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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 350, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as a rapidly spreading infection. Today it is relatively easy to isolate Covid-19 symptomatic cases, while remains problematic to control the disease spread by infected but symptom-free individuals. The control of this possible path of contagion requires drastic measures of social distancing, which imply the suspension of most activities and generate economic and social issues. This study is aimed at estimating the percentage of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a geographic area with relatively low incidence of Covid-19. METHODS: Blood serum samples from 388 healthy volunteers were analyzed for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG by using an ELISA assay based on recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. RESULTS: We found that 7 out of 388 healthy volunteers, who declared no symptoms of Covid-19, like fever, cough, fatigue etc., in the preceding 5 months, have bona fide serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, that is 1.8% of the asymptomatic population (95% confidence interval: 0.69-2.91%). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated range of asymptomatic individuals with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG should be between 26,565 and 112, 350. In the same geographic area, there are 4665 symptomatic diagnosed cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129793

ABSTRACT

Research on vaccines against trypanosomatids, a family of protozoa that cause neglected tropical diseases, such as Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, and sleeping sickness, is a current need. Today, according to modern vaccinology, virus-like particle (VLP) technology is involved in many vaccines, including those undergoing studies related to COVID-19. The potential use of VLPs as vaccine adjuvants opens an opportunity for the use of protozoan antigens for the development of vaccines against diseases caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania spp., and Trypanosoma brucei. In this context, it is important to consider the evasion mechanisms of these protozoa in the host and the antigens involved in the mechanisms of the parasite-host interaction. Thus, the immunostimulatory properties of VLPs can be part of an important strategy for the development and evaluation of new vaccines. This work aims to highlight the potential of VLPs as vaccine adjuvants for the development of immunity in complex diseases, specifically in the context of tropical diseases caused by trypanosomatids.

3.
Microchem J ; 160: 105606, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837418

ABSTRACT

The technologies used for coronavirus testing consist of a pre-existing device developed to examine different pathologies, such as bacterial infections, or cancer biomarkers. However, for the 2019 pandemic, researchers knew that their technology could be modified to detect a low viral load at an early stage. Today, countries around the world are working to control the new coronavirus disease (n-SARS-CoV-2). From this perspective, laboratories, universities, and companies around the world have embarked on a race to develop and produce much-needed test kits. This review has been developed to provide an overview of current trends and strategies in n-SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics based on traditional and new emerging assessment technologies, to continuous innovation. It focuses on recent trends in biosensors to build a fast, reliable, more sensitive, accessible, user-friendly system and easily adaptable technology n-SARS-CoV-2 detection and monitoring. On the whole, we have addressed and identified research evidence supporting the use of biosensors on the premise that screening people for n-SARS-CoV-2 is the best way to contain its spread.

4.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 35, 2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810348

ABSTRACT

Precision medicine aims to empower clinicians to predict the most appropriate course of action for patients with complex diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiomyopathy, and COVID-19. With a progressive interpretation of the clinical, molecular, and genomic factors at play in diseases, more effective and personalized medical treatments are anticipated for many disorders. Understanding patient's metabolomics and genetic make-up in conjunction with clinical data will significantly lead to determining predisposition, diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers and paths ultimately providing optimal and personalized care for diverse, and targeted chronic and acute diseases. In clinical settings, we need to timely model clinical and multi-omics data to find statistical patterns across millions of features to identify underlying biologic pathways, modifiable risk factors, and actionable information that support early detection and prevention of complex disorders, and development of new therapies for better patient care. It is important to calculate quantitative phenotype measurements, evaluate variants in unique genes and interpret using ACMG guidelines, find frequency of pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants without disease indicators, and observe autosomal recessive carriers with a phenotype manifestation in metabolome. Next, ensuring security to reconcile noise, we need to build and train machine-learning prognostic models to meaningfully process multisource heterogeneous data to identify high-risk rare variants and make medically relevant predictions. The goal, today, is to facilitate implementation of mainstream precision medicine to improve the traditional symptom-driven practice of medicine, and allow earlier interventions using predictive diagnostics and tailoring better-personalized treatments. We strongly recommend automated implementation of cutting-edge technologies, utilizing machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) approaches for the multimodal data aggregation, multifactor examination, development of knowledgebase of clinical predictors for decision support, and best strategies for dealing with relevant ethical issues.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Precision Medicine/trends , COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Genomics/trends , Humans , Metabolomics/trends , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proteomics/trends
5.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820945774, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714428

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is sweeping through China, posing the greatest ever threat to its public health and economy. As a tertiary cancer center in Southwest China, we formulated and implemented an anti-infection protocol to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 in our department. METHODS: The anti-infection protocol divided patients into 3 categories, namely outpatients, inpatients, and patients receiving radiation therapy at our cancer center, and each category had a distinct anti-infection protocol to minimize the risk of Coronavirus disease 2019 transmission. In each category, the patients were classified into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups. Each risk group was managed differently. A survey of patient volume changes prior to and during the Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak was performed. RESULTS: We carried out the anti-infection protocol at our cancer center during the Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. We found that the total volume of both outpatient visits and inpatient treatment declined significantly depending on the conditions of each group. Radiation therapy and palliative service had the lowest and highest volume reductions at 58.3% and 100%, respectively. The decline in outpatient volumes was higher than the decline in inpatient treatment services (78.8% vs 71.8%). There was no Coronavirus disease 2019 cross-infection at our center, or Coronavirus disease 2019-related injury or death. The anti-infection protocol measures continue to be taken at the hospital even today but they have been modified depending on the prevalent local conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Challenges from the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic remain in our community. The anti-infection protocol implemented at our cancer center has been effective in preventing cross-infection. Whether our anti-infection protocol experience can be applied to curb the spread of the infection in other parts of the world remains to be tested.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cancer Care Facilities/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Hospitals/standards , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
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