Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.068
Filter
1.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785755

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an epidemiological threat and a worldwide concern. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 210 countries worldwide and more than 6,500,000 confirmed cases and 384,643 deaths have been reported, while the number of both confirmed and fatal cases is continually increasing. COVID-19 is a viral disease that can affect every age group-from infants to the elderly-resulting in a wide spectrum of various clinical manifestations. COVID-19 might present different degrees of severity-from mild or even asymptomatic carriers, even to fatal cases. The most common complications include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fever, dry cough, muscle weakness, and chest pain are the most prevalent and typical symptoms of COVID-19. However, patients might also present atypical symptoms that can occur alone, which might indicate the possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize all of the findings regarding clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients, which include respiratory, neurological, olfactory and gustatory, gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, dermatological, cardiac, and rheumatologic manifestations, as well as specific symptoms in pediatric patients.

2.
J Mol Struct ; 1230: 129868, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734825

ABSTRACT

In view of the recent global pandemic caused by COVID-19 intense efforts have been devoted worldwide towards the development of an effective treatment for this disease. Recently, PDE4 inhibitors have been suggested to attenuate the cytokine storm in COVID-19 especially tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In our effort we have explored the 2-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxalines for this purpose because of their potential inhibitory properties of PDE-4 / TNF-α. Moreover, several of these compounds appeared to be promising in silico when assessed for their binding affinities via docking into the N-terminal RNA-binding domain (NTD) of N-protein of SARS-CoV-2. A rapid and one-pot synthesis of this class of molecules was achieved via the Cu-catalyzed coupling-cyclization-desulfinylation of 3-alkynyl-2-chloroquinoxalines with t-butyl sulfinamide as the ammonia surrogate under ultrasound irradiation. Most of these compounds showed good to significant inhibition of TNF-α in vitro establishing a SAR (Structure Activity Relationship) within the series. One compound e.g. 3i was identified as a promising hit for which the desirable ADME and acceptable toxicity profile was predicted in silico.

3.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5310-5322, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733920

ABSTRACT

The most consequential challenge raised by coinfection is perhaps the inappropriate generation of recombinant viruses through the exchange of genetic material among different strains. These genetically similar viruses can interfere with the replication process of each other and even compete for the metabolites required for the maintenance of the replication cycle. Due to the similarity in clinical symptoms of most viral respiratory tract infections, and their coincidence with COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is recommended to develop a comprehensive diagnostic panel for detection of respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses through the evaluation of patient samples. Given the resulting changes in blood markers, such as coagulation factors and white blood cell count following virus infection, these markers can be of diagnostic value in the detection of mixed infection in individuals already diagnosed with a certain viral illness. In this review, we seek to investigate the coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses to provide novel insights into the development of highly sensitive diagnostics and effective treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Humans
4.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S130-S133, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726832

ABSTRACT

The severe form of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has largely manifested as a predominant respiratory illness causing severe pneumonia characterized by bilateral, subpleural ground glass haze, progressing to consolidation, and fibrosis on imaging. There is some discrepancy between the governmental guidelines, professional Societies and Radiology and Respiratory Medicine specialists with divided opinions between the use of the chest X-rays and CT scan, and whether the use be screening or diagnostic. So far, the most balanced recommendations have been proposed by the Fleischner Society, which are endorsed by the Radiological Society of Pakistan as well. This writeup describes the approach for a rational use of imaging to the best advantage in the current situation according to local resources, and restricting the spread of infection. The most practical compromise for Pakistan appears to be the use of portable digital radiography equipment, and point-of- care ultrasound; with CT scan reserved for clinical situations not explained by the above two modalities, or demanding disease stratification.

5.
J Cytol ; 37(2): 67-71, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726374

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. This scenario has impacted the way we practice cytopathology. Cytology laboratories receive fresh and potentially infectious biological samples including those from the respiratory tract, from COVID-19 positive or suspected patients. Hence, the Indian Academy of Cytologists thought it necessary and fit to bring forth appropriate guidelines starting from transportation, receipt, processing, and reporting of samples in the COVID-19 era. The guidelines are prepared with the aim of safeguarding and protecting the health care personnel including laboratory staff, trainees and cytopathologists by minimizing exposure to COVID-19 so that they remain safe, in order to able to provide a continuous service. We hope that these national guidelines will be implemented across all cytopathology laboratories effectively.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726035

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new pathogenic viral strains is a constant threat to global health, with the new coronavirus strain COVID-19 as the latest example. COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has quickly spread around the globe. This pandemic demands rapid development of drugs and vaccines. Plant-based vaccines are a technology with proven viability, which have led to promising results for candidates evaluated at the clinical level, meaning this technology could contribute towards the fight against COVID-19. Herein, a perspective in how plant-based vaccines can be developed against COVID-19 is presented. Injectable vaccines could be generated by using transient expression systems, which offer the highest protein yields and are already adopted at the industrial level to produce VLPs-vaccines and other biopharmaceuticals under GMPC-processes. Stably-transformed plants are another option, but this approach requires more time for the development of antigen-producing lines. Nonetheless, this approach offers the possibility of developing oral vaccines in which the plant cell could act as the antigen delivery agent. Therefore, this is the most attractive approach in terms of cost, easy delivery, and mucosal immunity induction. The development of multiepitope, rationally-designed vaccines is also discussed regarding the experience gained in expression of chimeric immunogenic proteins in plant systems.

7.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726011

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is due to infection caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus that impacts the lower respiratory tract. The spectrum of symptoms ranges from asymptomatic infections to mild respiratory symptoms to the lethal form of COVID-19 which is associated with severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, and fatality. To address this global crisis, up-to-date information on viral genomics and transcriptomics is crucial for understanding the origins and global dispersion of the virus, providing insights into viral pathogenicity, transmission, and epidemiology, and enabling strategies for therapeutic interventions, drug discovery, and vaccine development. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive overview of COVID-19 epidemiology, genomic etiology, findings from recent transcriptomic map analysis, viral-human protein interactions, molecular diagnostics, and the current status of vaccine and novel therapeutic intervention development. Moreover, we provide an extensive list of resources that will help the scientific community access numerous types of databases related to SARS-CoV-2 OMICs and approaches to therapeutics related to COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
8.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723544

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability across the three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes (human leukocyte antigen A [HLA-A], -B, and -C genes) may affect susceptibility to and severity of the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We performed a comprehensive in silico analysis of viral peptide-MHC class I binding affinity across 145 HLA-A, -B, and -C genotypes for all SARS-CoV-2 peptides. We further explored the potential for cross-protective immunity conferred by prior exposure to four common human coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 proteome was successfully sampled and was represented by a diversity of HLA alleles. However, we found that HLA-B*46:01 had the fewest predicted binding peptides for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that individuals with this allele may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, as they were previously shown to be for SARS (M. Lin, H.-T. Tseng, J. A. Trejaut, H.-L. Lee, et al., BMC Med Genet 4:9, 2003, https://bmcmedgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2350-4-9). Conversely, we found that HLA-B*15:03 showed the greatest capacity to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides that are shared among common human coronaviruses, suggesting that it could enable cross-protective T-cell-based immunity. Finally, we reported global distributions of HLA types with potential epidemiological ramifications in the setting of the current pandemic.IMPORTANCE Individual genetic variation may help to explain different immune responses to a virus across a population. In particular, understanding how variation in HLA may affect the course of COVID-19 could help identify individuals at higher risk from the disease. HLA typing can be fast and inexpensive. Pairing HLA typing with COVID-19 testing where feasible could improve assessment of severity of viral disease in the population. Following the development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, individuals with high-risk HLA types could be prioritized for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Histocompatibility Testing/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Haplotypes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
9.
J Infect Dis ; 225(10): 1710-1720, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While secondary pneumococcal pneumonia occurs less commonly after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than after other viral infections, it remains unclear whether other interactions occur between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: We probed potential interactions between these pathogens among adults aged ≥65 years by measuring associations of COVID-19 outcomes with pneumococcal vaccination (13-valent conjugate vaccine [PCV13] and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPSV23]). We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) using Cox proportional hazards models with doubly robust inverse-propensity weighting. We assessed effect modification by antibiotic exposure to further test the biologic plausibility of a causal role for pneumococci. RESULTS: Among 531 033 adults, there were 3677 COVID-19 diagnoses, leading to 1075 hospitalizations and 334 fatalities, between 1 March and 22 July 2020. Estimated aHRs for COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, and mortality associated with prior PCV13 receipt were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], .59-.72), 0.68 (95% CI, .57-.83), and 0.68 (95% CI, .49-.95), respectively. Prior PPSV23 receipt was not associated with protection against the 3 outcomes. COVID-19 diagnosis was not associated with prior PCV13 within 90 days following antibiotic receipt, whereas aHR estimates were 0.65 (95% CI, .50-.84) and 0.62 (95% CI, .56-.70) during the risk periods 91-365 days and >365 days, respectively, following antibiotic receipt. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced risk of COVID-19 among PCV13 recipients, transiently attenuated by antibiotic exposure, suggests that pneumococci may interact with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccines, Conjugate
10.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(9): 1430-1435, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682606

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly progressed to a global pandemic. There are well-documented cardiac complications of COVID-19 in patients with and without prior cardiovascular disease. The cardiac complications include myocarditis, heart failure, and acute coronary syndrome resulting from coronary artery thrombosis or SARS-CoV-2-related plaque ruptures. There is growing evidence showing that arrhythmias are also one of the major complications. Myocardial inflammation caused by viral infection leads to electrophysiological and structural remodeling as a possible mechanism for arrhythmia. This could also be the mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 leads to different arrhythmias. In this review article, we discuss arrhythmia manifestations in COVID-19.

11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(2): 497-508, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669515

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are RNA viruses that cause human respiratory infections. Zoonotic transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which led to over 2 million deaths worldwide. Elevated inflammatory responses and cytotoxicity in the lungs are associated with COVID-19 severity in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. Bats, which host pathogenic CoVs, operate dampened inflammatory responses and show tolerance to these viruses with mild clinical symptoms. Delineating the mechanisms governing these host-specific inflammatory responses is essential to understand host-virus interactions determining the outcome of pathogenic CoV infections. Here, we describe the essential role of inflammasome activation in determining COVID-19 severity in humans and innate immune tolerance in bats that host several pathogenic CoVs. We further discuss mechanisms leading to inflammasome activation in human SARS-CoV-2 infection and how bats are molecularly adapted to suppress these inflammasome responses. We also report an analysis of functionally important residues of inflammasome components that provide new clues of bat strategies to suppress inflammasome signaling and innate immune responses. As spillover of bat viruses may cause the emergence of new human disease outbreaks, the inflammasome regulation in bats and humans likely provides specific strategies to combat the pathogenic CoV infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Immune Tolerance , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Phylogeny
12.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e296-e298, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Roseola infantum is always considered to be among the differential diagnosis of young patients with fever and leukopenia whom to be strictly isolated with the preliminary diagnosis of COVID-19 until otherwise proven during the pandemic. RESULTS: Human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) blood test was performed in 4 of 7 patients with a clinical diagnosis of roseola infantum and all found to be HHV-6 PCR positive. The most striking laboratory finding in all patients was leukopenia. HHV-6 PCR tests were found to be positive. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 testing were found to be negative in all patients. CONCLUSION: During the peak of the pandemic, children continued to present with fever because of viral infections other than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Exanthema Subitum/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 167, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585891

ABSTRACT

The ongoing 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed a worldwide pandemic and a major global public health threat. The severity and mortality of COVID-19 are associated with virus-induced dysfunctional inflammatory responses and cytokine storms. However, the interplay between host inflammatory responses and SARS-CoV-2 infection remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein, the major structural protein of the virion, promotes the virus-triggered activation of NF-κB signaling. After binding to viral RNA, N protein robustly undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), which recruits TAK1 and IKK complex, the key kinases of NF-κB signaling, to enhance NF-κB activation. Moreover, 1,6-hexanediol, the inhibitor of LLPS, can attenuate the phase separation of N protein and restrict its regulatory functions in NF-κB activation. These results suggest that LLPS of N protein provides a platform to induce NF-κB hyper-activation, which could be a potential therapeutic target against COVID-19 severe pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , A549 Cells , Acrylates/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Vero Cells
14.
J Med Chem ; 64(8): 4991-5000, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574766

ABSTRACT

The main protease (3CL Mpro) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, is an essential enzyme for viral replication with no human counterpart, making it an attractive drug target. To date, no small-molecule clinical drugs are available that specifically inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. To aid rational drug design, we determined a neutron structure of Mpro in complex with the α-ketoamide inhibitor telaprevir at near-physiological (22 °C) temperature. We directly observed protonation states in the inhibitor complex and compared them with those in the ligand-free Mpro, revealing modulation of the active-site protonation states upon telaprevir binding. We suggest that binding of other α-ketoamide covalent inhibitors can lead to the same protonation state changes in the Mpro active site. Thus, by studying the protonation state changes induced by inhibitors, we provide crucial insights to help guide rational drug design, allowing precise tailoring of inhibitors to manipulate the electrostatic environment of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography/methods , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Neutrons , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protons
15.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-9, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575633

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecules that are essential for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry can provide insights into viral infection and dissemination. Recently, it has been identified from several studies that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 are the main entry molecules for the SARS-CoV-2, which produced the pandemic of Covid-19. However, additional evidence showed several other viral receptors and cellular proteases that are also important in facilitating viral entry and transmission in the target cells. In this review, we summarized the types of SARS-CoV-2 entry molecules and discussed their crucial roles for virus binding, protein priming and fusion to the cellular membrane important for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization
16.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 570748, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573664

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) has raised considerable concern on the entire planet. On March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was categorized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic infection, and by March 18, 2020, it has spread to 146 countries. The first internal defense line against numerous diseases is personalized immunity. Although it cannot be claimed that personalized nutrition will have an immediate impact on a global pandemic, as the nutritional interventions required a long time to induce beneficial outcomes on immunity development, nutritional strategies are still able to clarify and have a beneficial influence on the interplay between physiology and diet, which could make a positive contribution to the condition in the next period. As such, a specific goal for every practitioner is to evaluate different tests to perceive the status of the patient, such as markers of inflammation, insulin regulation, and nutrient status, and to detect possible imbalances or deficiencies. During the process of disease development, the supplementation and addition of different nutrients and nutraceuticals can influence not only the viral replication but also the cellular mechanisms. It is essential to understand that every patient has its individual needs. Even though many nutrients, nutraceuticals, and drugs have beneficial effects on the immune response and can prevent or ameliorate viral infections, it is essential to detect at what stage in COVID-19 progression the patient is at the moment and decide what kind of nutrition intervention is necessary. Furthermore, understanding the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection is critical to make proper recommendations.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4005-e4011, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities are central in the national conversation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) , with Black/African Americans being disproportionately affected. We assessed risk factors for death from COVID-19 among Black inpatients at an urban hospital in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (the COVID-19 virus) on qualitative polymerase chain reaction assay who were admitted between 8 March 2020 and 6 May 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The case fatality rate was 29.1% (122/419). The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization was 5.3 (3.9) days. The incidence of altered mental status on presentation was higher among patients who died than those who survived, 43% vs 20.0%, respectively (P < .0001). From multivariable analysis, the odds of death increased with age (≥60 years), admission from a nursing facility, Charlson score, altered mental status, higher C-reactive protein on admission, need for mechanical ventilation, presence of shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: These demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors may help healthcare providers identify Black patients at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated outcomes. Early and aggressive interventions among this at-risk population may help mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550636

ABSTRACT

Pain is a common symptom accompanying the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Nonspecific discomfort such as sore throat and body ache are frequent. Parainfectious pain such as headache, myalgia, or neuropathic pain has also been reported. The latter seems to be associated with an autoimmune response or an affection of the peripheral neuromuscular system or the central nervous system because of the viral infection. Furthermore, chronic pain can be a complication of intensive care unit treatment due to COVID-19 itself (such as intensive care-acquired weakness) or of secondary diseases associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, polyneuritis, critical illness polyneuropathy, or central pain following cerebrovascular events. Data on long-lasting painful symptoms after clinically manifest COVID-19 and their consequences are lacking. In addition, preexisting chronic pain may be exacerbated by limited and disrupted health care and the psychological burden of the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical providers should be vigilant on pain during and after COVID-19.

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8304, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545653

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a viral infection originated from Wuhan, China has spread across the world and it has currently affected over 115 million people. Although vaccination process has already started, reaching sufficient availability will take time. Considering the impact of this widespread disease, many research attempts have been made by the computer scientists to screen the COVID-19 from Chest X-Rays (CXRs) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans. To this end, we have proposed GraphCovidNet, a Graph Isomorphic Network (GIN) based model which is used to detect COVID-19 from CT-scans and CXRs of the affected patients. Our proposed model only accepts input data in the form of graph as we follow a GIN based architecture. Initially, pre-processing is performed to convert an image data into an undirected graph to consider only the edges instead of the whole image. Our proposed GraphCovidNet model is evaluated on four standard datasets: SARS-COV-2 Ct-Scan dataset, COVID-CT dataset, combination of covid-chestxray-dataset, Chest X-Ray Images (Pneumonia) dataset and CMSC-678-ML-Project dataset. The model shows an impressive accuracy of 99% for all the datasets and its prediction capability becomes 100% accurate for the binary classification problem of detecting COVID-19 scans. Source code of this work can be found at GitHub-link .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/virology , Datasets as Topic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3027-e3032, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be detected in respiratory samples by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or other molecular methods. Accessibility of diagnostic testing for COVID-19 has been limited by intermittent shortages of supplies required for testing, including flocked nasopharyngeal (FLNP) swabs. METHODS: We developed a 3-dimensional printed nasopharyngeal (3DP) swab as a replacement of the FLNP swab. The performance of 3DP and FLNP swabs were compared in a clinical trial of symptomatic patients at 3 clinical sites (n = 291) using 3 SARS-CoV-2 emergency use authorization tests: a modified version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel and 2 commercial automated formats, Roche Cobas and NeuMoDx. RESULTS: The cycle threshold-C(t)-values from the gene targets and the RNase P gene control in the CDC assay showed no significant differences between swabs for both gene targets (P = .152 and P = .092), with the RNase P target performing significantly better in the 3DP swabs (P < .001). The C(t) values showed no significant differences between swabs for both viral gene targets in the Roche cobas assay (P = .05 and P = .05) as well as the NeuMoDx assay (P = .401 and P = .484). The overall clinical correlation of COVID-19 diagnosis between all methods was 95.88% (Kappa 0.901). CONCLUSIONS: The 3DP swabs were equivalent to standard FLNP in 3 testing platforms for SARS-CoV-2. Given the need for widespread testing, 3DP swabs printed onsite are an alternate to FLNP that can rapidly scale in response to acute needs when supply chain disruptions affect availability of collection kits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , Nasopharynx , Printing, Three-Dimensional , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL