Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 242
Filter
1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 1813-1823, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973737

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a devastating viral disease that occurs in cattle. In China, it was first detected in the Xin-Jiang autonomous region, near the border with Kazakhstan, in August 2019. As there were no new occurrences of LSD in either country following the first detection, the initial introduction of the virus remains unknown. Arthropod vectors were considered as potential vectors. Consequently, to identify the arthropod vectors involved in transmitting LSD virus (LSDV), an insect surveillance campaign was launched at four different sites scattered along the border, and samples from 22 flying insect species were collected and subjected to PCR assays. Following the Agianniotaki LSDV vaccine and Sprygin's general LSDV assays, two kinds of non-biting flies, namely, Musca domestica L and Muscina stabulans, were positive for LSDV. However, all the other insects tested negative. Viral DNA was only detected in wash fluid, implying body surface contamination of the virus. The negative test results suggest that non-biting flies are the dominant insects involved in the observed local epidemic. Three genomic regions encoding RPO30, GPCR, and LW126 were successfully sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The sequences shared high homology with LSDV/Russia/Saratov/2017, a recombinant vaccine-like strain formerly identified in Russia, and clustered with LSDV vaccine strains in phylogenetic trees of RPO30 and LW126. However, the GPCR gene was seen to be solely clustered with LSDV field strains, implying differences in host affinity between these closely related vaccine-like strains. Despite this, there is no direct evidence to support cross-border transmission of the vaccine-like LSDV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vaccine-like LSDV DNA detection in non-biting flies in China.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lumpy Skin Disease/prevention & control , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny , Vaccines, Attenuated
2.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(17): 2530-2543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504184

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus strain and the causative agent of COVID-19 was emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 [1]. This pandemic situation and magnitude of suffering have led to global effort to find out effective measures for discovery of new specific drugs and vaccines to combat this deadly disease. In addition to many initiatives to develop vaccines for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, some of which are at various stages of clinical trials, researchers worldwide are currently using available conventional therapeutic drugs with the potential to combat the disease effectively in other viral infections and it is believed that these antiviral drugs could act as a promising immediate alternative. Remdesivir (RDV), a broad-spectrum anti-viral agent, initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV) and known to showed promising efficiency in in vitro and in vivo studies against SARS and MERS coronaviruses, is now being investigated against SARS-CoV-2. On May 1, 2020, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for RDV to treat COVID- 19 patients [2]. A number of multicentre clinical trials are on-going to check the safety and efficacy of RDV for the treatment of COVID-19. Results of published double blind, and placebo-controlled trial on RDV against SARS-CoV-2, showed that RDV administration led to faster clinical improvement in severe COVID-19 patients compared to placebo. This review highlights the available knowledge about RDV as a therapeutic drug for coronaviruses and its preclinical and clinical trials against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(4): 541-552, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused global public health issues after being reported for the first time in Wuhan province of China. So far, there have been approximately 14.8 million confirmed cases and 0.614 million deaths due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection globally, and still, numbers are increasing. Although the virus has caused a global public health concern, no effective treatment has been developed. OBJECTIVE: One of the strategies to combat the COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is the development of vaccines that can make humans immune to these infections. Considering this approach, in this study, an attempt has been made to design epitope-based vaccine for combatting COVID-19 disease by analyzing the complete proteome of the virus by using immuno-informatics tools. METHODS: The protein sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 was retrieved and the individual proteins were checked for their allergic potential. Then, from non-allergen proteins, antigenic epitopes were identified that could bind with MHCII molecules. The epitopes were modeled and docked to predict the interaction with MHCII molecules. The stability of the epitope-MHCII complex was further analyzed by performing a molecular dynamics simulation study. The selected vaccine candidates were also analyzed for their global population coverage and conservancy among SARS-related coronavirus species. RESULTS: The study has predicted 5 peptide molecules that can act as potential candidates for epitope- based vaccine development. Among the 5 selected epitopes, the peptide LRARSVSPK can be the most potent epitope because of its high geometric shape complementarity score, low ACE and very high response towards it by the world population (81.81% global population coverage). Further, molecular dynamic simulation analysis indicated the formation of a stable epitope-MHCII complex. The epitope LRARSVSPK was also found to be highly conserved among the SARS-CoV- -2 isolated from different countries. CONCLUSION: The study has predicted T-cell epitopes that can elicit a robust immune response in the global human population and act as potential vaccine candidates. However, the ability of these epitopes to act as vaccine candidate needs to be validated in wet lab studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
J Virol ; 95(15): e0053021, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486507

ABSTRACT

Elicitation of lung tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRMs) is a goal of T cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, such as influenza A virus (IAV). C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2)-dependent monocyte trafficking plays an essential role in the establishment of CD8 TRMs in lungs of IAV-infected mice. Here, we used a combination adjuvant-based subunit vaccine strategy that evokes multifaceted (TC1/TC17/TH1/TH17) IAV nucleoprotein-specific lung TRMs to determine whether CCR2 and monocyte infiltration are essential for vaccine-induced TRM development and protective immunity to IAV in lungs. Following intranasal vaccination, neutrophils, monocytes, conventional dendritic cells (DCs), and monocyte-derived dendritic cells internalized and processed vaccine antigen in lungs. We found that basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 3 (BATF3)-dependent DCs were essential for eliciting T cell responses, but CCR2 deficiency enhanced the differentiation of CD127hi, KLRG-1lo, OX40+ve CD62L+ve, and mucosally imprinted CD69+ve CD103+ve effector and memory CD8 T cells in lungs and airways of vaccinated mice. Mechanistically, increased development of lung TRMs induced by CCR2 deficiency was linked to dampened expression of T-bet but not altered TCF-1 levels or T cell receptor signaling in CD8 T cells. T1/T17 functional programming, parenchymal localization of CD8/CD4 effector and memory T cells, recall T cell responses, and protective immunity to a lethal IAV infection were unaffected in CCR2-deficient mice. Taken together, we identified a negative regulatory role for CCR2 and monocyte trafficking in mucosal imprinting and differentiation of vaccine-induced TRMs. Mechanistic insights from this study may aid the development of T-cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, including IAV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). IMPORTANCE While antibody-based immunity to influenza A virus (IAV) is type and subtype specific, lung- and airway-resident memory T cells that recognize conserved epitopes in the internal viral proteins are known to provide heterosubtypic immunity. Hence, broadly protective IAV vaccines need to elicit robust T cell memory in the respiratory tract. We have developed a combination adjuvant-based IAV nucleoprotein vaccine that elicits strong CD4 and CD8 T cell memory in lungs and protects against H1N1 and H5N1 strains of IAV. In this study, we examined the mechanisms that control vaccine-induced protective memory T cells in the respiratory tract. We found that trafficking of monocytes into lungs might limit the development of antiviral lung-resident memory T cells following intranasal vaccination. These findings suggest that strategies that limit monocyte infiltration can potentiate vaccine-induced frontline T-cell immunity to respiratory viruses, such as IAV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunologic Memory , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Receptors, CCR2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Animals , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Lung/immunology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Receptors, CCR2/genetics
5.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 60(2): 259-270, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384600

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was used with success in the 1930s and 1940s for a variety of diseases. Despite the success, the lack of understanding of the detailed mechanisms of actions, and the achievements of antibiotics, phased off the use of UBI from the 1950s. The emergence of novel viral infections, from HIV/AIDS to Ebola, from SARS and MERS, and SARS-CoV-2, bring back the attention to this therapeutical opportunity. UBI has a complex virucidal activity, mostly acting on the immune system response. It has effects on lymphocytes (T-cells and B-cells), macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and lipids. The Knott technique was applied for bacterial infections such as tuberculosis to viral infections such as hepatitis or influenza. The more complex extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is also being applied to hematological cancers such as T-cell lymphomas. Further studies of UBI may help to create a useful device that may find applications for novel viruses that are resistant to known antivirals or vaccines, or also bacteria that are resistant to known antibiotics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Photopheresis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Bacteria/radiation effects , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/radiation effects , Humans , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/radiation effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/radiation effects , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/radiation effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Signal Transduction/radiation effects , Treatment Outcome
6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389571

ABSTRACT

Among vaccines administered to children are those targeting rotavirus, a segmented double-stranded RNA virus that represents a major cause of severe gastroenteritis. To explore the feasibility of establishing a combined rotavirus-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, we generated recombinant (r)SA11 rotaviruses with modified segment 7 RNAs that contained coding cassettes for NSP3, a translational 2A stop-restart signal, and a FLAG-tagged portion of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein: S1 fragment, N-terminal domain (NTD), receptor-binding domain (RBD), extended RBD (ExRBD), or S2 core (CR) domain. Generation of rSA11 containing the S1 coding sequence required a sequence insertion of 2.2 kbp, the largest such insertion yet introduced into the rotavirus genome. Immunoblotting showed that rSA11 viruses containing the smaller NTD, RBD, ExRBD, and CR coding sequences expressed S-protein products of expected size, with ExRBD expressed at highest levels. These rSA11 viruses were genetically stable during serial passage. In contrast, the rSA11 virus containing the full-length S coding sequence (rSA11/NSP3-fS1) failed to express its expected 80 kDa fS1 product, for unexplained reasons. Moreover, rSA11/NSP3-fS1 was genetically unstable, with variants lacking the S1 insertion appearing during serial passage. Nonetheless, these results emphasize the potential usefulness of rotavirus vaccines as expression vectors of immunogenic portions of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, including NTD, RBD, ExRBD, and CR, that have sizes smaller than the S1 fragment.

7.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 50, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387358

ABSTRACT

The development of an effective AIDS vaccine remains a challenge. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs formulated in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) have proved to be a potent mode of immunization against infectious diseases in preclinical studies, and are being tested for SARS-CoV-2 in humans. A critical question is how mRNA-LNP vaccine immunogenicity compares to that of traditional adjuvanted protein vaccines in primates. Here, we show that mRNA-LNP immunization compared to protein immunization elicits either the same or superior magnitude and breadth of HIV-1 Env-specific polyfunctional antibodies. Immunization with mRNA-LNP encoding Zika premembrane and envelope or HIV-1 Env gp160 induces durable neutralizing antibodies for at least 41 weeks. Doses of mRNA-LNP as low as 5 µg are immunogenic in macaques. Thus, mRNA-LNP can be used to rapidly generate single or multi-component vaccines, such as sequential vaccines needed to protect against HIV-1 infection. Such vaccines would be as or more immunogenic than adjuvanted recombinant protein vaccines in primates.

8.
mBio ; 11(6)2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388458

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 uses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the primary receptor to enter host cells and initiate the infection. The critical binding region of ACE2 is an ∼30-amino-acid (aa)-long helix. Here, we report the design of four stapled peptides based on the ACE2 helix, which is expected to bind to SARS-CoV-2 and prevent the binding of the virus to the ACE2 receptor and disrupt the infection. All stapled peptides showed high helical contents (50 to 94% helicity). In contrast, the linear control peptide NYBSP-C showed no helicity (19%). We have evaluated the peptides in a pseudovirus-based single-cycle assay in HT1080/ACE2 cells and human lung cell line A549/ACE2, overexpressing ACE2. Three of the four stapled peptides showed potent antiviral activity in HT1080/ACE2 (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]: 1.9 to 4.1 µM) and A549/ACE2 (IC50: 2.2 to 2.8 µM) cells. The linear peptide NYBSP-C and the double-stapled peptide StRIP16, used as controls, showed no antiviral activity. Most significantly, none of the stapled peptides show any cytotoxicity at the highest dose tested. We also evaluated the antiviral activity of the peptides by infecting Vero E6 cells with the replication-competent authentic SARS-CoV-2 (US_WA-1/2020). NYBSP-1 was the most efficient, preventing the complete formation of cytopathic effects (CPEs) at an IC100 of 17.2 µM. NYBSP-2 and NYBSP-4 also prevented the formation of the virus-induced CPE with an IC100 of about 33 µM. We determined the proteolytic stability of one of the most active stapled peptides, NYBSP-4, in human plasma, which showed a half-life (T1/2) of >289 min.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus with many unknowns. No vaccine or specific therapy is available yet to prevent and treat this deadly virus. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics. Structural studies revealed critical interactions between the binding site helix of the ACE2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD). Therefore, targeting the entry pathway of SARS-CoV-2 is ideal for both prevention and treatment as it blocks the first step of the viral life cycle. We report the design of four double-stapled peptides, three of which showed potent antiviral activity in HT1080/ACE2 cells and human lung carcinoma cells, A549/ACE2. Most significantly, the active stapled peptides with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 showed high α-helicity (60 to 94%). The most active stapled peptide, NYBSP-4, showed substantial resistance to degradation by proteolytic enzymes in human plasma. The lead stapled peptides are expected to pave the way for further optimization of a clinical candidate.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Attachment/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Protein Binding , Vero Cells
9.
FASEB J ; 34(8): 9832-9842, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388029

ABSTRACT

To date, the recently discovered SARS-CoV-2 virus has afflicted >6.9 million people worldwide and disrupted the global economy. Development of effective vaccines or treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection will be aided by a molecular-level understanding of SARS-CoV-2 proteins and their interactions with host cell proteins. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is highly homologous to the N protein of SARS-CoV, which is essential for viral RNA replication and packaging into new virions. Emerging models indicate that nucleocapsid proteins of other viruses can form biomolecular condensates to spatiotemporally regulate N protein localization and function. Our bioinformatic analyses, in combination with pre-existing experimental evidence, suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein is capable of forming or regulating biomolecular condensates in vivo by interaction with RNA and key host cell proteins. We discuss multiple models, whereby the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 may harness this activity to regulate viral life cycle and host cell response to viral infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Binding Sites , Computational Biology , Cytoplasmic Granules/chemistry , Humans , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Kinases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Assembly , Virus Replication
10.
J Virol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376458

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses that infect humans belong to the Alpha-coronavirus (including HCoV-229E) and Beta-coronavirus (including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) genera. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 is currently a major threat to public health worldwide. The spike (S) homotrimers bind to their receptors via the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which is a major target to block viral entry. In this study, we selected Alpha-coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and Beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) as models. Their RBDs exist two different conformational states (lying or standing) in the prefusion S-trimer structure. Then, the differences in the immune responses to RBDs from these coronaviruses were analyzed structurally and immunologically. Our results showed that more RBD-specific antibodies (antibody titers: 1.28×105; 2.75×105) were induced by the S-trimer with the RBD in the "standing" state (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) than the S-trimer with the RBD in the "lying" state (HCoV-229E, antibody titers: <500), and more S-trimer-specific antibodies were induced by the RBD in the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (antibody titers: 6.72×105; 5×105) than HCoV-229E (antibody titers:1.125×103). Besides, we found that the ability of the HCoV-229E RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies was lower than S-trimer, and the intact and stable S1 subunit was essential for producing efficient neutralizing antibodies against HCoV-229E. Importantly, our results reveal different vaccine strategies for coronaviruses, and S-trimer is better than RBD as a target for vaccine development in Alpha-coronavirus Our findings will provide important implications for future development of coronavirus vaccines.Importance Outbreak of coronaviruses, especially SARS-CoV-2, poses a serious threat to global public health. Development of vaccines to prevent the coronaviruses that can infect humans has always been a top priority. Coronavirus spike (S) protein is considered as a major target for vaccine development. Currently, structural studies have shown that Alpha-coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and Beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) RBDs are in "lying" and "standing" states in the prefusion S-trimer structure. Here, we evaluated the ability of S-trimer and RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies among these coronaviruses. Our results showed that the S-trimer and RBD are both candidates for subunit vaccines in Beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) with a RBD "standing" state. However, for Alpha-coronavirus (HCoV-229E) with a RBD "lying" state, the S-trimer may be more suitable for subunit vaccines than the RBD. Our results will provide novel ideas for the development of vaccines targeting S protein in the future.

11.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0040221, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350001

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the viral pathogen responsible for the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As of 19 May 2021, John Hopkins University's COVID-19 tracking platform reported 3.3 million deaths associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, the World Health Organization has granted emergency use listing (EUL) to six COVID-19 vaccine candidates. However, much of the pathogenesis observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection remains elusive. To gain insight into the contribution of individual accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, we used our recently described reverse-genetics system approach to successfully engineer recombinant SARS-CoV-2 (rSARS-CoV-2) constructs; we removed individual viral ORF3a, -6, -7a, -7b, and -8 proteins from them, and we characterized the resulting recombinant viruses in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate differences in plaque morphology, with ORF-deficient (ΔORF) viruses producing smaller plaques than those of the wild type (rSARS-CoV-2/WT). However, growth kinetics of ΔORF viruses were like those of rSARS-CoV-2/WT. Interestingly, infection of K18 human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mice with the ΔORF rSARS-CoV-2s identified ORF3a and ORF6 as the major contributors of viral pathogenesis, while ΔORF7a, ΔORF7b, and ΔORF8 rSARS-CoV-2s induced pathology comparable to that of rSARS-CoV-2/WT. This study demonstrates the robustness of our reverse-genetics system to generate rSARS-CoV-2 constructs and the major role for ORF3a and ORF6 in viral pathogenesis, providing important information for the generation of attenuated forms of SARS-CoV-2 for their implementation as live attenuated vaccines for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Despite great efforts put forward worldwide to combat the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to be a human health and socioeconomic threat. Insights into the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the contribution of viral proteins to disease outcome remain elusive. Our study aims (i) to determine the contribution of SARS-CoV-2 accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins to viral pathogenesis and disease outcome and (ii) to develop a synergistic platform combining our robust reverse-genetics system to generate recombinant SARS-CoV-2 constructs with a validated rodent model of infection and disease. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a and ORF6 contribute to lung pathology and ultimately disease outcome in K18 hACE2 transgenic mice, while ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8 have little impact on disease outcome. Moreover, our combinatory platform serves as a foundation for generating attenuated forms of the virus to develop live attenuated vaccines for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Open Reading Frames/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e719-e734, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing amidst widespread transmission during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Disease phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 exposure occurring around the time of vaccine administration have not been described. METHODS: Two-dose (14 days apart) vaccination regimen with formalin-inactivated whole virion SARS-CoV-2 in golden Syrian hamster model was established. To investigate the disease phenotypes of a 1-dose regimen given 3 days prior (D-3), 1 (D1) or 2 (D2) days after, or on the day (D0) of virus challenge, we monitored the serial clinical severity, tissue histopathology, virus burden, and antibody response of the vaccinated hamsters. RESULTS: The 1-dose vaccinated hamsters had significantly lower clinical disease severity score, body weight loss, lung histology score, nucleocapsid protein expression in lung, infectious virus titers in the lung and nasal turbinate, inflammatory changes in intestines, and a higher serum neutralizing antibody or IgG titer against the spike receptor-binding domain or nucleocapsid protein when compared to unvaccinated controls. These improvements were particularly noticeable in D-3, but also in D0, D1, and even D2 vaccinated hamsters to varying degrees. No increased eosinophilic infiltration was found in the nasal turbinate, lung, and intestine after virus challenge. Significantly higher serum titer of fluorescent foci microneutralization inhibition antibody was detected in D1 and D2 vaccinated hamsters at day 4 post-challenge compared to controls despite undetectable neutralizing antibody titer. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination just before or soon after exposure to SARS-CoV-2 does not worsen disease phenotypes and may even ameliorate infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , Vaccines, Inactivated
13.
Phytother Res ; 35(7): 3447-3483, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323905

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of viral diseases like novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) prompted the scientific world to examine antiviral bioactive compounds rather than nucleic acid analogous, protease inhibitors, or other toxic synthetic molecules. The emerging viral infections significantly associated with 2019-nCoV have challenged humanity's survival. Further, there is a constant emergence of new resistant viral strains that demand novel antiviral agents with fewer side effects and cell toxicity. Despite significant progress made in immunization and regenerative medicine, numerous viruses still lack prophylactic vaccines and specific antiviral treatments that are so often influenced by the generation of viral escape mutants. Of importance, medicinal herbs offer a wide variety of therapeutic antiviral chemotypes that can inhibit viral replication by preventing viral adsorption, adhering to cell receptors, inhibiting virus penetration in the host cell, and competing for pathways of activation of intracellular signals. The present review will comprehensively summarize the promising antiviral activities of medicinal plants and their bioactive molecules. Furthermore, it will elucidate their mechanism of action and possible implications in the treatment/prevention of viral diseases even when their mechanism of action is not fully understood, which could serve as the base for the future development of novel or complementary antiviral treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Plants, Medicinal , Virus Diseases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
14.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104859, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318929

ABSTRACT

Outbreak and pandemic of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in 2019/2020 will challenge global health for the future. Because a vaccine against the virus will not be available in the near future, we herein try to offer a pharmacological strategy to combat the virus. There exists a number of candidate drugs that may inhibit infection with and replication of SARS-CoV-2. Such drugs comprise inhibitors of TMPRSS2 serine protease and inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Blockade of ACE2, the host cell receptor for the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and inhibition of TMPRSS2, which is required for S protein priming may prevent cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Further, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and off-label antiviral drugs, such as the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, broad-spectrum antiviral drugs arbidol and favipiravir as well as antiviral phytochemicals available to date may limit spread of SARS-CoV-2 and morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
15.
Microorganisms ; 8(10)2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302376

ABSTRACT

Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of the Filoviridae family of negative sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. EBOV infection causes Ebola virus disease (EVD), characterized by coagulopathy, lymphopenia, and multi-organ failure, which can culminate in death. In 2019, the FDA approved the first vaccine against EBOV, a recombinant live-attenuated viral vector wherein the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus is replaced with the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV (rVSV-EBOV-GP, Ervebo® by Merck). This vaccine demonstrates high efficacy in nonhuman primates by providing prophylactic, rapid, and post-exposure protection. In humans, rVSV-EBOV-GP demonstrated 100% protection in several phase III clinical trials in over 10,000 individuals during the 2013-2016 West Africa epidemic. As of 2020, over 218,000 doses of rVSV-EBOV-GP have been administered to individuals with high risk of EBOV exposure. Despite licensure and robust preclinical studies, the mechanisms of rVSV-EBOV-GP-mediated protection are not fully understood. Such knowledge is crucial for understanding vaccine-mediated correlates of protection from EVD and to aid the further design and development of therapeutics against filoviruses. Here, we summarize the current literature regarding the host response to vaccination and EBOV exposure, and evidence regarding innate and adaptive immune mechanisms involved in rVSV-EBOV-GP-mediated protection, with a focus on the host transcriptional response. Current data strongly suggest a protective synergy between rapid innate and humoral immunity.

16.
Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst ; 38(2): 75-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251764

ABSTRACT

Viral infections such as AIDS, hepatitis, herpes keratitis, and herpes labialis became resistant to drugs and it is difficult to design vaccine. In current era drug-resistant viruses are now treated by nanoparticles (NPs) and this field is known as nanobiotechnology that relates nanoscience with the biological system. NPs due to their antiviral activity are used in the treatment of viral diseases. The advantages of using the NP is its specific target action and increase the efficiency of treatment with minimum side effects. Liposomes, quantum dots, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, silver NPs, gold NPs, and magnetic NPs are used to treat viral infections. NP-based therapeutics have completely replaced the usage of drugs and vaccines for viral diseases treatment. Nano vaccines have been investigated for the delivery of drugs; biomaterials-based NPs are in development to be formulated into nano vaccines. But there are limitations in the manufacturing and stabilization of NPs in the body. This review focuses on the antiviral activity of several NPs, its uptake by different viruses for viral disease treatment, nano vaccines, and the limitation of the NPs as nanotherapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Compounding/methods , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Treatment Outcome , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253120, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of universal testing, effective therapies, or vaccines, identifying risk factors for viral infection, particularly readily modifiable exposures and behaviors, is required to identify effective strategies against viral infection and transmission. METHODS: We conducted a world-wide mobile application-based prospective cohort study available to English speaking adults with a smartphone. We collected self-reported characteristics, exposures, and behaviors, as well as smartphone-based geolocation data. Our main outcome was incident symptoms of viral infection, defined as fevers and chills plus one other symptom previously shown to occur with SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined by daily surveys. FINDINGS: Among 14, 335 participants residing in all 50 US states and 93 different countries followed for a median 21 days (IQR 10-26 days), 424 (3%) developed incident viral symptoms. In pooled multivariable logistic regression models, female biological sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.39-2.20, p<0.001), anemia (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.16-1.81, p = 0.001), hypertension (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.68, p = 0.007), cigarette smoking in the last 30 days (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.35-2.55, p<0.001), any viral symptoms among household members 6-12 days prior (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.67-2.55, p<0.001), and the maximum number of individuals the participant interacted with within 6 feet in the past 6-12 days (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25, p<0.001) were each associated with a higher risk of developing viral symptoms. Conversely, a higher subjective social status (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.93, p<0.001), at least weekly exercise (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.47-0.70, p<0.001), and sanitizing one's phone (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.99, p = 0.037) were each associated with a lower risk of developing viral symptoms. INTERPRETATION: While several immutable characteristics were associated with the risk of developing viral symptoms, multiple immediately modifiable exposures and habits that influence risk were also observed, potentially identifying readily accessible strategies to mitigate risk in the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Fever/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smartphone , United States/epidemiology
18.
Neurol Ther ; 10(2): 523-537, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274996

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system that typically develops within 4 weeks after infection. In addition to conventional infectious diseases with which we are familiar, emerging infectious diseases, such as Zika virus infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have also been suggested to be associated with GBS. GBS is mainly categorized into a demyelinating subtype known as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and an axonal subtype known as acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Most patients who develop GBS after Zika virus infection or COVID-19 have AIDP. The concept of molecular mimicry between pathogens and human peripheral nerve components was established through studies of AMAN with anti-ganglioside GM1 antibodies occurring after Campylobacter jejuni infection. Although such mimicry between specific pathogens and myelin or Schwann cell components has not been clearly demonstrated in AIDP, a similarity of Zika virus and SARS-CoV-2 proteins to human proteins has been suggested. With the development of global commerce and travel, emerging infectious diseases will continue to threaten public health. From this viewpoint, the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs is important to prepare for and control emerging infectious diseases. Although a decrease in the number of patients after the 2015-2016 Zika epidemic increased the difficulty in conducting phase 3 trials for Zika virus vaccines, the efficacy and safety of new vaccines have recently been demonstrated for COVID-19. In general, vaccines can decrease the risk of infectious disease by stimulating the immune system, and discussions regarding an increased risk of autoimmune disorders, such as GBS, have been ongoing for many years. However, the risk of GBS is not considered a legitimate reason to limit the administration of currently available vaccines, as only a trivial association or no association with GBS has been demonstrated.

19.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0066721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274527

ABSTRACT

Cellular immune responses play a key role in the control of viral infection. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major immunogenic protein that can induce protective immunity. To screen for potential T-cell epitopes on IBV N protein, 40 overlapping peptides covering the entirety of the N protein were designed and synthesized. Four T-cell epitope peptides were identified by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot), intracellular cytokine staining, and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) lymphocyte proliferation assays; among them, three peptides (N211-230, N271-290, and N381-400) were cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, and one peptide (N261-280) was a dual-specific T-cell epitope, which can be recognized by both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Multi-epitope gene transcription cassettes comprising four neutralizing epitope domains and four T-cell epitope peptides were synthesized and inserted into the genome of Newcastle disease virus strain La Sota between the P and M genes. Recombinant IBV multi-epitope vaccine candidate rLa Sota/SBNT was generated via reverse genetics, and its immune protection efficacy was evaluated in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Our results show that rLa Sota/SBNT induced IBV-specific neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses and provided significant protection against homologous and heterologous IBV challenge. Thus, the T-cell epitope peptides identified in this study could be good candidates for IBV vaccine development, and recombinant Newcastle disease virus-expressing IBV multi-epitope genes represent a safe and effective vaccine candidate for controlling infectious bronchitis. IMPORTANCE T-cell-mediated immune responses are critical for the elimination of IBV-infected cells. To screen conserved T-cell epitopes in the IBV N protein, 40 overlapping peptides covering the entirety of the N protein were designed and synthesized. By combining IFN-γ ELISpot, intracellular cytokine staining, and CFSE lymphocyte proliferation assays, we identified three CTL epitopes and one dual-specific T-cell epitope. The value of T-cell epitope peptides identified in the N protein was further verified by the design of an IBV multi-epitope vaccine. Results show that IBV multi-epitope vaccine candidate rLa Sota/SBNT provided cross protection against challenges with a QX-like or a TW-like IBV strain. So, T-cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in the control of viral infection, and conserved T-cell epitopes serve as promising candidates for use in multi-epitope vaccine construction. Our results provide a new perspective for the development of a safer and more effective IBV vaccine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
20.
Avian Pathol ; 50(4): 295-310, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269041

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was first isolated in Australia in 1962. Ongoing surveillance and characterization of Australian IBVs have shown that they have evolved separately from strains found throughout the rest of the world, resulting in the evolution of a range of unique strains and changes in the dominant wild-type strains, affecting tissue tropism, pathogenicity, antigenicity, and gene arrangement. Between 1961 and 1976 highly nephropathogenic genotype GI-5 and GI-6 strains, causing mortalities of 40% to 100%, predominated, while strains causing mainly respiratory disease, with lower mortality rates, have predominated since then. Since 1988, viruses belonging to two distinct and novel genotypes, GIII and GV, have been detected. The genome organization of the GIII strains has not been seen in any other gammacoronavirus. Mutations that emerged soon after the introduction of vaccination, incursion of strains with a novel lineage from unknown sources, recombination between IBVs from different genetic lineages, and gene translocations and deletions have contributed to an increasingly complex IBV population. These processes and the consequences of this variation for the biology of these viruses provide an insight into the evolution of endemic coronaviruses during their control by vaccination and may provide a better understanding of the potential for evolution of other coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the continuing capacity of attenuated IBV vaccines developed over 40 years ago to provide protection against viruses in the same genetic lineage provides some assurance that coronavirus vaccines developed to control other coronaviruses may continue to be effective for an extended period.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Chickens , Coronaviridae Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Antigenic Variation , Australia/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Phenotype , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL