082, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses an urgent need for the development of effective therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We first tested SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell (CοV-2-ST) immunity and expansion in unexposed donors, COVID-19-infected individuals (convalescent), asymptomatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive subjects, vaccinated individuals, non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalized patients, and ICU patients who either recovered and were discharged (ICU recovered) or had a prolonged stay and/or died (ICU critical). CoV-2-STs were generated from all types of donors and underwent phenotypic and functional assessment. RESULTS: We demonstrate causal relationship between the expansion of endogenous CoV-2-STs and the disease outcome; insufficient expansion of circulating CoV-2-STs identified hospitalized patients at high risk for an adverse outcome. CoV-2-STs with a similarly functional and non-alloreactive, albeit highly cytotoxic, profile against SARS-CoV-2 could be expanded from both convalescent and vaccinated donors generating clinical-scale, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell products with functional activity against both the unmutated virus and its B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. In contrast, critical COVID-19 patient-originating CoV-2-STs failed to expand, recapitulating the in vivo failure of CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity to control the infection. CoV-2-STs generated from asymptomatic PCR-positive individuals presented only weak responses, whereas their counterparts originating from exposed to other seasonal coronaviruses subjects failed to kill the virus, thus disempowering the hypothesis of protective cross-immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we provide evidence on risk stratification of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and the feasibility of generating powerful CoV-2-ST products from both convalescent and vaccinated donors as an "off-the shelf" T-cell immunotherapy for high-risk patients.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4082-e4089, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leronlimab, a monoclonal antibody blocker of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 originally developed to treat human immunodeficiency virus infection, was administered as an open-label compassionate-use therapeutic for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Twenty-three hospitalized severe/critical COVID-19 patients received 700 mg leronlimab subcutaneously, repeated after 7 days in 17 of 23 patients still hospitalized. Eighteen of 23 received other experimental treatments, including convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, steroids, and/or tocilizumab. Five of 23 received leronlimab after blinded, placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir, sarilumab, selinexor, or tocilizumab. Outcomes and results were extracted from medical records. RESULTS: Mean age was 69.5 ±â€…14.9 years; 20 had significant comorbidities. At baseline, 22 were receiving supplemental oxygen (3 high flow, 7 mechanical ventilation). Blood showed markedly elevated inflammatory markers (ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein) and an elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. By day 30 after initial dosing, 17 were recovered, 2 were still hospitalized, and 4 had died. Of the 7 intubated at baseline, 4 were fully recovered off oxygen, 2 were still hospitalized, and 1 had died. CONCLUSIONS: Leronlimab appeared safe and well tolerated. The high recovery rate suggested benefit, and those with lower inflammatory markers had better outcomes. Some, but not all, patients appeared to have dramatic clinical responses, indicating that unknown factors may determine responsiveness to leronlimab. Routine inflammatory and cell prognostic markers did not markedly change immediately after treatment, although interleukin-6 tended to fall. In some persons, C-reactive protein clearly dropped only after the second leronlimab dose, suggesting that a higher loading dose might be more effective. Future controlled trials will be informative.

8.
Mediterr J Rheumatol ; 31(Suppl 2): 253-256, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554048

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation threatens not only the health of populations, but also the coherence and function of health care systems. Patients with systemic inflammatory disorders feel the overwhelming strain of COVID-19, since their disease, administered treatments, and associated comorbidities may all contribute to increased vulnerability to infection. At the same time, monitoring the activity status of rheumatic diseases and adjusting the treatments where appropriate, are important for preventing flares and other complications, which could pose additional health risks. Considering the urgent need to maintain physical distancing and self-quarantine as much as possible, we herein discuss the challenges and possible solutions pertaining to the assessment and monitoring of patients with systemic inflammatory diseases. We also discuss issues related to the prescription and supply of anti-rheumatic drugs, as well as opportunities provided by the use of technological and wireless tools. From an optimistic viewpoint, the end of this pandemic may leave us with an important legacy in utilising and implementing e-health solutions that may both improve the clinical care standards for patients with systemic inflammatory diseases and also reduce the burden placed on healthcare systems.

9.
Mediterr J Rheumatol ; 31(Suppl 2): 295-297, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1539055

ABSTRACT

Patients with various inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, liver, kidneys, and musculoskeletal system-connective tissues, often undergo different anti-inflammatory therapies to maintain remission and avoid serious and/or life-threatening complications. Available data so far show an increased rate of hospitalization in such patients during the COVID19 pandemic. The key points of our position statement are summarized below: Patients with inflammatory diseases who receive moderate or high-risk anti-inflammatory therapies might be considered as an increased risk group for severe COVID-19 and appropriate measures should be taken in order to protect them. Initiation of immuno-suppressive/modulatory therapies should be done with caution, taking into account the severity of the underlying inflammatory disease, the type of anti-inflammatory treatment, and the risk of exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Discontinuation of anti-inflammatory therapies in patients who have not been exposed to or infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus is not recommended. In patients who become infected with SARS-CoV-2, anti-inflammatory therapies should be discontinued, except in special cases. Specialty physicians should actively participate in the Interdisciplinary Teams caring for patients with inflammatory diseases during COVID19 infection.

10.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 293-303, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Associations between pre-infection prescription for glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes have been postulated but only investigated in small studies and limited to a few agents. We investigated whether there are associations between prescription of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs and risk of COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a nationwide observational cohort study done with data from the National Diabetes Audit for people with type 2 diabetes and registered with a general practice in England since 2003. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of COVID-19-related mortality in people prescribed each class of glucose-lowering drug, with covariate adjustment with a propensity score to address confounding by demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors. FINDINGS: Among the 2 851 465 people with type 2 diabetes included in our analyses, 13 479 (0·5%) COVID-19-related deaths occurred during the study period (Feb 16 to Aug 31, 2020), corresponding to a rate of 8·9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 8·7-9·0). The adjusted HR associated with recorded versus no recorded prescription was 0·77 (95% CI 0·73-0·81) for metformin and 1·42 (1·35-1·49) for insulin. Adjusted HRs for prescription of other individual classes of glucose-lowering treatment were as follows: 0·75 (0·48-1·17) for meglitinides, 0·82 (0·74-0·91) for SGLT2 inhibitors, 0·94 (0·82-1·07) for thiazolidinediones, 0·94 (0·89-0·99) for sulfonylureas, 0·94 (0·83-1·07) for GLP-1 receptor agonists, 1·07 (1·01-1·13) for DPP-4 inhibitors, and 1·26 (0·76-2·09) for α-glucosidase inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence of associations between prescription of some glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality, although the differences in risk are small and these findings are likely to be due to confounding by indication, in view of the use of different drug classes at different stages of type 2 diabetes disease progression. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no clear indication to change prescribing of glucose-lowering drugs in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
11.
Front Neurol ; 12: 676095, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526775

ABSTRACT

Treatment of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has been tailored after observational studies and data obtained from clinical trials in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS) patients. There are an increasing number of new therapeutic agents for AOMS, and many will be formally studied for use also in POMS. However, there are important efficacy and safety concerns regarding the use of these therapies in children and young adults. This review will discuss the current state of the art of POMS therapy and will focus on the newer therapies (oral and infusion disease-modifying drugs) and on those still currently under investigation.

12.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526820

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to evaluate the impact of anti-cytokine therapies (AT) in kidney transplant recipients requiring hospitalization due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This is an observational retrospective study, which included patients from March to May 2020. An inverse probability of treatment weighting from a propensity score to receive AT was used in all statistical analyses, and we applied a bootstrap procedure in order to calculate an estimation of the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of odds ratio (OR). outcomes were measured using an ordinal scale determination (OSD). A total of 33 kidney recipients required hospitalization and 54% of them received at least one AT, mainly tocilizumab (42%), followed by anakinra (12%). There was no statistical effect in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, respiratory secondary infections (35% vs. 7%) or mortality (16% vs. 13%) comparing patients that received AT with those who did not. Nevertheless, patients who received AT presented better outcomes during hospitalization in terms of OSD ≥5 ((OR 0.31; 2.5th, 97.5th percentiles (0.10; 0.72)). These analyses indicate, as a plausible hypothesis, that the use of AT in kidney transplant recipients presenting with COVID-19 could be beneficial, even though multicenter randomized control trials using these therapies in transplanted patients are needed.

13.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e891, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501238

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Multimodal treatment is recognized as the optimal paradigm for the management of chronic pain (CP). Careful balance between pharmacological and physical/psychological approaches is thus desirable but can be easily disrupted. Objectives: This study aimed at exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pharmacological and physical/psychological treatments of CP. Methods: A Pan-Canadian cross-sectional web-based study was conducted between April 16th and May 31st 2020 among adults living with CP when the country was in the ascending slope of the first COVID-19 pandemic wave. Results: A total of 2864 participants shared their treatment experience (mean age: 49.7 years and women: 83.5%). Among medication users (n = 2533), 38.3% reported changes in their pharmacological pain treatment. The main reasons were as follows: (1) changes in pain symptoms, (2) lack of access to prescribers/cancellation of medical appointments, and (3) increased medication intake in compensation for stopping physical/psychological treatments because of the pandemic. Among participants who used physical/psychological pain management approaches before the pandemic (n = 2467), 68.3% had to modify their treatments or self-management strategies. Common reasons were lack of access to clinics/exercise facilities and the need to compensate for having to stop another type of physical/psychological treatment because of the pandemic-related public health safety measures. Conclusions: Our study underlines the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to pain relief, which is considered a fundamental human right. Results will help to justify resource allocation and inform the development of interventions to be better prepared for waves to come and future health crises.

14.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(9): 3425-3438, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494607

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We propose the use of in silico mathematical models to provide insights that optimize therapeutic interventions designed to effectively treat respiratory infection during a pandemic. A modelling and simulation framework is provided using SARS-CoV-2 as an example, considering applications for both treatment and prophylaxis. METHODS: A target cell-limited model was used to quantify the viral infection dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in a pooled population of 105 infected patients. Parameter estimates from the resulting model were used to simulate and compare the impact of various interventions against meaningful viral load endpoints. RESULTS: Robust parameter estimates were obtained for the basic reproduction number, viral release rate and infected-cell mortality from the infection model. These estimates were informed by the largest dataset currently available for SARS-CoV-2 viral time course. The utility of this model was demonstrated using simulations, which hypothetically introduced inhibitory or stimulatory drug mechanisms at various target sites within the viral life-cycle. We show that early intervention is crucial to achieving therapeutic benefit when monotherapy is administered. In contrast, combination regimens of two or three drugs may provide improved outcomes if treatment is initiated late. The latter is relevant to SARS-CoV-2, where the period between infection and symptom onset is relatively long. CONCLUSIONS: The use of in silico models can provide viral load predictions that can rationalize therapeutic strategies against an emerging viral pathogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load
15.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487802

ABSTRACT

This article reports the treatment outcomes of 167 COVID-19 positive patients who were treated with stand-alone Ayurvedic therapeutic intervention. The main outcomes are quick resolution of symptoms, no deterioration in any of the cases and safe treatment for patients with multiple comorbidities. There was no observed mortality. There were no adverse events due to the Ayurvedic medications. The treatment was undertaken in an out-patient setting and at a low cost. The efficacy and safety of the treatment, and the quick resolution of symptoms are demonstrated. This shows that if COVID-19 patients are treated with Ayurvedic medicines early in the course of COVID-SARS-2 infection, Ayurveda has the potential to prevent progression and deterioration of the disease, with decreased morbidity and mortality.

16.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(10): 2711-2716, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476129

ABSTRACT

Rare diseases occur globally at every stage of life. Patients, families and caregivers have many unmet medical and social needs leading to extraordinary psychosocial and economic burdens. Efforts to improve diagnostic capabilities and to develop therapies for an estimated 7000 rare diseases have met with considerable success. In the United States, a rare disease or condition is one affecting fewer than 200,000 people. In the European Union (EU), a rare disease is any disease affecting fewer than 5 people in 10,000 (less than 1 in 2000 people). However, there are no effective treatments for 90 per cent of rare diseases. There is a need to expand awareness, advocacy and outreach to everyone including those with low incomes, poor literacy, minority ethnic status and living in underserved and marginalised populations in urban and rural areas as well as in developing nations throughout the world. The acceptance of patients as research partners complements the increased research emphasis and major regulatory initiatives leading to expedited review and approval programmes for products for serious or life-threatening conditions. The pipeline of new therapies provides hope to untreated patients. Advances in medical bioinformatics, artificial intelligence and machine learning with access to big data continue to identify novel therapeutics for screening and evaluation. Advanced analytics can identify the patterns of disease occurrence, predict disease progression, identify patient response to treatments, establish optimal care guidelines and generate research hypotheses with the narrowly identified research patient populations.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Rare Diseases , Caregivers , Disease Progression , Humans , Rare Diseases/diagnosis , Rare Diseases/therapy , United States
17.
Curr Anesthesiol Rep ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474171

ABSTRACT

Purpose of Review: What are the latest enhanced recovery elements for cesarean delivery? Recent Findings: Enhanced recovery after cesarean delivery (ERAC) provides an evidenced-based system to improve maternal outcomes, functional recovery, maternal-infant bonding, and patient experience. Postsurgical recovery has evolved from a one-dimensional pain score to a holistic multidimensional approach emphasizing faster functional recovery. ERAC involves multidisciplinary efforts of the anesthesiologist, obstetrician, nursing, hospital, and patient. Components of ERAC include preoperative patient education, limited fasting, carbohydrate load, limiting opioids intra- and postoperatively, using scheduled non-opioid analgesics and supplementing with advanced therapies for women at higher risk for pain. ERAC protocols reduce opioid consumption, reduce length of stay, and improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Summary: Implementing ERAC standardized care will likely be the most important change you can make in your practice to improve outcomes, improve quality care, help address racial disparities, and minimize opioid exposure and potential for addiction.

18.
Ageing Res Rev ; 67: 101302, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a debilitating syndrome that significantly impacts individuals over the age of 65 years. There are currently no disease-modifying treatments for dementia. Impairment of nutrient sensing pathways has been implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia, and may offer a novel treatment approach for dementia. AIMS: This systematic review collates all available evidence for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapeutics that modify nutrient sensing in the context of preventing cognitive decline or improving cognition in ageing, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia populations. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched using key search terms focusing on available therapeutics such as 'metformin', 'GLP1', 'insulin' and the dementias including 'Alzheimer's disease' and 'Parkinson's disease'. Articles were screened using Covidence systematic review software (Veritas Health Innovation, Melbourne, Australia). The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool v 2.0 for human studies and SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies. RESULTS: Out of 2619 articles, 114 were included describing 31 different 'modulation of nutrient sensing pathway' therapeutics, 13 of which specifically were utilized in human interventional trials for normal ageing or dementia. Growth hormone secretagogues improved cognitive outcomes in human mild cognitive impairment, and potentially normal ageing populations. In animals, all investigated therapeutic classes exhibited some cognitive benefits in dementia models. While the risk of bias was relatively low in human studies, this risk in animal studies was largely unclear. CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of nutrient sensing pathway therapeutics, particularly growth hormone secretagogues, have the potential to improve cognitive outcomes. Overall, there is a clear lack of translation from animal models to human populations.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Nutrients
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218049, 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453498

ABSTRACT

Importance: In the US and the United Kingdom, cocaine use is the second leading cause of illicit drug overdose death. Psychosocial treatments for cocaine use disorder are limited, and no pharmacotherapy is approved for use in the US or Europe. Objective: To compare treatments for active cocaine use among adults. Data Sources: PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for clinical trials published between December 31, 1995, and December 31, 2017. Study Selection: This meta-analysis was registered on Covidence.org (study 8731) on December 31, 2015. Clinical trials were included if they (1) had the term cocaine in the article title; (2) were published between December 31, 1995, and December 31, 2017; (3) were written in English; (4) enrolled outpatients 18 years or older with active cocaine use at baseline; and (5) reported treatment group size, treatment duration, retention rates, and urinalysis results for the presence of cocaine metabolites. A study was excluded if (1) more than 25% of participants were not active cocaine users or more than 80% of participants had negative test results for the presence of cocaine metabolites at baseline and (2) it reported only pooled urinalysis results indicating the presence of multiple substances and did not report the specific proportion of positive test results for cocaine metabolites. Multiple reviewers reached criteria consensus. Of 831 records screened, 157 studies (18.9%) met selection criteria and were included in the analysis. Data Extraction and Synthesis: This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Search results were imported from PubMed XML into Covidence.org then Microsoft Excel. Data extraction was completed in 2 iterations to ensure fidelity. Analyses included a multilevel random-effects model, a multilevel mixed-effects meta-regression model, and sensitivity analyses. Treatments were clustered into 11 categories (psychotherapy, contingency management programs, placebo, opioids, psychostimulants, anticonvulsants, dopamine agonists, antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous medications, and other therapies). Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation by chained equations. The significance threshold for all analyses was P = .05. Data were analyzed using the metafor and mice packages in R software, version 3.3.2 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing). Data were analyzed from January 1, 2018, to February 28, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the intention-to-treat logarithm of the odds ratio (OR) of having a negative urinalysis result for the presence of cocaine metabolites at the end of each treatment period compared with baseline. The hypothesis, which was formulated after data collection, was that no treatment category would have a significant association with objective reductions in cocaine use. Results: A total of 157 studies comprising 402 treatment groups and 15 842 participants were included. Excluding other therapies, the largest treatment groups across all studies were psychotherapy (mean [SD] number of participants, 40.04 [36.88]) and contingency management programs (mean [SD] number of participants, 37.51 [25.51]). Only contingency management programs were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of having a negative test result for the presence of cocaine (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.62-2.80), and this association remained significant in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis, contingency management programs were associated with reductions in cocaine use among adults. Research efforts and policies that align with this treatment modality may benefit those who actively use cocaine and attenuate societal burdens.

20.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450861

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Viral respiratory infections cause life-threatening diseases in millions of people worldwide every year. Human coronavirus and several picornaviruses are responsible for worldwide epidemic outbreaks, thus representing a heavy burden to their hosts. In the absence of specific treatments for human viral infections, natural products offer an alternative in terms of innovative drug therapies. (2) Methods: We analyzed the antiviral properties of the leaves and stem bark of the mulberry tree (Morus spp.). We compared the antiviral activity of Morus spp. on enveloped and nonenveloped viral pathogens, such as human coronavirus (HCoV 229E) and different members of the Picornaviridae family-human poliovirus 1, human parechovirus 1 and 3, and human echovirus 11. The antiviral activity of 12 water and water-alcohol plant extracts of the leaves and stem bark of three different species of mulberry-Morus alba var. alba, Morus alba var. rosa, and Morus rubra-were evaluated. We also evaluated the antiviral activities of kuwanon G against HCoV-229E. (3) Results: Our results showed that several extracts reduced the viral titer and cytopathogenic effects (CPE). Leaves' water-alcohol extracts exhibited maximum antiviral activity on human coronavirus, while stem bark and leaves' water and water-alcohol extracts were the most effective on picornaviruses. (4) Conclusions: The analysis of the antiviral activities of Morus spp. offer promising applications in antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Morus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Picornaviridae/drug effects , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry
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