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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 293-303, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Associations between pre-infection prescription for glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes have been postulated but only investigated in small studies and limited to a few agents. We investigated whether there are associations between prescription of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs and risk of COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a nationwide observational cohort study done with data from the National Diabetes Audit for people with type 2 diabetes and registered with a general practice in England since 2003. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of COVID-19-related mortality in people prescribed each class of glucose-lowering drug, with covariate adjustment with a propensity score to address confounding by demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors. FINDINGS: Among the 2 851 465 people with type 2 diabetes included in our analyses, 13 479 (0·5%) COVID-19-related deaths occurred during the study period (Feb 16 to Aug 31, 2020), corresponding to a rate of 8·9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 8·7-9·0). The adjusted HR associated with recorded versus no recorded prescription was 0·77 (95% CI 0·73-0·81) for metformin and 1·42 (1·35-1·49) for insulin. Adjusted HRs for prescription of other individual classes of glucose-lowering treatment were as follows: 0·75 (0·48-1·17) for meglitinides, 0·82 (0·74-0·91) for SGLT2 inhibitors, 0·94 (0·82-1·07) for thiazolidinediones, 0·94 (0·89-0·99) for sulfonylureas, 0·94 (0·83-1·07) for GLP-1 receptor agonists, 1·07 (1·01-1·13) for DPP-4 inhibitors, and 1·26 (0·76-2·09) for α-glucosidase inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence of associations between prescription of some glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality, although the differences in risk are small and these findings are likely to be due to confounding by indication, in view of the use of different drug classes at different stages of type 2 diabetes disease progression. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no clear indication to change prescribing of glucose-lowering drugs in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 573662, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895303

ABSTRACT

Bearing a strong resemblance to the phenotypic and functional remodeling of the immune system that occurs during aging (termed immunesenescence), the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by an expansion of inflammatory monocytes, functional exhaustion of lymphocytes, dysregulated myeloid responses and the presence of highly activated senescent T cells. Alongside advanced age, male gender and pre-existing co-morbidities [e.g., obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)] are emerging as significant risk factors for COVID-19. Interestingly, immunesenescence is more profound in males when compared to females, whilst accelerated aging of the immune system, termed premature immunesenescence, has been described in obese subjects and T2D patients. Thus, as three distinct demographic groups with an increased susceptibility to COVID-19 share a common immune profile, could immunesenescence be a generic contributory factor in the development of severe COVID-19? Here, by focussing on three key aspects of an immune response, namely pathogen recognition, elimination and resolution, we address this question by discussing how immunesenescence may weaken or exacerbate the immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We also highlight how aspects of immunesenescence could render potential COVID-19 treatments less effective in older adults and draw attention to certain therapeutic options, which by reversing or circumventing certain features of immunesenescence may prove to be beneficial for the treatment of groups at high risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cellular Senescence/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aging/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Monocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
Diabetes Care ; 43(12): 3042-3049, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes may unfavorably influence the outcome of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), but the determinants of this effect are still poorly understood. In this monocentric study, we aimed at evaluating the impact of type 2 diabetes, comorbidities, plasma glucose levels, and antidiabetes medications on the survival of COVID-19 patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a case series involving 387 COVID-19 patients admitted to a single center in the region of Lombardy, the epicenter of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic in Italy, between 20 February and 9 April 2020. Medical history, pharmacological treatments, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes of patients without diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes were compared. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to investigate risk factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Our samples included 90 patients (23.3%) with type 2 diabetes, who displayed double the mortality rate of subjects without diabetes (42.3% vs. 21.7%, P < 0.001). In spite of this, after correction for age and sex, risk of mortality was significantly associated with a history of hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.84, 95% CI 1.15-2.95; P = 0.011), coronary artery disease (aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.04-2.35; P = 0.031), chronic kidney disease (aHR 2.07, 95% CI 1.27-3.38; P = 0.003), stroke (aHR 2.09, 95% CI 1.23-3.55; P = 0.006), and cancer (aHR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.42; P = 0.04) but not with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.170). In patients with diabetes, elevated plasma glucose (aHR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.44, per mmol/L; P = 0.015) and IL-6 levels at admission (aHR 2.47, 95% CI 1.28-4.78, per 1-SD increase; P = 0.007) as well as treatment with insulin (aHR 3.05, 95% CI 1.57-5.95; P = 0.001) and ß-blockers (aHR 3.20, 95% CI 1.50-6.60; P = 0.001) were independently associated with increased mortality, whereas the use of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors was significantly and independently associated with a lower risk of mortality (aHR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.92; P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma glucose levels at admission and antidiabetes drugs may influence the survival of COVID-19 patients affected by type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sitagliptin Phosphate
4.
Aging Dis ; 11(4): 742-745, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696650

ABSTRACT

Aging, type 2 diabetes, and male gender are major risk factors leading to increased COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Thymic production and the export of naïve T cells decrease with aging through the effects of androgens in males and in type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, with aging, recovery of naïve T-cell populations after bone marrow transplantation is delayed and associated with an increased risk of chronic graft vs. host disease. Severe COVID-19 and SARS infections are notable for severe T-cell depletion. In COVID-19, there is unique suppression of interferon signaling by infected respiratory tract cells with intact cytokine signaling. A decreased naïve T-cell response likely contributes to an excessive inflammatory response and increases the odds of a cytokine storm. Treatments that improve naïve T-cell production may prove to be vital COVID-19 therapies, especially for these high-risk groups.

5.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(6): 494-496, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630976

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led the scientific community to breach new frontiers in the understanding of human physiology and disease pathogenesis. It has been hypothesized that the human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) enzyme receptor may be a functional target for the spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since DPP4-inhibitors are currently used for the treatment of patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM), there is currently high interest in the possibility that these agents, or incretin-based therapies (IBTs) in general, may be of benefit against the new coronavirus infection. Diabetes is associated with increased COVID-19 severity and mortality, and accumulating evidence suggests that IBTs may favorably alter the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to their inherent mechanisms of action. Further research into prognostic variables associated with various antidiabetic treatment regimens, and in particular the IBT, in patients with T2DM affected by the COVID-19 pandemic is therefore warranted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Incretins/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Incretins/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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