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1.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1392-1396, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384168

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 pandemic continues to produce a large number of patients with chronic respiratory failure and ventilator dependence. As such, surgeons will be called upon to perform tracheotomy for a subset of these chronically intubated patients. As seen during the SARS and the SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, aerosol-generating procedures (AGP) have been associated with higher rates of infection of medical personnel and potential acceleration of viral dissemination throughout the medical center. Therefore, a thoughtful approach to tracheotomy (and other AGPs) is imperative and maintaining traditional management norms may be unsuitable or even potentially harmful. We sought to review the existing evidence informing best practices and then develop straightforward guidelines for tracheotomy during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This communication is the product of those efforts and is based on national and international experience with the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the SARS epidemic of 2002/2003.


Subject(s)
Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Tracheotomy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Assessment , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Ventilator Weaning/methods
2.
Ann Surg ; 274(2): 234-239, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Tracheostomy has an essential role in managing COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, limited data are available on how tracheostomy affects COVID-19 outcomes, and uncertainty surrounding risk of infectious transmission has led to divergent recommendations and practices. METHODS: It is a multicenter, retrospective study; data were collected on all tracheostomies performed in COVID-19 patients at 7 hospitals in 5 tertiary academic medical systems from February 1, 2020 to September 4, 2020. RESULT: Tracheotomy was performed in 118 patients with median time from intubation to tracheostomy of 22 days (Q1-Q3: 18-25). All tracheostomies were performed employing measures to minimize aerosol generation, 78.0% by percutaneous technique, and 95.8% at bedside in negative pressure rooms. Seventy-eight (66.1%) patients were weaned from the ventilator and 18 (15.3%) patients died from causes unrelated to tracheostomy. No major procedural complications occurred. Early tracheostomy (≤14 days) was associated with decreased ventilator days; median ventilator days (Q1-Q3) among patients weaned from the ventilator in the early, middle and late groups were 21 (21-31), 34 (26.5-42), and 37 (32-41) days, respectively with P = 0.030. Compared to surgical tracheostomy, percutaneous technique was associated with faster weaning for patients weaned off the ventilator [median (Q1-Q3): 34 (29-39) vs 39 (34-51) days, P = 0.038]; decreased ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.7% vs 80.8%, P = 0.039); and among patients who were discharged, shorter intensive care unit duration [median (Q1-Q3): 33 (27-42) vs 47 (33-64) days, P = 0.009]; and shorter hospital length of stay [median (Q1-Q3): 46 (33-59) vs 59.5 (48-80) days, P = 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Early, percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with improved outcomes compared to surgical tracheostomy in a multi-institutional series of ventilated patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy/methods , United States
3.
J Surg Res ; 266: 361-365, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy improves outcomes for critically ill patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Data are limited on the use and benefit of tracheostomies for intubated, critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. During the surge in COVID 19 infections in metropolitan New York/New Jersey, our hospital cared for many COVID-19 patients who required prolonged intubation. This study describes the outcomes in COVID-19 patients who underwent tracheostomy. METHODS: We present a case series of patients with COVID-19 who underwent tracheostomy at a single institution. Tracheostomies were performed on patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation beyond 3 wk. Patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and ventilator settings prior to tracheostomy were reviewed. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included time on mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Fifteen COVID-19 patients underwent tracheostomy at an average of 31 d post intubation. Two patients (13%) died. Half of our cohort was liberated from the ventilator (8 patients, 53%), with an average time to liberation of 14 ± 6 d after tracheostomy. Among patients off mechanical ventilation, 5 (63%) had their tracheostomies removed prior to discharge. The average intensive care length of stay was 47 ± 13 d (range 29-74 d) and the average hospital stay was 59 ± 16 d (range 34-103 d). CONCLUSIONS: This study reports promising outcomes in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure and need for prolonged ventilation who undergo tracheostomy during their hospitalization. Further research is warranted to establish appropriate indications for tracheostomy in COVID-19 and confirm outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data
4.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 79(8): 1629-1642, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248986

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Approximately 3-15% of COVID-19 patients will require prolonged mechanical ventilation thereby requiring consideration for tracheotomy. Guidelines for tracheotomy in this cohort of patients are therefore required with assessed outcomes of tracheotomies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheotomy. Inclusion criteria were the performance of a tracheotomy in COVID-19 positive patients between March 11 and December 31, 2020. Exclusion criteria were lack of consent, extubation prior to the performance of a tracheotomy, death prior to the performance of the tracheotomy, and COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheotomy who tested negative twice after medical treatment. The primary predictor variable was the performance of a tracheotomy in COVID-19 positive patients and the primary outcome variable was the time to cessation of mechanical ventilation with the institution of supplemental oxygen via trach mask. RESULTS: Seventeen tracheotomies were performed between 4-25 days following intubation (mean = 17 days). Seven patients died between 4 and 16 days (mean = 8.7 days) following tracheotomy and 10 living patients realized cessation of mechanical ventilation from 4 hours to 61 days following tracheotomy (mean = 19.3 days). These patients underwent tracheotomy between 4 and 22 days following intubation (mean = 14 days). The 7 patients who died following tracheotomy underwent the procedure between 7 and 25 days following intubation (mean = 18.2 days). Seven patients underwent tracheotomy on or after 20 days of intubation and 3 survived (43%). Ten patients underwent tracheotomy before 20 days of intubation and 7 patients survived (70%). Significant differences between the mortality groups were detected for age (P = .006), and for P/F ratio at time of consult (P = .047) and the time of tracheotomy (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Tracheotomies are safely performed in COVID-19 patients with a standardized protocol. The timing of tracheotomy in COVID-19 patients is based on ventilator parameters, P/F ratio, patient prognosis, patient advanced directives, and family wishes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheotomy , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
5.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(7): 646-655, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245338

ABSTRACT

Importance: Approximately 5% to 15% of patients with COVID-19 require invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and, at times, tracheostomy. Details regarding the safety and use of tracheostomy in treating COVID-19 continue to evolve. Objective: To evaluate the association of tracheostomy with COVID-19 patient outcomes and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among health care professionals (HCPs). Data Sources: EMBASE (Ovid), Medline (Ovid), and Web of Science from January 1, 2020, to March 4, 2021. Study Selection: English-language studies investigating patients with COVID-19 who were receiving IMV and undergoing tracheostomy. Observational and randomized clinical trials were eligible (no randomized clinical trials were found in the search). All screening was performed by 2 reviewers (P.S. and M.L.). Overall, 156 studies underwent full-text review. Data Extraction and Synthesis: We performed data extraction in accordance with Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. We used a random-effects model, and ROBINS-I was used for the risk-of-bias analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 transmission between HCPs and levels of personal protective equipment, in addition to complications, time to decannulation, ventilation weaning, and intensive care unit (ICU) discharge in patients with COVID-19 who underwent tracheostomy. Results: Of the 156 studies that underwent full-text review, only 69 were included in the qualitative synthesis, and 14 of these 69 studies (20.3%) were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 4669 patients were included in the 69 studies, and the mean (range) patient age across studies was 60.7 (49.1-68.8) years (43 studies [62.3%] with 1856 patients). We found that in all studies, 1854 patients (73.8%) were men and 658 (26.2%) were women. We found that 28 studies (40.6%) investigated either surgical tracheostomy or percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Overall, 3 of 58 studies (5.17%) identified a small subset of HCPs who developed COVID-19 that was associated with tracheostomy. Studies did not consistently report the number of HCPs involved in tracheostomy. Among the patients, early tracheostomy was associated with faster ICU discharge (mean difference, 6.17 days; 95% CI, -11.30 to -1.30), but no change in IMV weaning (mean difference, -2.99 days; 95% CI, -8.32 to 2.33) or decannulation (mean difference, -3.12 days; 95% CI, -7.35 to 1.12). There was no association between mortality or perioperative complications and type of tracheostomy. A risk-of-bias evaluation that used ROBINS-I demonstrated notable bias in the confounder and patient selection domains because of a lack of randomization and cohort matching. There was notable heterogeneity in study reporting. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that enhanced personal protective equipment is associated with low rates of SARS-CoV-2 transmission during tracheostomy. Early tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 may reduce ICU stay, but this finding is limited by the observational nature of the included studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233166

ABSTRACT

AIM: An early tracheostomy is often considered for patients with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). However, there is no consensus on the timing of a tracheostomy in patients on VV-ECMO for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present report described the optimal timing of tracheostomy for these patients. METHOD: The present study was a single-center case series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of nine consecutive patients who underwent tracheostomy either during or after VV-ECMO treatment in our center between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020. RESULTS: All the patients received a percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy, which was performed during VV-ECMO in four patients. Three of these patients experienced hemorrhagic complications, and the remaining patient required a circuit change on the day after the operation. Heparin was discontinued 8 h preoperatively and resumed 1-14 h later. The platelet count was below normal in two patients, but no transfusion was performed. APTT was almost normal, and D-dimer was elevated postoperatively. The remaining five patients received a tracheostomy after weaning off VV-ECMO, and no complication was observed. Eight patients were deeply sedated during VV-ECMO to prioritize lung rest and prevent infecting the healthcare workers. CONCLUSION: In the present study, patients who underwent a tracheostomy during VV-ECMO tended to have more hemorrhagic complications. Because an early tracheostomy during ECMO has little benefit for patients with COVID-19, it should be performed after weaning off VV-ECMO to protect the safety of the healthcare workers concerned.

7.
HNO ; 69(8): 650-657, 2021 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID(coronavirus disease)-19 pandemic is characterized by high infectivity, droplet transmission, and high viral load in the upper respiratory tract. Severe disease courses are associated with interstitial pneumonia and ventilated patients, in whom tracheotomy (TT)-a droplet- and aerosol-producing medical intervention-is regularly necessary. TT as a potential infection risk for medical staff is scarcely found in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify droplet exposure of the surgical team during TT, to better define the requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgical TT was performed in four non-infectious patients, during which the surgeon and his assistant both wore a surgical nasal mask with a transparent visor. After the procedure, the type, distribution, and number of droplets on the visor were determined macroscopically and microscopically. RESULTS: An average of 29 droplets were found on the middle third of the visor, 4 on the right third, and 13 on the left third, with an average droplet size of 571 µm (±â€¯381 µm). The smallest droplets were 55 µm, the largest 1431 µm. An increase in the number of droplets was found with increased ventilation during the procedure. Blood droplets were more common than secretion droplets. CONCLUSION: Contamination of the visor with droplets was demonstrated. Especially in the case of TT in highly infectious patients, e.g., COVID-19 patients, the use of hooded headgear in combination with breathing apparatus with air purification and power supply is recommended to ensure best protection from infection for the surgeon and the surgical assistant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy/adverse effects
8.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211001595, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) is a safe technique that is performed frequently by otolaryngologists and intensivists. New challenges have been identified in order to maintain the safety of this procedure during the COVID-19 pandemic. A novel approach, using a modified demistifier canopy, was developed during the first wave of the pandemic and implemented for 17 consecutive percutaneous tracheostomies in order to enhance procedural safety. METHODS: A protocol was developed after performing a literature review of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients. A multidisciplinary tracheostomy team was established, including the departments of otolaryngology, critical care, and respiratory therapy. Simulation was performed prior to each PT, and postoperative debriefings were done. RESULTS: A protocol and technical description of PT using a modified demistifier canopy covering was written and video documented. Data were collected on 17 patients who underwent this procedure safely in our tertiary care hospital. There were no procedure-related complications, and no evidence of COVID-19 transmission to any member of the health care team during the study period. CONCLUSION: As patients continue to recover from COVID-19, their need for tracheostomy will increase. The technique described provides a safe, multidisciplinary method of performing PT in COVID-19 patients.

9.
Shock ; 55(4): 472-478, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140043

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading worldwide. Since the main route of infection with SARS-CoV-2 is probably via contact with virus-containing droplets of the exhaled air, any method of securing the airway is of extremely high risk for the health care professionals involved. We evaluated the aerosol exposure to the interventional team during a tracheotomy in a semiquantitative fashion. In addition, we present novel protective measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To visualize the air movements occurring during a tracheotomy, we used a breathing simulator filled with artificial fog. Normal breathing and coughing were simulated under surgery. The speed of aerosol propagation and particle density in the direct visual field of the surgeon were evaluated. RESULTS: Laminar air flow (LAF) in the OR reduced significantly the aerosol exposure during tracheostomy. Only 4.8 ±â€Š3.4% of the aerosol was in contact with the surgeon. Without LAF, however, the aerosol density in the inspiratory area of the surgeon is 10 times higher (47.9 ±â€Š10.8%, P < 0.01). Coughing through the opened trachea exposed the surgeon within 400 ms with 76.0 ±â€Š8.0% of the aerosol-independent of the function of the LAF. Only when a blocked tube was inserted into the airway, no aerosol leakage could be detected. DISCUSSION: Coughing and expiration during a surgical tracheotomy expose the surgical team considerably to airway aerosols. This is potentially associated with an increased risk for employees being infected by airborne-transmitted pathogens. Laminar airflow in an operating room leads to a significant reduction in the aerosol exposure of the surgeon and is therefore preferable to a bedside tracheotomy in terms of infection prevention. Ideal protection of medical staff is achieved when the procedure is performed under endotracheal intubation and muscle relaxation.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Exposure , Surgeons , Tracheotomy , Cough/complications , Environment, Controlled , Humans , Operating Rooms , Patient Simulation , Point-of-Care Systems , Respiration , Risk , Virion , Visual Fields
10.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(6): 646-654, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE.: To report the high incidence of barotrauma in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to discuss its implications. DESIGN.: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING.: ICU of an academic county hospital in Los Angeles, CA admitted from March 15-June 20, 2020. PATIENTS.: 77 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. 75 patients met inclusion criteria. RESULTS.: 21% of patients with severe COVID-19 sustained barotrauma (33% of patients receiving IMV, 8% of patients receiving (NIV). There were no differences between the barotrauma and non-barotrauma groups regarding demographics, illness severity, or medications received, nor tidal volume or average/peak airway pressures in those receiving IMV. In the barotrauma group there was a greater proportion of patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation (81% vs. 47%, p = 0.023) and ventilated using airway pressure release ventilation mode (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.043). Barotrauma was associated with increased likelihood of receiving a tracheostomy (OR 2.58 [0.23-4.9], p = 0.018]), longer median ICU length of stay (17 days vs. 7 days, p = 0.03), and longer median length of hospitalization (26 days vs. 14 days, p < 0.001). There was also a trend toward prolonged median duration of IMV (12.5 days vs 7 days, p = 0.13) and higher average mortality (56% vs 37%, p = 0.25). CONCLUSIONS.: Barotrauma is seen in 5-12% of patients with ARDS receiving IMV and is exceedingly rare in patients receiving NIV. We report a high incidence of barotrauma observed in critically ill patients with COVID-19 requiring either NIV or IMV. While there was a trend toward increased mortality in patients with barotrauma, this did not reach statistical significance. The increased incidence of barotrauma with COVID-19 may be a product of the pathophysiology of this disease state and a heightened inflammatory response causing rampant acute lung injury. Evidence-based medicine and lung-protective ventilation should remain the mainstay of treatment.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Barotrauma/diagnosis , Barotrauma/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , California , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
11.
J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg ; 26(2): 76-88, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134320

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 which emerged in Wuhan, China has rapidly spread all over the globe and the World Health Organisation has declared it a pandemic. COVID-19 disease severity shows variation depending on demographic characteristics like age, history of chronic illnesses such as cardio-vascular/renal/respiratory disease; pregnancy; immune-suppression; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor medication use; NSAID use etc but the pattern of disease spread is uniform - human to human through contact, droplets and fomites. Up to 3.5% of health care workers treating COVID-19 contact an infection themselves with 14.8% of these infections severe and 0.3% fatal. The situation has spread panic even among health care professionals and the cry for safe patient care practices are resonated world-wide. Surgeons, anesthesiologists and intensivists who very frequently perform endotracheal intubation, tracheostomy, non-invasive ventilation and manual ventilation before intubation are at a higher odds ratio of 6.6, 4.2, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively of contacting an infection themselves. Elective surgery is almost always deferred in fever/infection scenarios. A surgeon and an anesthesiologist can anytime encounter a situation where in a COVID-19 patient requires an emergency surgery. COVID-19 cases requiring surgery predispose anesthesiologists and surgeons to cross-infection threats. This paper discusses, the COVID-19 precautionary outlines which has to be followed in the operating room; personal protective strategies available at present; methods to raise psychological preparedness of medical professionals during a pandemic; conduct of anesthesia in COVID-19 cases/suspect cases; methods of decontamination after conducting a surgery for COVID-19 case in the operating room; and post-exposure prophylaxis for medical professionals.

12.
HNO ; 69(4): 303-311, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the main symptoms of severe infection with the new coronavirus­2 (SARS-CoV-2) is hypoxemic respiratory failure because of viral pneumonia with the need for mechanical ventilation. Prolonged mechanical ventilation may require a tracheostomy, but the increased risk for contamination is a matter of considerable debate. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of safety and effects of surgical tracheostomy on ventilation parameters and outcome in patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study between March 27 and May 18, 2020, in a single-center coronavirus disease-designated ICU at a tertiary care German hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with COVID-19 were treated with open surgical tracheostomy due to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. MEASUREMENTS: Clinical and ventilation data were obtained from medical records in a retrospective manner. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV­2 infection and surgical tracheostomy were analyzed. The age range was 42-87 years. All patients received open tracheostomy between 2-16 days after admission. Ventilation after tracheostomy was less invasive (reduction in PEAK and positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]) and lung compliance increased over time after tracheostomy. Also, sedative drugs could be reduced, and patients had a reduced need of norepinephrine to maintain hemodynamic stability. Six of 18 patients died. All surgical staff were equipped with N99-masks and facial shields or with powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that open surgical tracheostomy can be performed without severe complications in patients with COVID-19. Tracheostomy may reduce invasiveness of mechanical ventilation and the need for sedative drugs and norepinehprine. Recommendations for personal protective equipment (PPE) for surgical staff should be followed when PPE is available to avoid contamination of the personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy/adverse effects
13.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 138(6): 443-449, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyse tracheostomies after intubation for SARS-Cov-2 infection performed by otorhinolaryngologists in 7 university hospitals in the Paris area of France during the month March 24 to April 23, 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicentre retrospective observational study included 59 consecutive patients. The main goals were to evaluate the number, characteristics and practical conditions of tracheostomies, and the COVID-19 status of the otorhinolaryngologists. Secondary goals were to analyse tracheostomy time, decannulation rate, immediate postoperative complications and laryngotracheal axis status. RESULTS: Tracheostomy indications were for ventilatory weaning and extubation failure in 86% and 14% of cases, respectively. The technique was surgical, percutaneous or hybrid in 91.5%, 3.4% and 5.1% of cases, respectively. None of the operators developed symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Postoperative complications occurred in 15% of cases, with no significant difference between surgical and percutaneous/hybrid techniques (P=0.33), although no complications occurred after percutaneous or hybrid tracheostomies. No procedures or complications resulted in death. The decannulation rate was 74.5% with a mean tracheostomy time of 20±12 days. In 55% of the patients evaluated by flexible endoscopy after decannulation, a laryngeal abnormality was found. On univariate analysis, no clinical features had a significant influence on tracheostomy time, decannulation rate or occurrence of laryngeal lesions. CONCLUSION: The main findings of the present retrospective study were: absence of contamination of the surgeons, heterogeneity of practices between centres, a high rate of complications and laryngeal lesions whatever the technique, and the specificities of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgeons , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Paris , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 163, 2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies have been published about critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the early phases of the pandemic but the characteristic or survival of critically ill Japanese patients have not yet been investigated. We sought to investigate the characteristics, inflammatory laboratory finding trends, and outcomes among critically ill Japanese patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a single institution in the center of Tokyo. Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU from March 19 to April 30, 2020 were included. Trends for significant inflammatory laboratory findings were analyzed. In-hospital death, days of mechanical ventilation or oxygen supplementation, days of ICU or hospital stay were followed until May 26, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were included. Median age was 57.5 years, and 79% were male. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was elevated to a median of 10.1 on admission and peaked on Day 10 of illness. Seventeen patients were intubated on Day 11 of illness and received mechanical ventilation. One patient underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The majority (88%) received systemic steroids, including 16 patients who received high dose methylprednisolone (500-1000 mg). Favipiravir was used in 38% of patients. Two patients, including 1 who refused intensive care, died. Eighteen patients were discharged. Median length of ICU and hospital stay for all patients was 6 and 22 days, respectively. Median length of ventilator dependency was 7 days. Four patients underwent a tracheostomy and received prolonged ventilation for more than 21 days. One patient receiving mechanical ventilation died. All survivors discontinued ventilator use. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was remarkably low in our single institutional study. Three survivors received mechanical ventilation for more than 3 weeks. Trends of clinically significant laboratory markers reflected the clinical course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tokyo
15.
Ann Surg ; 272(3): e181-e186, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcomes of patients undergoing tracheostomy for COVID-19 and of healthcare workers performing these procedures. BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is often performed for prolonged endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients. However, in the context of COVID-19, tracheostomy placement pathways have been altered due to the poor prognosis of intubated patients and the risk of transmission to providers through this highly aerosolizing procedure. METHODS: A prospective single-system multi-center observational cohort study was performed on patients who underwent tracheostomy after acute respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 53 patients who underwent tracheostomy, the average time from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy was 19.7 days ±â€Š6.9 days. The most common indication for tracheostomy was acute respiratory distress syndrome, followed by failure to wean ventilation and post-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation decannulation. Thirty patients (56.6%) were liberated from the ventilator, 16 (30.2%) have been discharged alive, 7 (13.2%) have been decannulated, and 6 (11.3%) died. The average time from tracheostomy to ventilator liberation was 11.8 days ±â€Š6.9 days (range 2-32 days). Both open surgical and percutaneous dilational tracheostomy techniques were performed utilizing methods to mitigate aerosols. No healthcare worker transmissions resulted from performing the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations to tracheostomy practices and processes were successfully instituted. Following these steps, tracheostomy in COVID-19 intubated patients seems safe for both patients and healthcare workers performing the procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Ann Surg ; 273(3): 403-409, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the safety, efficacy, and early results of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 and determine whether differences exist between percutaneous and open methods. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Prolonged respiratory failure is common in symptomatic patients with COVID-19, the disease process caused by infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Tracheostomy, although posing potential risk to the operative team and other healthcare workers, may be beneficial for safe weaning of sedation and ventilator support. However, short- and long-term outcomes remain largely unknown. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of patients with COVID-19 undergoing tracheostomy at a major medical center in New York City between April 4 and April 30, 2020 was reviewed. The primary endpoint was need for continued mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes included complication rates, sedation weaning, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) level of care. Patient characteristics, perioperative conditions, and outcomes between percutaneous and open groups were analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, 67 consecutive patients underwent tracheostomy, including 48 males and 19 females with a median age of 66 years [interquartile range (IQR) 52-72]. Two surgeons alternated techniques, with 35 tracheostomies performed percutaneously and 32 via an open approach. The median time from intubation to tracheostomy was 23 days (IQR 20-26). At a median follow-up of 26 days, 52 patients (78%) no longer required mechanical ventilation and 58 patients (87%) were off continuous sedation. Five patients (7.5%) died of systemic causes. There were 11 total complications (16%) in 10 patients, most of which involved minor bleeding. There were no significant differences in outcomes between percutaneous and open methods. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy under apneic conditions by either percutaneous or open technique can be safely performed in patients with respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Tracheostomy facilitated weaning from continuous intravenous sedation and mechanical ventilation. Continued follow-up of these patients to ascertain long-term outcome data is ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Survival Rate , Tracheostomy/methods
17.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(1): 27-34, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Information from critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is limited and in many cases coming from health systems approaches different from the national public systems existing in most countries in Europe. Besides, patient follow-up remains incomplete in many publications. Our aim is to characterize acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients admitted to a medical critical care unit (MCCU) in a referral hospital in Spain. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of consecutive ARDS COVID-19 patients admitted and treated in our MCCU. SETTING: 36-bed MCCU in referral tertiary hospital. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal/pharyngeal swabs. INTERVENTIONS: None MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. RESULTS: Forty-four ARDS COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Median age was 61.50 (53.25 - 67) years and most of the patients were male (72.7%). Hypertension and dyslipidemia were the most frequent co-morbidities (52.3 and 36.4% respectively). Steroids (1mg/Kg/day) and tocilizumab were administered in almost all patients (95.5%). 77.3% of the patients needed invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 16 days [11-28]. Prone position ventilation was performed in 33 patients (97%) for a median of 3 sessions [2-5] per patient. Nosocomial infection was diagnosed in 13 patients (29.5%). Tracheostomy was performed in ten patients (29.4%). At study closing all patients had been discharged from the CCU and only two (4.5%) remained in hospital ward. MCCU length of stay was 18 days [10-27]. Mortality at study closing was 20.5% (n 9); 26.5% among ventilated patients. CONCLUSIONS: The seven-week period in which our MCCU was exclusively dedicated to COVID-19 patients has been challenging. Despite the severity of the patients and the high need for invasive mechanical ventilation, mortality was 20.5%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data
18.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(7): 2133-2135, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049646

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The role of tracheostomy in COVID-19-related ARDS is unknown. Nowadays, there is no clear indication regarding the timing of tracheostomy in these patients. METHODS: We describe our synergic experience between ENT and ICU Departments at University Hospital of Modena underlining some controversial aspects that would be worth discussing tracheostomies in these patients. During the last 2 weeks, we performed 28 tracheostomies on patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 infection who were treated with IMV. RESULTS: No differences between percutaneous and surgical tracheostomy in terms of timing and no case of team virus infection. CONCLUSION: In our experience, tracheostomy should be performed only in selected patients within 7- and 14-day orotracheal intubation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Intubation, Intratracheal , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Team , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
19.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(5): 618-628, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Norwegian hospitals have operated within capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present patient and management characteristics, and outcomes for the entire cohort of adult (>18 years) COVID-19 patients admitted to Norwegian intensive care units (ICU) from 10 March to 19 June 2020. METHODS: Data were collected from The Norwegian intensive care and pandemic registry (NIPaR). Demographics, co-morbidities, management characteristics and outcomes are described. ICU length of stay (LOS) was analysed with linear regression, and associations between risk factors and mortality were quantified using Cox regression. RESULTS: In total, 217 patients were included. The male to female ratio was 3:1 and the median age was 63 years. A majority (70%) had one or more co-morbidities, most frequently cardiovascular disease (39%), chronic lung disease (22%), diabetes mellitus (20%), and obesity (17%). Most patients were admitted for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) (91%) and invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) was used in 86%, prone ventilation in 38% and 25% of patients received a tracheostomy. Vasoactive drugs were used in 79% and renal replacement therapy in 15%. Median ICU LOS and time of MV was 14.0 and 12.0 days. At end of follow-up 45 patients (21%) were dead. Age, co-morbidities and severity of illness at admission were predictive of death. Severity of AHRF and male gender were associated with LOS. CONCLUSIONS: In this national cohort of COVID-19 patients, mortality was low and attributable to known risk factors. Importantly, prolonged length-of-stay must be taken into account when planning for resource allocation for any next surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Health Resources , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
20.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(6): 1150-1152, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041981

ABSTRACT

Thirty-eight tracheostomies were performed on patients with respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection over the month of April at North Shore University Hospital and Lenox Hill Hospital (members of Northwell Health System in Long Island and New York City). Follow-up by May 14 revealed that 21 (55.2%) had been weaned from ventilators and 7 (18.4%) underwent decannulation. Two patients (5.3%) expired in the weeks following tracheostomy. Between the 2 institutions, 10 attending surgeons performed all of the tracheostomies using appropriate personal protective equipment, and none demonstrated seroconversion within 1 to 2 weeks of this article.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/surgery , Tracheostomy , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/surgery , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data
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