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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 94: 107439, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077940

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has started in December 2019 in China and quickly extended to become a worldwide health and economic emergency issue. It is caused by the novel coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 patients' clinical presentations vary from asymptomatic infection or flu like symptoms to serious pneumonia which could be associated with multiple organ failure possibly leading to death. It is understood that the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 includes all elements of the immune system which could altogether succeed in viral elimination and complete cure. Meanwhile, this immune response may also lead to disease progression and could be responsible for the patient's death. Many trials have been done recently to create therapies and vaccines against human coronavirus infections such as MERS or SARS, however, till now, there is some controversy about the effectiveness and safety of antiviral drugs and vaccines which have been developed to treat and prevent this disease and its management depends mainly on supportive care. The spike glycoprotein or protein S of SARS-CoV-2 is the main promoter that induces development of neutralizing antibodies; hence, many attempts of vaccines and antiviral drugs development have been designed to be directed specifically against this protein. While some of these attempts have been proved to be efficient in in vitro settings, only few of them have been proceeded to randomized animal trials and human studies which makes COVID-19 prevention an ongoing challenge. This review describes the natural immune response scenario during COVID-19 and the vaccines development trials to create efficient vaccines thus helping to build more effective approaches for prophylaxis and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunization, Passive
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 30, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033601

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 has rapidly spread globally with significant negative impact on health. There is an urgent need for a drug or vaccine certified for treating and preventing COVID-19 respectively. Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 monoclonal receptor antibody, has been used in some centers for mitigating the severe inflammatory response seen in patients with severe COVID-19 with encouraging results. To the best of our knowledge, reports detailing the outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 undergoing treatment with tocilizumab are sparse in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the clinical and laboratory profile, chest Computed Tomography (CT) scan findings and clinical outcome in a Ghanaian patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with tocilizumab. A 54-year-old hypertensive male presented with fever, productive cough, pleuritic chest pain and breathlessness. He tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by polymerase chain reaction analysis done on a nasopharyngeal swab sample. His respiratory symptoms worsened while on admission despite receiving standard of care. His C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated to 80.59mg/L and chest CT scan findings were indicative of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. He was treated with a single 400mg dose of intravenous tocilizumab with a positive clinical outcome, rapid decline in CRP and improvement in chest CT findings. Our experience shows that tocilizumab shows great promise as drug therapy for COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ghana , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243526, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965456

ABSTRACT

This study intends to explore the predictors of misconceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning the COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of the Saudi population and we also assessed their approaches toward its overall impact. This online cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University (KAU) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (SA). Participants were approached via social media (SM), and 2006 participants (953 [47.5%] females and 1053 [52.5%] males) were included in this study. SM was the leading source of information for 43.9% of the study participants. Most of the participants had various misconceptions such as "females are more vulnerable to develop this infection, rinsing the nose with saline and sipping water every 15 minutes protects against Coronavirus, flu and pneumonia vaccines protect against this virus." About one-third of participants (31.7%) had self-reported disturbed social, mental, and psychological wellbeing due to the pandemic. Many participants became more religious during this pandemic. Two-thirds of the study participants (68.1%) had good knowledge scores. Attitudes were highly positive in 93.1%, and practice scores were adequate in 97.7% of the participants. Participants' educational status was a predictor of high knowledge scores. Male gender and divorced status were predictors of low practice scores, and aged 51-61 years, private-sector jobs, and student status were predictors of high practice scores. Being Saudi was a predictor of a positive attitude, while the male gender and divorced status were predictors of a negative attitude. Higher education was a predictor of good concepts, while the older age and businessmen were predictors of misconceptions. Overall, our study participants had good knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practices, but several myths were also prevalent. Being a PhD and a Saudi national predicted high knowledge scores and positive attitudes, respectively. A higher education level was a predictor of good concepts, and students, private-sector jobs, and aged 51-61 years were predictors of high practice scores. Study participants had good understanding of the effects of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
5.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) ; 2020: 1939768, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939923

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent responsible for the development of a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is a highly transmittable virus which, in just ten months, infected more than 40 million people in 214 countries worldwide. After inhalation, aerosols containing SARS-CoV-2 penetrate to the depths of the lungs and cause severe pneumonia, alveolar injury, and life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since there are no specific drugs or vaccines available to cure or prevent COVID-19 infection and COVID-19-related ARDS, a new therapeutic agent which will support oxygen supply and, at the same time, efficiently alleviate SARS-CoV-2-induced lung inflammation is urgently needed. Due to their potent immuno- and angiomodulatory characteristics, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may increase oxygen supply in the lungs and may efficiently alleviate ongoing lung inflammation, including SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS. In this review article, we described molecular mechanisms that are responsible for MSC-based modulation of immune cells which play a pathogenic role in the development of SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS and we provided a brief outline of already conducted and ongoing clinical studies that increase our understanding about the therapeutic potential of MSCs and their secretome in the therapy of COVID-19-related ARDS.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(12): 2992-3000, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695623

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is causing great alarm around the world. The pathogen for COVID-19 - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - is the seventh known coronavirus to cause pneumonia in humans. While much remains unknown about SARS-CoV-2, physicians and researchers have begun to publish relevant findings, and much evidence is available on coronaviruses previously circulating in human and animal populations. In this review, we situate COVID-19 in its context as a transboundary viral disease, and provide a comprehensive discussion focused on the discovery, spread, virology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of this disease, its causative coronaviral pathogen, and approaches to combating the disease through immunotherapies and other treatments and vaccine development. An epidemiological survey revealed a potentially large number of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers within the population, which may hamper efforts against COVID-19. Finally, we emphasize that vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, which may be developed by 2021, will be essential for prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Development/methods , Immunotherapy/trends , Virus Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Development/trends , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Virus Physiological Phenomena/drug effects
7.
Nature ; 586(7830): 578-582, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691215

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 20191,2 and is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic3. Vaccines are an essential countermeasure and are urgently needed to control the pandemic4. Here we show that the adenovirus-vector-based vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, which encodes the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, is immunogenic in mice and elicites a robust humoral and cell-mediated response. This response was predominantly mediated by type-1 T helper cells, as demonstrated by the profiling of the IgG subclass and the expression of cytokines. Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (using either a prime-only or a prime-boost regimen) induced a balanced humoral and cellular immune response of type-1 and type-2 T helper cells in rhesus macaques. We observed a significantly reduced viral load in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lower respiratory tract tissue of vaccinated rhesus macaques that were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 compared with control animals, and no pneumonia was observed in vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. However, there was no difference in nasal shedding between vaccinated and control SARS-CoV-2-infected macaques. Notably, we found no evidence of immune-enhanced disease after viral challenge in vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profiles of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against symptomatic PCR-positive COVID-19 disease will now be assessed in randomized controlled clinical trials in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca mulatta , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Male , Mice , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics
8.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 66(2): 172-176, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7667

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) is currently, March 2020, affecting more than 100,000 people worldwide and, according to the WHO (World Health Organization), a pandemic is shortly expected. The virus infects the lower respiratory tract and causes severe pneumonia and mortality in approximately 10% and 3-5%, respectively, of cases, mainly among the elderly and/or people affected by other diseases. AHCC is an α-glucan-based standardized mushroom extract that has been extensively investigated as an immunostimulant both in animals and/or in humans affected by West Nile virus, influenza virus, avian influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, papillomavirus, herpes virus, hepatitis B virus and HIV by promoting a regulated and protective immune response. Although the efficacy of AHCC has not yet been specifically evaluated with respect to SARS-CoV-2 disease, its action in promoting a protective response to a wide range of viral infections, and the current absence of effective vaccines, could support its use in the prevention of diseases provoked by human pathogenic coronavirus, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Shiitake Mushrooms , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Humans , Mycelium , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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