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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726034

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a serious pandemic in China and other countries worldwide. So far, more than 460,000 confirmed cases were diagnosed in nearly 190 countries, causing globally over 20,000 deaths. Currently, the epidemic is still spreading and there is no effective means to prevent the infection. Vaccines are proved to be the most effective and economical means to prevent and control infectious diseases. Several countries, companies, and institutions announced their programs and progress on vaccine development against the virus. While most of the vaccines are under design and preparation, there are some that have entered efficacy evaluation in animals and initial clinical trials. This review mainly focused on the progress and our prospects on field of vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 645210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383856

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most efficient public healthcare measures to fight infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the immune mechanisms induced in vivo by vaccination are still unclear. The route of administration, an important vaccination parameter, can substantially modify the quality of the response. How the route of administration affects the generation and profile of immune responses is of major interest. Here, we aimed to extensively characterize the profiles of the innate and adaptive response to vaccination induced after intradermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular administration with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara model vaccine in non-human primates. The adaptive response following subcutaneous immunization was clearly different from that following intradermal or intramuscular immunization. The subcutaneous route induced a higher level of neutralizing antibodies than the intradermal and intramuscular vaccination routes. In contrast, polyfunctional CD8+ T-cell responses were preferentially induced after intradermal or intramuscular injection. We observed the same dichotomy when analyzing the early molecular and cellular immune events, highlighting the recruitment of cell populations, such as CD8+ T lymphocytes and myeloid-derived suppressive cells, and the activation of key immunomodulatory gene pathways. These results demonstrate that the quality of the vaccine response induced by an attenuated vaccine is shaped by early and subtle modifications of the innate immune response. In this immunization context, the route of administration must be tailored to the desired type of protective immune response. This will be achieved through systems vaccinology and mathematical modeling, which will be critical for predicting the efficacy of the vaccination route for personalized medicine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vaccinia/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Injections, Intradermal , Injections, Intramuscular , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Vaccines, Attenuated/pharmacology
3.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308394

ABSTRACT

Vaccinations are a safe and effective way to protect against infectious diseases. The World Health Organization estimates vaccines have saved more lives than any other interventions and every year about two to three million deaths are averted worldwide through immunization. To improve vaccination coverage, pharmacists have been increasingly involved in immunization roles in their communities-as advocates, educators, and immunizers. Community pharmacy-based vaccination services have increased both in the number of immunization providers and the number of sites where patients can receive immunizations. In Canada, health care is under provincial legislation-and so, there are distinct differences in scope of pharmacist practice across the country. Prior to the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, in Québec, Canada's second-largest province, pharmacists did not have the authority to administer vaccines. To help prepare pharmacists in Québec to become immunizers, we developed and deployed a series of accredited workshops. In these facilitated workshops, pharmacists were able to share best practices that may lead to providing effective vaccination services, identify common competency gaps, discuss effective patient communication skills, and determine how to target the most vulnerable population groups. Participants were also asked to evaluate the workshop. Our results indicate the evaluation was very reliable in measuring participant satisfaction (Cronbach's α = 0.94) and pharmacists commented that the workshops' learning outcomes exceeded their expectations, and the topics covered were relevant and applicable. The evaluation also asked participants to identify weaknesses of training, so future educational interventions can be planned accordingly. We believe this work will contribute to the continual growth and advancement of the pharmacy profession in Canada.

4.
Biosci Trends ; 15(3): 188-191, 2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271034

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world. As many countries have entered the postpandemic period, current efforts to prevent and control COVID-19 have gradually been normalized in many countries. Although the focus is on vaccines to achieve herd immunity, conventional physical containment strategies should be reassessed as part of efforts to prevent and control infectious diseases. Continued respiratory protective measures such as social distancing and the wearing of masks have been extensively accepted by the public in most countries. A point worth noticing is that the activities of influenza and other respiratory diseases have decreased as these strategies have been implemented. Public mobilization and large-scale campaigns to promote health are also important to interrupting the transmission of pathogens. A good example can be found in the achievements of China's Patriotic Public Health Campaign. These practices underscore the importance of enhancing physical containment strategies and public mobilization and management, with support from the legal system, to respond to any potential emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
5.
Hypertens Res ; 44(9): 1047-1053, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260939

ABSTRACT

There is currently a respiratory disease outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). After rapid development, RNA vaccines and adenoviral vector vaccines were approved within a year, which has demonstrated the strong impact of preventing infectious diseases using gene therapy technology. Furthermore, intensive immunological analysis has been performed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of these vaccines, potentially allowing for rapid progress in vaccine technology. After the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era, the novel vaccine technology developed will expand to other vaccines. We have been developing vaccines for chronic diseases, such as hypertension, for >10 years. Regarding the development of vaccines against self-antigens (i.e., angiotensin II), the vaccine should efficiently induce a blocking antibody response against the self-antigen without activating cytotoxic T cells. Therefore, the epitope vaccine approach has been proposed to induce antibody production in response to a combination of a B cell epitope and exogenous T cell epitopes through major histocompatibility complex molecules. When these vaccines are established as therapeutic options for hypertension, their administration regimen, which might be a few times per year, will replace daily medication use. Thus, therapeutic vaccines for hypertension may be a novel option to control the progression of cerebrovascular diseases. Hopefully, the accumulation of immunological findings and vaccine technology advances due to COVID-19 will provide a novel concept for vaccines for chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoantigens/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypertension/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Humans
6.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2011-2019, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247727

ABSTRACT

After the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic that began in early 2020 was brought under control, there have been some regional and small-scale cases of new infections in China. In order to prevent the resurgence of the epidemic, the Chinese government has continued the use of effective prevention and control measures in key epidemic areas. New prevention and control measures have also been developed based on the characteristics of the epidemic and the social habits of the Chinese people. The strategies applied in China include large-scale nucleic acid testing, travel health code management, and patient treatment based on a combination of Chinese and Western medicine. These measures can provide a reference point for the global public health system that is facing the pandemic. The article suggests that to prevent a pandemic, we must not only rely on vaccines and drugs, but also need to take actions and apply social measures to manage the risk of infectious diseases.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(21)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233774

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an unparalleled pursuit of vaccines to induce specific adaptive immunity, based on virus-neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses. Although several vaccines have been developed just a year after SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019, global deployment will take months or even years. Meanwhile, the virus continues to take a severe toll on human life and exact substantial economic costs. Innate immunity is fundamental to mammalian host defense capacity to combat infections. Innate immune responses, triggered by a family of pattern recognition receptors, induce interferons and other cytokines and activate both myeloid and lymphoid immune cells to provide protection against a wide range of pathogens. Epidemiological and biological evidence suggests that the live-attenuated vaccines (LAV) targeting tuberculosis, measles, and polio induce protective innate immunity by a newly described form of immunological memory termed "trained immunity." An LAV designed to induce adaptive immunity targeting a particular pathogen may also induce innate immunity that mitigates other infectious diseases, including COVID-19, as well as future pandemic threats. Deployment of existing LAVs early in pandemics could complement the development of specific vaccines, bridging the protection gap until specific vaccines arrive. The broad protection induced by LAVs would not be compromised by potential antigenic drift (immune escape) that can render viruses resistant to specific vaccines. LAVs might offer an essential tool to "bend the pandemic curve," averting the exhaustion of public health resources and preventing needless deaths and may also have therapeutic benefits if used for postexposure prophylaxis of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccines/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
8.
Math Biosci ; 337: 108621, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207058

ABSTRACT

When allocating limited vaccines to control an infectious disease, policy makers frequently have goals relating to individual health benefits (e.g., reduced morbidity and mortality) as well as population-level health benefits (e.g., reduced transmission and possible disease eradication). We consider the optimal allocation of a limited supply of a preventive vaccine to control an infectious disease, and four different allocation objectives: minimize new infections, deaths, life years lost, or quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost due to death. We consider an SIR model with n interacting populations, and a single allocation of vaccine at time 0. We approximate the model dynamics to develop simple analytical conditions characterizing the optimal vaccine allocation for each objective. We instantiate the model for an epidemic similar to COVID-19 and consider n=2 population groups: one group (individuals under age 65) with high transmission but low mortality and the other group (individuals age 65 or older) with low transmission but high mortality. We find that it is optimal to vaccinate younger individuals to minimize new infections, whereas it is optimal to vaccinate older individuals to minimize deaths, life years lost, or QALYs lost due to death. Numerical simulations show that the allocations resulting from our conditions match those found using much more computationally expensive algorithms such as exhaustive search. Sensitivity analysis on key parameters indicates that the optimal allocation is robust to changes in parameter values. The simple conditions we develop provide a useful means of informing vaccine allocation decisions for communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Epidemics/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Models, Theoretical , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/standards , Middle Aged , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/supply & distribution , Young Adult
9.
Int J Pept Res Ther ; 27(3): 1729-1740, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188142

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered corona virus SARS-COV-2. It is the most dangerous epidemic existing currently all over the world. To date, there is no licensed vaccine and not any particular efficient therapeutic agent available to prevent or cure the disease. So development of an effective vaccine is the urgent need of the time. The proposed study aims to identify potential vaccine candidates by screening the complete proteome of SARS-COV-2 using the computational approach. From 14 protein entries in UniProtKB, 4 proteins were screened for epitope prediction based on consensus antigenicity predictions and various physico-chemical criteria like transmembrane domain, allergenicity, GRAVY value, toxicity, stability index. Comprehensive analysis of these 4 antigens revealed that spike protein (P0DTC2) and nucleoprotein (P0DTC9) show the greatest potential for experimental immunogenicity analysis. These 2 proteins have several potential CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell epitopes, as well as high probability of B-cell epitope regions as compared to well-characterized antigen the matrix protein 1 [Influenza A virus (H5N1)]. In addition, the epitope SIIAYTMSL predicted from spike protein (P0DTC2) and epitope SPRWYFYYL predicted from nucleoprotein (P0DTC9) exhibited more than 60% population coverage in the target populations Europe, North America, South Asia, Northeast Asia taken in this study. These epitopes have also been found to exhibit highly significant TCR-pMHC interactions having a joint Z value of 4.51 and 4.37 respectively. Therefore, this analysis suggests that the predicted epitopes might be suitable vaccine candidates and should be subjected to further in-vivo and in-vitro studies.

12.
Vaccine ; 39(14): 1968-1976, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant diseases and economic burdens in the world. Vaccines are often considered as a cost-effective way to prevent and control infectious diseases, and the research and development of COVID-19 vaccines have been progressing unprecedently. It is needed to understand individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) among general population, which provides information about social demand, access and financing for future COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVE: To investigate individuals' WTP and financing mechanism preference for COVID-19 vaccination during the pandemic period in China. METHODS: During March 1-18, 2020, we conducted a network stratified random sampling survey with 2058 respondents in China. The survey questionnaires included out-of-pocket WTP, financing mechanism preference as well as basic characteristics of the respondents; risk perception and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; attitude for future COVID-19 vaccination. Multivariable Tobit regression was used to determine impact factors for respondents' out-of-pocket WTP. RESULTS: The individuals' mean WTP for full COVID-19 vaccination was CNY 254 (USD 36.8) with median of CNY 100 (USD 14.5). Most respondents believed that governments (90.9%) and health insurance (78.0%) needed to pay for some or full portions of COVID-19 vaccination, although 84.3% stated that individuals needed to pay. Annual family income, employee size in the workplace, and whether considering the COVID-19 pandemic in China in a declining trend affected respondents' WTP significantly. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrated the individuals' WTP for COVID-19 vaccination in China and their preferences for financing sources from individuals, governments and health insurance. And to suggest an effective and optimal financing strategy, the public health perspective with equal access to COVID-19 vaccination should be prioritized to ensure a high vaccination rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Expenditures , Vaccination/economics , Adolescent , Adult , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Preference , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3238, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065946

ABSTRACT

The rampant spread of COVID-19, an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, all over the world has led to over millions of deaths, and devastated the social, financial and political entities around the world. Without an existing effective medical therapy, vaccines are urgently needed to avoid the spread of this disease. In this study, we propose an in silico deep learning approach for prediction and design of a multi-epitope vaccine (DeepVacPred). By combining the in silico immunoinformatics and deep neural network strategies, the DeepVacPred computational framework directly predicts 26 potential vaccine subunits from the available SARS-CoV-2 spike protein sequence. We further use in silico methods to investigate the linear B-cell epitopes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) epitopes, Helper T Lymphocytes (HTL) epitopes in the 26 subunit candidates and identify the best 11 of them to construct a multi-epitope vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 virus. The human population coverage, antigenicity, allergenicity, toxicity, physicochemical properties and secondary structure of the designed vaccine are evaluated via state-of-the-art bioinformatic approaches, showing good quality of the designed vaccine. The 3D structure of the designed vaccine is predicted, refined and validated by in silico tools. Finally, we optimize and insert the codon sequence into a plasmid to ensure the cloning and expression efficiency. In conclusion, this proposed artificial intelligence (AI) based vaccine discovery framework accelerates the vaccine design process and constructs a 694aa multi-epitope vaccine containing 16 B-cell epitopes, 82 CTL epitopes and 89 HTL epitopes, which is promising to fight the SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and can be further evaluated in clinical studies. Moreover, we trace the RNA mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 and ensure that the designed vaccine can tackle the recent RNA mutations of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Deep Learning , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Allergens , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/toxicity , Codon Usage , Computational Biology , Drug Design , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Protein Conformation , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Solubility , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
14.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(1): 16-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065871

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has brought the world to a standstill, are emerging at an unprecedented rate with a substantial impact on public health and global economies. For many life-threatening global infectious diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malaria and influenza, effective vaccinations are still lacking. There are numerous roadblocks to developing new vaccines, including a limited understanding of immune correlates of protection to these global infections. To induce a reproducible, strong immune response against difficult pathogens, sophisticated nanovaccine technologies are under investigation. In contrast to conventional vaccines, nanovaccines provide improved access to lymph nodes, optimal packing and presentation of antigens, and induction of a persistent immune response. This Review provides a perspective on the global trends in emerging nanoscale vaccines for infectious diseases and describes the biological, experimental and logistical problems associated with their development, and how immunoengineering can be leveraged to overcome these challenges.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , Antigen Presentation , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Humans , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Microbiota/immunology , Mutation , Vaccines/administration & dosage
15.
Curr Mol Med ; 21(7): 562-572, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961531

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly pathogenic and transmissible viral disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which originated in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, Central China and spread quickly around the world. The genome sequence of SARSCoV- 2 is phylogenetically related to bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) coronaviruses; therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoirs. At present, there are no clinically approved vaccines or specific antiviral drugs for COVID- 19. However, several broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical studies and resulted in the improvement of patients. In this regard, other therapies such as antiviral drugs, antibodies, stem cells and plasma therapy are being studied. In the current study, we reviewed the emergence, pathogenicity and the genome structure of COVID-19 infection. The main focus of this study is on the therapeutic approaches that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6121, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951617

ABSTRACT

Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated poxvirus vector that is widely used to develop vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer. We demonstrate the construction of a vaccine platform based on a unique three-plasmid system to efficiently generate recombinant MVA vectors from chemically synthesized DNA. In response to the ongoing global pandemic caused by SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), we use this vaccine platform to rapidly produce fully synthetic MVA (sMVA) vectors co-expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antigens, two immunodominant antigens implicated in protective immunity. We show that mice immunized with these sMVA vectors develop robust SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses, including potent neutralizing antibodies. These results demonstrate the potential of a vaccine platform based on synthetic DNA to efficiently generate recombinant MVA vectors and to rapidly develop a multi-antigenic poxvirus-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Mice , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
17.
Semin Immunol ; 50: 101430, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-946887

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery in 1796 by Edward Jenner of vaccinia virus as a way to prevent and finally eradicate smallpox, the concept of using a virus to fight another virus has evolved into the current approaches of viral vectored genetic vaccines. In recent years, key improvements to the vaccinia virus leading to a safer version (Modified Vaccinia Ankara, MVA) and the discovery that some viruses can be used as carriers of heterologous genes encoding for pathological antigens of other infectious agents (the concept of 'viral vectors') has spurred a new wave of clinical research potentially providing for a solution for the long sought after vaccines against major diseases such as HIV, TB, RSV and Malaria, or emerging infectious diseases including those caused by filoviruses and coronaviruses. The unique ability of some of these viral vectors to stimulate the cellular arm of the immune response and, most importantly, T lymphocytes with cell killing activity, has also reawakened the interest toward developing therapeutic vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. To this end, existing vectors such as those based on Adenoviruses have been improved in immunogenicity and efficacy. Along the same line, new vectors that exploit viruses such as Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Measles Virus (MV), Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), have emerged. Furthermore, technological progress toward modifying their genome to render some of these vectors incompetent for replication has increased confidence toward their use in infant and elderly populations. Lastly, their production process being the same for every product has made viral vectored vaccines the technology of choice for rapid development of vaccines against emerging diseases and for 'personalised' cancer vaccines where there is an absolute need to reduce time to the patient from months to weeks or days. Here we review the recent developments in viral vector technologies, focusing on novel vectors based on primate derived Adenoviruses and Poxviruses, Rhabdoviruses, Paramixoviruses, Arenaviruses and Herpesviruses. We describe the rationale for, immunologic mechanisms involved in, and design of viral vectored gene vaccines under development and discuss the potential utility of these novel genetic vaccine approaches in eliciting protection against infectious diseases and cancer.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Genetic Vectors , Neoplasms/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/genetics , Animals , Humans , Immunity , Vaccination
18.
Radiography (Lond) ; 27(2): 483-489, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-929357

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The breakdown of a deadly infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (named SARS n-CoV2) back in December 2019 has shown no respite to slow or stop in general. This contagious disease has spread across different lengths and breadths of the globe, taking a death toll to nearly 700 k by the start of August 2020. The number is well expected to rise even more significantly. In the absence of a thoroughly tested and approved vaccine, the onus primarily lies on obliging to standard operating procedures and timely detection and isolation of the infected persons. The detection of SARS n-CoV2 has been one of the core concerns during the fight against this pandemic. To keep up with the scale of the outbreak, testing needs to be scaled at par with it. With the conventional PCR testing, most of the countries have struggled to minimize the gap between the scale of outbreak and scale of testing. METHOD: One way of expediting the scale of testing is to shift to a rigorous computational model driven by deep neural networks, as proposed here in this paper. The proposed model is a non-contact process of determining whether a subject is infected or not and is achieved by using chest radiographs; one of the most widely used imaging technique for clinical diagnosis due to fast imaging and low cost. The dataset used in this work contains 1428 chest radiographs with confirmed COVID-19 positive, common bacterial pneumonia, and healthy cases (no infection). We explored the pre-trained VGG-16 model for classification tasks in this. Transfer learning with fine-tuning was used in this study to train the network on relatively small chest radiographs effectively. RESULTS: Initial experiments showed that the model achieved promising results and can be significantly used to expedite COVID-19 detection. The experimentation showed an accuracy of 96% and 92.5% in two and three output class cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: We believe that this study could be used as an initial screening, which can help healthcare professionals to treat the COVID patients by timely detecting better and screening the presence of disease. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: Its simplicity drives the proposed deep neural network model, the capability to work on small image dataset, the non-contact method with acceptable accuracy is a potential alternative for rapid COVID-19 testing that can be adapted by the medical fraternity considering the criticality of the time along with the magnitudes of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(8): 3492-3507, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927272

ABSTRACT

Since the SARS/MERS epidemic, scientists across the world have been racing to identify the novel-CoVs as it has been predicted that next epidemic can very well be a result from a new mutation of CoV, for which hundred mutations have already been discovered, and the same fear has come true with world facing a raging pandemic due to COVID-19, an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. COVID-19 or Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a single stranded RNA virus. COVID -19 is highly contagious and has resulted in current global pandemic with almost no country of the world unaffected by this virus. Owing to the lack of effective therapeutics or vaccines, the best measures to control human coronaviruses remain a strong public health surveillance system coupled with rapid diagnostic testing and quarantine/social; distancing/lockdowns as and when necessary. In the present study, we have used the insilico approach for the prediction of novel drug molecules from available antiviral drugs and also from natural compounds that can be best target against RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (Pol/RdRp) protein of SARS-CoV-2 which can be suitable drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 virus. From the current study we observed that three antiviral and three phyto-chemicals have minimum binding energy with the target protein which were further evaluated in molecular dynamics studies and could specifically bind to RdRp protein of COVID-19. Based on results we suggest that these drugs may act as best or novel inhibitor that may be used for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , RNA , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nanomedicine ; 35: 102338, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921611

ABSTRACT

DNA vaccine is an attractive immune platform for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, but existing disadvantages limit its use in preclinical and clinical assays, such as weak immunogenicity and short half-life. Here, we reported a novel liposome-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (pSFV-MEG/LNPs) consisting of a biodegradable core (mPEG-PLGA) and a hydrophilic shell (lecithin/PEG-DSPE-Mal 2000) for delivering a multi-epitope self-replication DNA vaccine (pSFV-MEG). The pSFV-MEG/LNPs with optimal particle size (161.61 ±â€¯15.63 nm) and high encapsulation efficiency (87.60 ±â€¯8.73%) induced a strong humoral (3.22-fold) and cellular immune responses (1.60-fold) compared to PBS. Besides, the humoral and cellular immune responses of pSFV-MEG/LNPs were 1.58- and 1.05-fold than that of pSFV-MEG. All results confirmed that LNPs was a very promising tool to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses of pSFV-MEG. In addition, the rational design and delivery platform can be used for the development of DNA vaccines for other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
DNA Replication , Epitopes , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Vaccines, DNA , Animals , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Liposomes/immunology , Liposomes/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/pharmacology
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