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1.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 89-94, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived stress and depression among medical students and the mediating role of insomnia in this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to April 2020 in medical university. Levels of perceived stress, insomnia and depression were measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). The descriptive analyses of the demographic characteristics and correlation analyses of the three variables were calculated. The significance of the mediation effect was obtained using a bootstrap approach with SPSS PROCESS macro. RESULTS: The mean age of medical students was 21.46 years (SD=2.50). Of these medical students, 10,185 (34.3%) were male and 19,478 (65.7%) were female. Perceived stress was significantly associated with depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). Insomnia mediated the association between perceived stress and depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). The results of the non-parametric bootstrapping method confirmed the significance of the indirect effect of perceived stress through insomnia (95% bootstrap CI =0.137, 0.149). The indirect effect of insomnia accounted for 44.13% of the total variance in depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the interactive mechanisms underlying perceived stress and depression, and elucidating the mediating effects of insomnia on the association. This research provides a useful theoretical and methodological approach for prevention of depression in medical students. Findings from this study indicated that it may be effective to reduce depression among medical students by improving sleep quality and easing perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Students, Medical , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(1): 70-75, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268456

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The most critical intervention to control SARS-CoV-2 infection requires appropriate knowledge and attitude towards the virus. OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices of students of a health services' vocational school with regard to COVID-19. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out between May and June 2020 in a university of the Turkish region. Data were collected through an online survey portal. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were completed and returned. Students of medical laboratory techniques and first aid and emergency medicine had significantly higher knowledge scores (p < 0.001). More than 43 % of the students (n = 201) used the TV as their main source of information on COVID-19. There was a positive attitude towards preventive measures such as avoiding crowded places and maintaining hand hygiene and social distance. CONCLUSIONS: Health services vocational school students have good knowledge and positive attitude towards COVID-19. The main sources of information were the TV and social media. For this reason, more attention should be given to these issues in the curriculum in order for science-based information sources to be used.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La intervención más crítica para controlar la infección por SARS-CoV-2 requiere el conocimiento y la actitud correctos hacia el virus. OBJETIVO: Determinar el conocimiento, las actitudes y las prácticas de los estudiantes de una escuela vocacional de servicios de salud respecto a COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado entre mayo y junio de 2020 en una universidad de la región de Turquía. Los datos se recopilaron mediante un portal de encuestas en línea. RESULTADOS: Se completaron y devolvieron 454 cuestionarios. Los estudiantes de técnicas de laboratorio médico y primeros auxilios y emergencias tuvieron puntuaciones de conocimiento significativamente más altas (p < 0.001). Más de 43 % de los estudiantes (n = 201) usaron televisores como su principal fuente de información sobre COVID-19. Se manifestó una actitud positiva hacia las aplicaciones, así como evitar lugares concurridos y mantener la higiene de las manos y la distancia social. CONCLUSIONES: Los estudiantes de la escuela vocacional de servicios de salud tienen buen conocimiento y actitud positiva hacia COVID-19. Las principales fuentes de información fueron la televisión y las redes sociales, por lo que se debe prestar más atención a estos temas en el plan de estudios para utilizar fuentes de información basadas en la ciencia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Services , Humans , Male , Schools , Turkey , Vocational Education , Young Adult
3.
Korean J Pain ; 34(2): 241-245, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that a new type of headache may develop as a result of face mask use during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical features of face mask-related headache during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study carried out on healthcare workers at the Afyonkarahisar Health Sciences University. The number of workers at our university was established. Sample size was calculated using the G*Power program. A questionnaire consisting of questions relating to pre-existing headache, an aggravation in headache, and de-novo headache was filled out by 3 neurologists with all participants. RESULTS: Data was collected from a total of 375 participants, after the exclusion of 5 individuals who refused to participate. Out of all participants, 26 (6.9%) used a filtering mask, 274 (73.1%) used a surgical mask, 75 (20.0%) participants used a combination of both masks. The number of participants with preexisting headache was 114 (30.4%) had pre-existing headache. Of those with pre-existing headache, 77 (67.5%) healthcare workers had reported an aggravation in their headache after mask use. De-novo headache was observed in 116 (30.9%) of participants. De-novo headache characteristics included throbbing in 17 (14.7%) participants and pressing in 99 (85.3%) participants. In addition, symptoms such as tachypnea, sleep disturbance, and fatigue were found to be significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that healthcare workers develop headaches due to use of masks during the COVID-19 outbreak.

4.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-9, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235762

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on the effects of fear factor due to COVID-19 on stress and well-being of college students in India. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey among 625 Indian students across various Indian universities and structural equation modeling (SEM) has been performed for analyzing the data. The findings of the study show a positive effect of fear of COVID-19 on stress with ß = .27, p < 0.05, and a negative effect on well-being (ß = -.13, p < 0.05). The results also depicted the mediating role of stress between fear of COVID-19 and well-being. Therefore, it is suggested that measures must be taken by individuals, society, and policy makers to include mental health maintenance in the pandemic response activities. Further longitudinal studies in different geographical regions and demographics can provide a more generalized understanding of the relationship between the pandemic and mental health. The limitations, policy implications, and suggestions are discussed.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250444, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease that has caused a global pandemic. As of July 2020, there were 8,475 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Ethiopia, and a total of 52 cases and 1 death were reported in Debre Berhan where this study was conducted. Under these conditions, we sought to assess what undergraduate students at Debre Berhan University knew about COVID-19 and how it shaped their attitudes and practices regarding this disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to assess undergraduate student knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 in Debre Berhan University, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 18-24, 2020 among undergraduate students at Debre Berhan University. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was employed with a total sample size of 634. Proportional allocation of samples was used to the randomly selected colleges, and a systematic random sampling technique was employed to recruit the students. The data were checked for completeness, coded, entered into Epi-Data VS 3.1, and then exported into STATA™ Version 14 software for analysis. Descriptive statistics were conducted. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors. Factors were selected with the entry method. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the associations between variables and knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP). RESULTS: From a total of 546 included participants, more than half of them, 307 (57%) were males. Seventy-three percent of them heard about novel coronavirus from social media. In this study, 73.8% of the participants were knowledgeable, and their overall attitude was favorable. Approximately 71.4% correctly responded that the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, fatigue, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Nearly half, 229 (42%) of the students approved that they had no concern of being infected with COVID-19. Moreover, most participants showed poor practices; more than half of the study subjects were not maintaining a physical distance. In multivariable analyses, people older than 25 years (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI; 1.2, 4.6) and those who lived in urban areas (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI; 2.6, 15.8) were significantly more knowledgeable about COVID-19. Furthermore, those students that have information about COVID-19 (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI; 1.6, 8.7) was significantly associated with the attitude undergraduate students had about COVID-19 as compared with its counterpart. CONCLUSION: The undergraduate students at Debre Berhan University were moderately knowledgeable about COVID-19 and had an optimistic attitude towards its resolution. However, this optimism may lead to poor public health practices within this community. Therefore, greater efforts need to be made through more comprehensive and directed actions and awareness campaigns to increase the knowledge, attitude and practice of the students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Urban Population , Young Adult
6.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(4): 907-916, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232312

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effects of COVID-19 on the prevalence of acute stress disorder and subsequent effects on career planning among healthcare students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1158 healthcare students across five medical universities in February 2020. Acute stress disorder was assessed using the Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire. Further data regarding COVID-19 knowledge, individual behaviours, occupational choices, and career planning were collected. Based on the results of the Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire, the students were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups for acute stress disorder. The correlation between acute stress disorder and the impact on career planning was analysed. The high-risk group comprised 143 (12.3%) participants, while 1015 (87.7%) participants were in the low-risk group. Two factors increased the risk of acute stress disorder in the students, including 'I think the pandemic is far away from me' (B: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.60-7.87) and 'Physical contact with confirmed or suspected cases' (B: 2.49, 95%CI: 3.42-42.44). Those who obtained pandemic information from official media sources indicated a lower risk of acute stress disorder (B: -0.24, 95%CI: 0.49-1.26). The high-risk group was more likely to quit the medical profession after graduation. The COVID-19 pandemic may cause acute stress disorder among healthcare students and affect their career planning. Universities and relevant departments should provide more information and moral support for these students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Depression , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223996

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the personal and academic lives of undergraduates in Saudi Arabia. Although studies have suggested that COVID-19 increased the prevalence of psychological health problems among undergraduates, the associations between the risk of depression and safety practices and the influence of gender on these associations have not been studied in detail. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among preparatory-year undergraduates in a large public university in Saudi Arabia during the outbreak. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and the practice of eight precautionary behaviors was also assessed. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square test, multiple linear regression and Spearman's correlation coefficient. In total, 3044 undergraduates were surveyed. The mean age was 18.6 years (SD = 0.84), and 61.9% (n = 1883) of the participants were female. Overall, 47.7% of the participants reported having elevated depressive symptoms. Overall mean values of CES-D scores were higher among female undergraduates than that of male undergraduates (18.08 versus 15.56, p < 0.01). There were inverse and weak but significant relationships between the CES-D score and frequent cleaning of hands (male: r = -0.116, p < 0.01; female: r = -0.098, p < 0.01), wearing a mask when going out (male: r = -0.172, p < 0.01; female: r = -0.135, p < 0.01), keeping social distance (male: r = -0.117, p < 0.01; female: r = -0.147, p < 0.01), and covering the nose when sneezing (male: r = -0.202, p < 0.01; female: r = -0.115, p < 0.01). Regression analysis indicated that adherence to precautionary measures was a strong predictor of reduction of depressive symptoms in the target population. Male gender was also found to be an independent predictor of reduction of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were highly prevalent in this target group, and female undergraduates seemed to be more vulnerable to developing such symptoms. Results also indicated that female undergraduates were more likely to implement the protective measures for COVID-19. The promotion of precautionary measures seems to be effective in reducing distress in this target population, but further research is needed to confirm our assertions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Students
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 796, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated college students' attitude and compliance towards a prevention strategy involving use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey in four universities in Guangdong Province (China) based on purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was given to College students (CSs) to measure the supportive attitude towards an outbreak control strategy and adoption of NPIs in respondents. RESULTS: A total of 44,446 CSs participated between 31 January and 10 February 2020; 92.7% of respondents supported the outbreak control strategy. The proportion of respondents who avoided public places, wore a facemask, avoid gatherings, and washed hands more frequently than usual was 94.8, 92.8, 91.2 and 86.9%. respectively. A total of 76.5% respondents adopted all four measures. A supportive attitude was associated with NPI adoption. Students who were female, postgraduate, anxious, and not depressed tended to have a higher supportive attitude and higher chance of NPI adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Higher supportiveness towards the disease control strategy for the Chinese public may lead to higher adoption rate of NPIs. Psychosocial factors were related to a supportive attitude and adoption of the NPI. We believe that our findings could aid policymakers to create NPIs to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(5): 1160-1169, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180817

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak negatively impacted the mental health and emotions of many individuals. The study presented here explores the mental health and emotion regulation experienced by undergraduate nursing students in China during the pandemic. Potential risk factors related to negative mental health symptoms were identified in this study. An online cross-sectional study including 342 respondents was performed from March 6, 2020, to April 1, 2020, at a University in China. A Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) were used to evaluate mental health and emotions. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. The prevalence of anxiety, depression, or comorbid anxiety and depression were 55.0%, 56.4%, and 31.6%, respectively. The mean score of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression was 29.36 ± 8.00 and 15.55 ± 5.14. Lower scores for cognitive reappraisal and higher scores for expressive suppression were susceptible to symptoms of anxiety, depression, or comorbid anxiety and depression. Issues with mental health occurred in nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings from this study provide a better understanding of the association between mental health and emotion regulation, which will help direct psychological intervention that relieves these issues during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Emotional Regulation , Students, Nursing , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178162

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has had a huge impact on the mental state of human beings due to its high infection and fatality rates in early 2020. In this paper, a cross-sectional online survey was designed to understand the mental state of college students in a university located in Wuhan city during the lockdown. Out of 1168 respondents, above 50% participants had obvious fear and anxiety symptoms; anxiety and fear were 61.64% and 58.39%, respectively. Conformity (49.49%), invulnerability (26.11%), insensitivity (21.49%) and rebelliousness (12.41%) symptoms also appeared. Meanwhile, it was revealed that the senior students experienced more anxiety than the freshmen. Moreover, it was found that the psychological symptoms (except for the insensitivity symptom) had no significant difference in gender, residence and annual household income after the one-way analysis of variance.

11.
J Community Health ; 46(5): 975-981, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152057

ABSTRACT

Although Vietnam has been successful in the fight against the first wave of COVID-19, domestic outbreaks have continued to occur. Given university students constitute a significant proportion of the population in Vietnam, to improve the prevention and control of COVID-19 in Vietnam and comparable countries, we examined their knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards face mask use which is an important preventive measure and the association between the levels of COVID-19 knowledge and KAP towards face mask use. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all students studying at Phenikaa University, Hanoi, using a self-developed questionnaire consisted of 42 questions regarding KAP towards face mask use as well as reuse of cloth mask, and COVID-19 knowledge. Among 728 participants, 40.9% (298/728) were male, 63.2% (460/728) were from health-related faculties, 46% (335/728) lived in urban areas, and 51.9% (378) had good levels of COVID-19 knowledge. Regarding face mask, most (89.7%, 653/728) participants had good knowledge scores, 72.8% (530/728) had positive attitudes, and 76.5% (557/728) had good practice scores. The most common types of masks used were surgical mask (57.6%, 419/728), followed by non-antibacterial cloth mask (23.1%, 168/728). Among 168 participants using non-antibacterial cloth mask, 43.5% reused masks (73/168), of whom 6.8% (5/73) did not wash their masks at least daily. Face mask use knowledge was statistically associated with COVID-19 knowledge (P < 0.001). Face mask use attitudes were statistically associated with education levels (P = 0.02), and COVID-19 knowledge (P < 0.001). Practice of face mask use was statistically associated with gender (P = 0.03), geographical distribution (P = 0.04), academic majors (P = 0.02), and COVID-19 knowledge (P = 0.01). The levels of KAP towards face mask use among Vietnamese university students are high. It is important to continue to enforce the mass masking policy, together with the ongoing community education with an emphasis on the route of COVID-19 transmission and how correct face mask use can stop the spread. To ensure the effectiveness of face masks, there is an urgent need to educate the community regarding the procedures for cloth masks re-use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Masks , Students/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vietnam
12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150541

ABSTRACT

Measures implemented in many countries to contain the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a change in lifestyle with unpredictable consequences on physical and mental health. We aimed at identifying the variables associated with psychological distress during the lockdown between April and May 2020 in the Italian academic population. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional online survey (IO CONTO 2020) within five Italian universities. Among about 240,000 individuals invited to participate through institutional communications, 18 120 filled the questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured by the self-administered Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The covariates collected included demographic and lifestyle characteristics, trust in government, doctors and scientists. Associations of covariates with influenza-like symptoms or positive COVID-19 test and with psychological distress were assessed by multiple regression models at the local level; a meta-analysis of the results was then performed. Severe levels of anxiety or depression were reported by 20% of the sample and were associated with being a student or having a lower income, irrespective of their health condition and worries about contracting the virus. The probability of being severely anxious or depressed also depended on physical activity: compared to those never exercising, the highest OR being for those who stopped during lockdown (1.53; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.84) and the lowest for those who continued (0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.95). Up to 21% of severe cases of anxiety or depression might have been avoided if during lockdown participants had continued to exercise as before. Socioeconomic insecurity contributes to increase mental problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic and to the measures to contain it. Maintaining or introducing an adequate level of physical activity is likely to mitigate such detrimental effects. Promoting safe practice of physical activity should remain a public health priority to reduce health risks during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
J Public Health Res ; 10(3)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 related knowledge, attitude and practice plays a major role in determining the readiness of the community to adopt the behavioural change towards recommended preventive measures outlined by public health officials. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among university students as well as its associated factors. METHOD: This is a cross sectional study that was conducted among students in a public university during the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. An online validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis test was used to determine the association between independent variables with knowledge, attitude, and practice score. RESULTS: Overall response rate of this study was 92.9 (n=524). Median score of knowledge domain was 78.0 (IQR= ±12.0), median attitude score of 49.0 (IQR= ±5.0), and median practice score of 80.0 (IQR= ±11.0). The mean knowledge, attitude and practice score were significantly higher among diploma holder (vs degree holder, p<0.05), residing in main Kota Kinabalu campus (vs non-KK campus, p<0.001), studying in medical faculty (vs non-medical faculty, p<0.001), and attended COVID-19 education (vs non-attendance; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 related knowledge and attitude were below satisfactory level during earlier phase of the pandemic. However, majority of respondents have positive behaviour towards COVID-19 prevention. This highlights the importance of accurate and tailored health education to improve the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of recommended measures to prevent COVID-19 spread.

14.
Ethics Med Public Health ; 17: 100651, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in many changes in the delivery of health service which not only affect the public as well as healthcare workers, and also among medical and nursing students who are currently undergoing their training. This study aims to determine the commitment and willingness of medical and nursing students in Sarawak in treating patients with COVID-19 and its associated factors. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study using online questionnaire, carried out in a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. All medical and nursing students were invited to participate in this study. Data was entered and analysed using IBM SPSS version 22. RESULT: A total of 304 respondents participated in the study, with 81.6% female and 69.4% medical students. Majority of the respondents were most willing to take a medical history, do a physical examination, throat swabbing, draw blood and perform IV drip insertion. There was a high commitment among respondents to treat COVID-19 patients regardless of personal risks. Majority of the respondents also agreed that medical staff who are involved in treating COVID-19 patients should be receiving a salary increase and compensation should be given to affected healthcare families, and all non-medical staff should be involved in treating COVID-19 patients. About 71% agreed about a law mandating medical staffs to treat patient. CONCLUSION: The willingness and commitment of medical and nursing students to treat COVID-19 patients was high, indicating their potential work force as healthcare providers.

15.
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 12: 253-262, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to impose a significant impact on medical education. We aimed to describe the clinical learning experience of undergraduate medical students undertaking internal medicine clerkship during the COVID-19 pandemic at Makerere University, Uganda. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study among medical students in clinical years of study pursuing the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery undergraduate degree program was conducted in November 2020. Only 3rd (junior clerks) and 5th (senior clerks) year medical students whose internal medicine clerkships were interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic were studied. RESULTS: Data of 188 (95%) eligible clinical year students; junior (101, 54.0%) and senior (86, 46.0%) were analysed. Median age was 24 (range: 22-42) years. Majority (70.1%) were male and Ugandan nationals (94.1%). Sixty-four (30.3%) students reported inadequate personal protective equipment, 152 (81.7%) felt at risk of contracting COVID-19, and 127 (67.9%) said it was difficult to observe COVID-19 standard operating procedures. Twenty-two students (11.9%) were discouraged from pursuing a career in internal medicine. Overall, most students reported good or excellent clinical experience pre-COVID-19 era compared to during the COVID-19 era (4.0 vs 3.5, p<0.0001). Senior clerks significantly believed that the time allocated for the rotation was adequate (p<0.0001) and they were able to complete their study objectives (p<0.001), compared to the junior clerks. Senior clerks believed that learning was difficult when combined with junior clerks (p=0.013). About half of the students (51.4%, n=95) reported clinical teaching should remain as it was in the pre-COVID-19 era. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significantly negative effect on the clinical learning experience of the students. There is need to review the current teaching and learning methods to suit teaching and learning during pandemics of highly infectious diseases to ensure safe and effective learning experience.

16.
J Osteopath Med ; 121(5): 455-461, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127811

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic. Due to the rapid spread, strong contagion, high incidence of lethality in severe cases, and the lack of a pharmaceutical prevention or cure, COVID-19 has posed a serious threat to human life and health. It has also had a tremendous impact on mental health, including fear and worry, difficulty sleeping or concentrating, and increased use of poor coping mechanisms. Osteopathic medical students have had additional concerns regarding the interruption of their studies, closing of clinical rotations, and postponed licensing exams. To date, few reports have focused on osteopathic medical students and their reactions to the outbreak. OBJECTIVES: To assess resilience, coping, health behaviors, and emotional wellbeing of osteopathic medical students during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we distributed an anonymous online survey to all medical students enrolled at Nova Southeastern University in May 2020 (n=1,310) via an e-mail invitation using the institution's student listservs. Our major study variables were based on published reports and anecdotal evidence; we subsequently developed the Emotional Wellbeing in Healthcare Professions Students Questionnaire (EWB-Q). This EWB-Q contained validated scales to assess the contribution of levels of coping strategies used, personal resilience, and health behaviors on the emotional wellbeing of osteopathic medical students. Multiple linear regression and other statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS v0.26. RESULTS: Of the 1,310 students invited to participate, 335 (25.5%) surveys were returned. Of those, 133 had more than 33% of the necessary data missing and were removed, resulting in 202 (15.4%) completed questionnaires. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years. About half (n=92; 45.5%) were in the clinical phase (years 3 and 4) of their medical school training (in rotations). A significant regression equation was found (F[4,171]=17.481, p<0.000, R 2 =0.290, R 2adjusted=0.274), indicating that levels of coping, personal resilience, and health behaviors (i.e., not sleeping more than usual, not exercising less than usual) accounted for a significant amount of the variance in emotional wellbeing scores in osteopathic medical students. Higher levels of resilience, greater use of coping strategies, not sleeping more than usual, and not exercising less than usual were predictors of emotional wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: Cultivating positive mental health should be a high priority for medical educators as they develop and implement curriculum-based initiatives to help medical students bolster their personal resilience and to encourage healthy coping behaviors during times of crisis and beyond. A proactive position that assists with building personal resilience and developing stress management habits is paramount in assisting students who are grappling not only with the challenges of rigorous medical training, but also with the uncertainty and stress that exists during any major global health or socioeconomic crisis.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Mental Health , Osteopathic Medicine/education , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Resilience, Psychological
17.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 30, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms as well as suicide-related ideation among Japanese university students during the stay-home order necessitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Japan, and offer evidence in support of future intervention to depression and suicide prevention strategies among college and university students. METHODS: The data for this cross-sectional study were derived from the Student Mental Health Survey conducted from May 20 to June 16, 2020 at a national university in Akita prefecture. Among the 5111 students recruited, 2712 participated in this study (response rate, 53%; mean age ± standard deviation, 20.5 ±3.5 years; men, 53.8%). Depressive symptoms were identified by using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate depressive symptoms based on a PHQ-9 score ≥10 and suicide-related ideation based on question 9 of PHQ-9 ≥1, which encompasses thoughts of both suicide and self-harm, was 11.7% and 6.7%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that risk factors for depression included being a woman, smoking, alcohol consumption, and social network communication using either video or voice. For suicide-related ideation, alcohol consumption was the only risk factor. Exercise and having someone to consult about worries were associated with decreased risk of both depressive symptoms and suicide-related ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Negative lifestyles of smoking and drinking, and being a woman, may be important risk factors for depressive symptoms, whereas exercise and having someone to consult about worries may be protective factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 519-533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are lifesaving drugs, and inappropriate uses lead to the resistance that renders them ineffective. This study aims to understand knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) concerning antibiotic use and resistance among university students in Bangladesh. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed from January to April 2020 among students at Jahangirnagar University (JU), Bangladesh. Purposive sampling was conducted through an in-person interview using a structured questionnaire. Students from the faculties of biological sciences and non-biology background were included. The univariate ordinal regression technique was used to analyze the relationship between predictors and good knowledge about the antibiotics. A two-tailed p-value was calculated to determine statistical association. RESULTS: Out of 205 study participants, 92 and 113 responders were from biological science faculty and non-biology disciplines, respectively. Less than half of the students (42.4%) showed a good knowledge level (scores higher than 80%). Biology-background students possess better knowledge than non-biology students [odds ratio (OR) = 4.44, 95% confidence level (CL) (2.56, 7.70), p < 0.001]. A better attitude was noticed among all students. The self-medication rate was quite low, and more than 90% of students were found to consume antibiotics according to the physician's prescription. Lack of treatment adherence was recorded, and students admitted to stop-taking antibiotics when symptoms disappeared (48.67% biology and 36.26% non-biology). Multivariate regression analysis was unable to detect any significant association between self-medication and gender, student category or the level of knowledge about antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Students of biological science background possessed better knowledge indicating the importance of appropriate curriculum imparted in knowledge buildup. Introducing a short course about the risk and development of antibiotic resistance will grow the students' awareness to avoid the resistance phenomenon.

19.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 28(1): 1-13, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Volunteering within the health-care sector is crucial during pandemics. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of clinical medical and dental students in Lagos, Nigeria, about volunteering during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst medical and dental students undergoing clinical postings at the two public universities in Lagos, Nigeria, using total population sampling. Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to test for association at the level of significance of 5%. RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 23.3 years ± 2.6 standard deviation and 62.5% were females. The majority (82.9%) of the respondents agreed to volunteer if provided with adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) and if adequately trained to do so (79.3%). Although perceived as dangerous, the majority (91.2%) of the respondents considered volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic as a form of educational experience. Compared to the final-year students, penultimate year students were more likely to volunteer in the event of a health manpower shortage. The final-year students were more likely to volunteer if government made the request. Female students were more likely than male students to volunteer even if they were not compensated but would require parental approval. CONCLUSION: Medical and dental students perceived their involvement during the COVID-19 pandemic as a form of educational experience but would require adequate training and PPE. There is a need to train and provide adequate PPE for them to function as volunteers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adult , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Dental , Surveys and Questionnaires , Volunteers , Young Adult
20.
J Affect Disord ; 285: 97-104, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Owing to the government's effective epidemic control measures, universities in some areas of China gradually resumed offline teaching six months after the COVID-19 outbreak. Although attention should now be paid to the experiences of students after they returned to campus, few studies have explored the factors and mechanisms that have influenced these students' school adaptation. The present study investigated the multiple roles of social support and resilience in mediating associations the relationship between Chinese university students' interpersonal relationships and their school adaptation during COVID-19 control period. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 4534 Chinese university students (Mage = 19.70, SD = 1.14) at two universities in Jiangxi provinces. The independent variable was interpersonal relationships; mediating variables were social support and resilience; and the dependent variable was school adaptation. Multiple mediation analysis was performed using the MPlus software. RESULTS: Controlling for demographic variables, the quality of students' interpersonal relationships was significantly and positively related to their school adaptation, with students' ratings of social support and resilience mediating these associations. More interestingly, social support and resilience played multiple mediating roles in the relationship between interpersonal relationships and school adaptation. LIMITATIONS: The age stage of the sample and the methods in which the data were collected may affect the generalizability of the results. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 control period, interpersonal relationships can influence school adaptation either directly or indirectly by enhancing social support or resilience (parallel mediation) or by activating resilience via the experience of social support (serial mediation). This study's results emphasize the role of interpersonal relationships, as well as the contributions of positive external and internal factors on students' school adaptation during the epidemic control period. Accordingly, these findings may have implications for the mental health education of college students in the post-epidemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Social Support , Students
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