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1.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 2021 May 11.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ischaemic stroke may be a major complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection.Studying and characterising the different aetiological subtypes, clinical characteristics, and functional outcomes may be valuable in guiding patient selection for optimal management and treatment. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively on consecutive patients with COVID-19 who developed acute focal brain ischaemia (between 1 March and 19 April 2020) at a tertiary university hospital in Madrid (Spain). RESULTS: During the study period, 1594 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. We found 22 patients with ischaemic stroke (1.38%), 6 of whom did not meet the inclusion criteria. The remaining 16 patients were included in the study (15 cases of ischaemic stroke and one case of transient ischaemic attack).Median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 9 (interquartile range: 16), and mean (standard deviation) age was 73 years (12.8). Twelve patients (75%) were men. Mean time from COVID-19 symptom onset to stroke onset was 13 days. Large vessel occlusion was identified in 12 patients (75%).We detected elevated levels of D-dimer in 87.5% of patients and C-reactive protein in 81.2%. The main aetiology was atherothrombotic stroke (9 patients, 56.3%), with the predominant subtype being endoluminal thrombus (5 patients, 31.2%), involving the internal carotid artery in 4 cases and the aortic arch in one. The mortality rate in our series was 44% (7 of 16 patients). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, the most frequent stroke aetiology was atherothrombosis, with a high proportion of endoluminal thrombus (31.2% of patients). Our clinical and laboratory data support COVID-19-associated coagulopathy as a relevant pathophysiological mechanism for ischaemic stroke in these patients.

2.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 13: 1756286420967828, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED, Covidien/Medtronic) is widely used to treat intracranial aneurysms. This PED in China post-market multi-center registry study (PLUS) investigated safety and effectiveness of the PED for intracranial aneurysms in the Chinese population. METHODS: This was a panoramic, consecutive, real-world cohort registry study. Patients treated with PED with or without coils between November 2014 and October 2019 at 14 centers in China were included, and those treated by parent vessel occlusion or other stents were excluded. Study outcomes included angiographic evaluation of aneurysm occlusion, complications, in-stent stenosis, and predictors of aneurysm occlusion. A central committee reviewed all imaging and endpoint events. RESULTS: In total, 1171 patients with 1322 intracranial aneurysms were included. The total occlusion rate was 81.4% (787/967) at mean follow-up of 8.96 ± 7.50 months, with 77.1% (380/493) occlusion in the PED alone and 85.9% (407/474) in the PED plus coiling group. On multi-variate analysis, female sex, hyperlipidemia, vertebral aneurysms, PED plus coiling, and blood flow detained to venous phase were significant predictors of aneurysm occlusion. In posterior circulation cohort, there was no variable associated with aneurysm occlusion. In-stent stenosis predictors included current smoking and cerebral sclerosis/stenosis. CONCLUSION: In the largest series on PED of multi-center date of China, data suggest that treatment with the flow-diverting PED in intracranial aneurysms was efficacious. The treatment of PED combined coiling and blood flow detained to venous phase after PED implant were associated with aneurysmal occlusion. The occlusion rate of vertebral aneurysms was higher than other location aneurysms. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03831672.

3.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(4): 331-336, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a global pandemic that has been an immense burden on healthcare systems all over the world. These patients may be at higher risk for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). We present our experience with AIS in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed all patients admitted to our hospital during a 6-week period with a positive nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2. Among these patients, we identified AIS. We reviewed the demographics, clinical, laboratory, imaging characteristics, treatments received and outcomes of AIS in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 683 patients admitted with COVID-19 during the study period, of which 20 patients had AIS. Large-vessel occlusion (LVO) was noted in 11 patients (55%). Intravenous alteplase was administered in four patients (20%) and mechanical thrombectomy was performed in five patients (25%). Respiratory symptoms preceded the onset of AIS in most of the patients (70%) by 1 to 21 days. Mortality in patients with AIS was 50% compared with 26% of all COVID-19 admissions. Most of these patients died due to non-neurological causes (70%). Three patients with AIS had clinical and imaging findings consistent with COVID-19, but were negative for multiple nasopharyngeal swab tests. INTERPRETATION: LVO was more common in patients with AIS and COVID-19. They had more severe disease and higher mortality rates. Most of the patients had respiratory symptoms preceding AIS by days to weeks. This could explain certain patients with clinical picture of COVID-19 but negative nasopharyngeal swab tests.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Thrombectomy
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e930291, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND National guidelines and consensus statements suggest a 24-hour window for endovascular recanalization in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion. However, the safety and efficacy of extending the window for intervention remains to be definitively established. CASE REPORT A healthy 26-year-old woman presented with headache, left-sided hemiplegia, and rightward gaze palsy 2 days after a minor trauma. Time last known well was approximately 50 hours prior to presentation. Computed tomography angiography revealed dissection of the distal right internal carotid artery and occlusion of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a small area of acute infarct in the right basal ganglia and right insular cortex, but suggested a large ischemic penumbra; this was confirmed with cerebral perfusion analysis. In light of the patient's young age and potential for penumbral salvage, mechanical thrombectomy of an M1 thrombus and stenting of an internal carotid artery dissection were performed nearly 60 hours after the onset of symptoms. The patient demonstrated marked clinical improvement over the following days and was discharged home in excellent condition one week after presentation. Based on our clinical experience and other emerging data, we propose that extension of the 24-hour window for endovascular intervention may improve functional outcomes among select individuals. CONCLUSIONS A 24-hour window for endovascular thrombectomy is appropriate for many patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. However, in select individuals, extension of the window to 48 hours or beyond may improve functional outcomes.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Adult , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal , Female , Humans , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
5.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 28(1): 58-64, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232409

ABSTRACT

AIM: The epidemic of COVID-19 has greatly affect the world health care system, particular measures have been taken not only to provide safety for health care providers but also to maintain the treatment quality. We evaluate the effect of COVID-19 epidemic to acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) received endovascular treatment (EVT) in our institution. METHODS: AIS patients with LVO who underwent EVT in the period of January 1st to April 30th between 2015 and 2020 from our stroke center. The baseline characteristics, working flow time, safety and efficacy outcome and the hospitalization status were retrospectively reviewed, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: There is significant decline in the number of AIS patients with LVO treated compared with the previous year (36 Vs 72 patients) during the epidemic period. The door to puncture time was significantly prolong (225 minutes versus 115 minutes) as well as the length of hospital stay with increase of the hospitalization costs (P < 0.05 for all). There is no significant difference on the safety and efficacy outcome, such recanalization rate, incidence of intracranial hemorrhage, functional independence and mortality during the epidemic (P > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Prolongation of the working time flow during the COVID-19 epidemic did not influence the safety and efficacy of EVT in AIS patients with LVO. However, special policy and particular measures in this circumstances is still need to evolve to improve the treatment quality.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome
6.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 206: 106677, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230410

ABSTRACT

Owing to systemic inflammation and widespread vessel endotheliopathy, SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to confer an increased risk of cryptogenic stroke, particularly in patients without any traditional risk factors. In this report, we present a case of a 67-year-old female who presented with acute stroke from bilateral anterior circulation large vessel occlusions, and was incidentally found to be COVID-positive on routine hospital admission screening. The patient had a large area of penumbra bilaterally, and the decision was made to pursue bilateral simultaneous thrombectomy, with two endovascular neurosurgeons working on each side to achieve a faster time to recanalization. Our study highlights the utility and efficacy of simultaneous bilateral thrombectomy, and this treatment paradigm should be considered for use in patients who present with multifocal large vessel occlusions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/surgery , Endovascular Procedures , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy , Aged , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Female , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnosis , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/etiology
7.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2021(3): omab006, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214671

ABSTRACT

Most cases of stroke associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occur during the course of a characteristic COVID-19 respiratory illness. We report three patients where the presenting feature of COVID-19 was stroke. Two patients had no respiratory symptoms throughout their clinical course. In each case, COVID-19 was confirmed by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test and the diagnosis of ischaemic stroke by brain imaging. The patients were relatively young (40, 45 and 50 years). None had a prior history of cerebrovascular events. Stroke risk factors were absent in one, limited to overweight and smoking in another but more prominent in the third patient. Two patients had large vessel occlusion and elevated D-dimer levels. Multiple infarcts were seen in two patients. Clinicians should consider the possibility of COVID-19 in patients presenting with stroke and conversely consider investigating for stroke if a patient with COVID-19, even if mildly ill, develops acute neurological symptoms.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217498, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196364

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a known neurological complication in patients with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, AIS has not been described as a late sequelae in patients without respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Objective: To assess AIS experienced by adults 50 years or younger in the convalescent phase of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series prospectively identified consecutive male patients who received care for AIS from public health hospitals in Singapore between May 21, 2020, and October 14, 2020. All of these patients had laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic COVID-19 infection based on a positive SARS-CoV-2 serological (antibodies) test result. These patients were individuals from South Asian countries (India and Bangladesh) who were working in Singapore and living in dormitories. The total number of COVID-19 cases (54 485) in the worker dormitory population was the population at risk. Patients with ongoing respiratory symptoms or positive SARS-CoV-2 serological test results confirmed through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swabs were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical course, imaging, and laboratory findings were retrieved from the electronic medical records of each participating hospital. The incidence rate of AIS in the case series was compared with that of a historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched national cohort. Results: A total of 18 male patients, with a median (range) age of 41 (35-50) years and South Asian ethnicity, were included. The median (range) time from a positive serological test result to AIS was 54.5 (0-130) days. The median (range) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 5 (1-25). Ten patients (56%) presented with a large vessel occlusion, of whom 6 patients underwent intravenous thrombolysis and/or endovascular therapy. Only 3 patients (17%) had a possible cardiac source of embolus. The estimated annual incidence rate of AIS was 82.6 cases per 100 000 people in this study compared with 38.2 cases per 100 000 people in the historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched cohort (rate ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.36-3.48; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series suggests that the risk for AIS is higher in adults 50 years or younger during the convalescent period of a COVID-19 infection without respiratory symptoms. Acute ischemic stroke could be part of the next wave of complications of COVID-19, and stroke units should be on alert and use serological testing, especially in younger patients or in the absence of traditional risk factors.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Convalescence , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/ethnology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Singapore/epidemiology , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
9.
Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195876
10.
Stroke ; 52(7): 2422-2426, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke may complicate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection based on clinical hypercoagulability. We investigated whether transcranial Doppler ultrasound has utility for identifying microemboli and clinically relevant cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFVs) in COVID-19. METHODS: We performed transcranial Doppler for a consecutive series of patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection admitted to 2 intensive care units at a large academic center including evaluation for microembolic signals. Variables specific to hypercoagulability and blood flow including transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed as a part of routine care. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included in this analysis, 16 with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Of those, 2 had acute ischemic stroke secondary to large vessel occlusion. Ten non-COVID stroke patients were included for comparison. Two COVID-negative patients had severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and stroke due to large vessel occlusion. In patients with COVID-19, relatively low CBFVs were observed diffusely at median hospital day 4 (interquartile range, 3-9) despite low hematocrit (29.5% [25.7%-31.6%]); CBFVs in comparable COVID-negative stroke patients were significantly higher compared with COVID-positive stroke patients. Microembolic signals were not detected in any patient. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 60% (interquartile range, 60%-65%). CBFVs were correlated with arterial oxygen content, and C-reactive protein (Spearman ρ=0.28 [P=0.04]; 0.58 [P<0.001], respectively) but not with left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ=-0.18; P=0.42). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection, we observed lower than expected CBFVs in setting of low arterial oxygen content and low hematocrit but not associated with suppression of cardiac output.


Subject(s)
Blood Flow Velocity , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Blood Gas Analysis , Brain/blood supply , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
11.
Front Neurol ; 12: 635856, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172971

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: There is little information on the acute cerebrovascular complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) among COVID-19 patients and evaluate their clinical and radiological characteristics in comparison with non-COVID-19 CVD. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, COVID-19 patients whom presented with CVD in Assiut and Aswan University Hospitals were compared with non-COVID-19, CVD patients, admitted to Qena University Hospital, prior to the pandemic. The following data were collected: clinical history and presentation, risk factors, comorbidities, brain imaging (MRI or CT), chest CT, and some laboratory investigations. Results: Fifty-five (12.5%) of the 439 patients with COVID-19 had acute CVD. Of them, 42 (9.6%) had ischemic stroke while 13 patients (2.9%) had hemorrhagic CVD. In the 250 cases of the non-COVID-19 group, 180 had ischemic stroke and 70 had hemorrhagic stroke. A large proportion of patients with COVID-19 who presented with ischemic stroke had large vessel occlusion (LVO), which was significantly higher than in non-COVID-19 patients with CVD (40 vs. 7.2%, P < 0.001). Comorbidities were recorded in 44 (80%) cases. In COVID-19 ischemic stroke patients, risk factors [hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD)] and comorbidities (hepatic and renal) were significantly higher than those in non-COVID-19 patients. In addition, 23.5% had hemorrhagic CVD, and six patients with LVO developed hemorrhagic transformation. Conclusion: Acute CVD among patients with COVID-19 was common in our study. LVO was the commonest. Hypertension, IHD, and anemia are the most common risk factors and could contribute to the worsening of clinical presentation. Comorbidities were common among patients with CVD, although a large number had elevated liver enzymes and creatinine that were partially due to COVID-19 infection itself. The current results begin to characterize the spectrum of CVD associated with COVID-19 in patients in Upper Egypt. Registration ID: The ID number of this study is IRB no: 17300470.

12.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
13.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 656-661, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139809

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Ocular manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported include conjunctivitis, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, epiphora, episcleritis, retinal manifestations included cotton wool spots (CWS), micro-hemorrhages, papillophlebitis and neuro-ophthalmic manifestations.Purpose: To report post COVID-19 ophthalmic manifestations using multimodal imaging.Results: A 66-year-old Asian Indian male presented to us with bilateral blurring of vision, RE>LE, of 3 days following a diagnosis of COVID-19 disease. Corrected distance visual acuity were 20/2666 and 20/25 in the right (RE) and left (LE) eyes respectively. He had bilateral anterior chamber inflammation with a relative afferent pupillary defect in the RE. RE showed central retinal artery occlusion(CRAO) with CWS, few flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages and disc edema and hyperemia. LE had disc edema and hyperemia, few flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages, cystoid changes and CWS. A diagnosis of bilateral panuveitis and papillitis with CRAO in the RE was made.Conclusion: Our patient developed a vascular occlusion with panuveitis, which possibly represents an immune mediated event following COVID-19. Patients should be warned about possible ophthalmic sequelae even after recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Eye Infections, Viral/etiology , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Optic Disk/pathology , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Panuveitis/etiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Fundus Oculi , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Optic Neuritis/diagnosis , Optic Neuritis/virology , Panuveitis/diagnosis , Panuveitis/virology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
14.
Curr Radiol Rep ; 9(4): 4, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130964

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite an overall reduction in the number of stroke cases presenting to hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic, a remarkably high incidence of acute cerebrovascular disease associated with the infection has been reported. In this systematic review, we assess the neurological outcomes and complications of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) for large vessel occlusions (LVO) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed from December 1, 2019 through September 1st, 2020 using different combinations of suitable keywords. Ten studies reporting EVT outcomes and complications were identified. Two studies that included non-LVO pathologies and COVID-19 negative patients with the outcomes analysis were excluded. Patient demographics, comorbidities, anatomic thrombus location, neurological and angiographic outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 8 studies, in addition to our institutional case series, were ultimately included in this review. The mean age was 62.2 years, of which 67.6% were males. M1 segment involvement was the most commonly reported (53.8%) thrombus location. The mean NIHSS at presentation was 20.4 with no significant change at 24 h. Successful revascularization (TICI ≥ 2b) was achieved in 89%. Early proximal cerebral re-occlusion was reported in 6 patients (11%) and cerebral hemorrhage in 3 patients (4%). In hospital mortality was reported in 15 patients (28.8%). CONCLUSION: Despite angiographically successful EVT of LVOs in the majority of patients, this literature analysis demonstrates overall poor outcomes and high mortality in COVID-19 patients post EVT. An unusual incidence of early intracerebral proximal arterial re-occlusion was notable.

15.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients are suggested to have a higher incidence of thrombotic events such as acute ischemic strokes (AIS). This study aimed at exploring vascular comorbidity patterns among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with subsequent stroke. We also investigated whether the comorbidities and their frequencies under each subclass of TOAST criteria were similar to the AIS population studies prior to the pandemic. METHODS: This is a report from the Multinational COVID-19 Stroke Study Group. We present an original dataset of SASR-CoV-2 infected patients who had a subsequent stroke recorded through our multicenter prospective study. In addition, we built a dataset of previously reported patients by conducting a systematic literature review. We demonstrated distinct subgroups by clinical risk scoring models and unsupervised machine learning algorithms, including hierarchical K-Means (ML-K) and Spectral clustering (ML-S). RESULTS: This study included 323 AIS patients from 71 centers in 17 countries from the original dataset and 145 patients reported in the literature. The unsupervised clustering methods suggest a distinct cohort of patients (ML-K: 36% and ML-S: 42%) with no or few comorbidities. These patients were more than 6 years younger than other subgroups and more likely were men (ML-K: 59% and ML-S: 60%). The majority of patients in this subgroup suffered from an embolic-appearing stroke on imaging (ML-K: 83% and ML-S: 85%) and had about 50% risk of large vessel occlusions (ML-K: 50% and ML-S: 53%). In addition, there were two cohorts of patients with large-artery atherosclerosis (ML-K: 30% and ML-S: 43% of patients) and cardioembolic strokes (ML-K: 34% and ML-S: 15%) with consistent comorbidity and imaging patterns. Binominal logistic regression demonstrated that ischemic heart disease (odds ratio (OR), 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-14.7), atrial fibrillation (OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 4.8-40.8), and active neoplasm (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.4-36.2) were associated with cardioembolic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Although a cohort of young and healthy men with cardioembolic and large vessel occlusions can be distinguished using both clinical sub-grouping and unsupervised clustering, stroke in other patients may be explained based on the existing comorbidities.

16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is well known for its respiratory symptoms, but severe presentations can alter haemostasis, causing acute end-organ damage with poor outcomes. Among its various neurological presentations, cerebrovascular events often present as small-vessel strokes. Although uncommon, in predisposed individuals, large-vessel occlusions (LVOs) can occur as a possible consequence of direct viral action (viral burden or antigenic structure) or virus-induced cytokine storm. Subtle presentations and complicated stroke care pathways continue to exist, delaying timely care. We present a unique case of COVID-19 LVO manifesting as an acute confusional state in an elderly man in April 2020. CT angiography revealed 'de novo' occlusions of the left internal carotid artery and proximal right vertebral artery, effectively blocking anterior and posterior circulations. Delirium can lead to inaccurate stroke scale assessments and prolong initiation of COVID-19 stroke care pathways. Future studies are needed to look into the temporal relationship between confusion and neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delirium/virology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Delirium/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Stroke/virology , Vertebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery/pathology
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(5): 105642, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented strain on the health care system. An adaptive strategy for the handling of thrombectomy for patients with large vessel occlusion has evolved at our center to optimize patient care while also minimizing risk of virus transmission. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the new thrombectomy protocol by comparing thrombectomy times and patient outcomes during the pandemic and pre pandemic period. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients who underwent emergent thrombectomy from April 4th, 2020 to August 25th, 2020 (pandemic period) and between December 2nd, 2019 to April 3rd, 2020 (pre-pandemic period). The new protocol centered on a standardized approach to airway management in patients considered 'high-risk' for infection. An array of patient-specific factors and outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients were included in the study. There was no significant difference in door-to-recanalization or other time parameters between the two groups (138 minutes during the pandemic vs. 129 minutes pre-pandemic; p=0.37). However, outcomes measured as discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were worse for patients during the pandemic (mRS ≤ 2, 10/58; 17.2% during pandemic vs. 24/68; 35.3% pre-pandemic, p = 0.02). No neurointerventional providers have been found to contract COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our approach to mechanical thrombectomy during the COVID-19 era was associated with similar recanalization rates but worse clinical outcomes compared to pre pandemic period. Further studies are necessary to identify factors contributing to worse outcomes during this ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/surgery , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Pandemics , Stroke/surgery , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Airway Management , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Clinical Protocols , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
18.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 201: 106436, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate overall ischemic stroke volumes and rates, specific subtypes, and clinical presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic in a multicenter observational study from eight states across US. METHODS: We compared all ischemic strokes admitted between January 2019 and May 2020, grouped as; March-May 2020 (COVID-19 period) and March-May 2019 (seasonal pre-COVID-19 period). Primary outcome was stroke severity at admission measured by NIHSS stratified as mild (0-7), moderate [8-14], and severe (>14). Secondary outcomes were volume of large vessel occlusions (LVOs), stroke etiology, IV-tPA rates, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Of the 7969 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke during the study period, 933 (12 %) presented in the COVID-19 period while 1319 (17 %) presented in the seasonal pre-COVID-19 period. Significant decline was observed in the mean weekly volumes of newly diagnosed ischemic strokes (98 ± 3 vs 50 ± 20,p = 0.003), LVOs (16.5 ± 3.8 vs 8.3 ± 5.9,p = 0.008), and IV-tPA (10.9 ± 3.4 vs 5.3 ± 2.9,p = 0.0047), whereas the mean weekly proportion of LVOs (18 % ±5 vs 16 % ±7,p = 0.24) and IV-tPA (10.4 % ±4.5 vs. 9.9 % ±2.4,p = 0.66) remained the same, when compared to the seasonal pre-COVID-19 period. Additionally, an increased proportion of patients presented with a severe disease (NIHSS > 14) during the COVID-19 period (29.7 % vs 24.5 %,p < 0.025). The odds of being discharged to home were 26 % greater in the COVID-19 period when compared to seasonal pre-COVID-19 period (OR:1.26, 95 % CI:1.07-1.49,p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 period there was a decrease in volume of newly diagnosed ischemic stroke cases and IV-tPA administration. Patients admitted to the hospital had severe neurological clinical presentation and were more likely to discharge home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurology/trends , Societies, Medical/trends , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology
19.
Neurol Res Pract ; 2: 44, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have altered emergency workflows established to optimize the outcome of patients with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. AIMS: We here analyzed workflow time intervals and functional outcomes of LVO patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy (ET) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. METHODS: We compared the frequency, pre- and intrahospital workflow time intervals, rates of reperfusion, and functional outcome of patients admitted from March 1st to May 31st 2020 with patients admitted during the same time interval in 2019 to 12 university and municipal hospitals across Germany (N = 795). RESULTS: The number of LVO patients treated with ET between March to May 2020 was similar when compared to the same interval in 2019. Direct-to-center patients and patients admitted through interhospital transfer in 2020 showed similar pre- and intrahospital workflow time intervals compared to patients admitted in 2019, except for a longer door-to-groin time in patients admitted through interhospital transfer in 2020 (47 min vs 38 min, p = 0.005). Rates of reperfusion were not significantly different between 2020 and 2019. Functional outcome at discharge of LVO patients treated in 2020 was not significantly different compared to patients treated in 2019. CONCLUSION: Pre- and intrahospital workflows, ET efficacy, and functional outcome of LVO patients treated with ET were not affected during the COVID-19 pandemic in our large cohort from centers across Germany.

20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105609, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012468

ABSTRACT

The case of a 70-year-old male presenting an ischemic stroke related to COVID-19 infection is described. He was initially admitted to the hospital with respiratory insufficiency syndrome secondary to pneumonia caused by SARS Co2. In the next days, he developed rapid neurological deterioration characterized by drowsiness which progressed to deep coma. D-dimer was elevated. Brain CT scan showed bilateral massive ischemic stroke located in the anterior circulation, CT angiogram showed occlusion in the left internal carotid artery and the right middle cerebral artery. The deterioration of the patient continued and he subsequently died. Large vessel occlusion has been reported in COVID-19 patients, but this clinical presentation is usually unilateral. Cases of bilateral occlusion of large vessels have not been previously reported in COVID-19 patients. This report shows that bilateral massive stroke may occur in COVID-19 cases and it should be suspected in patients who show rapid neurological deterioration without focal deficits.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Coma/etiology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Thrombectomy
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