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1.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1279-1290, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) may be susceptible to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, anti-CRC/COVID-19 treatment options are currently unavailable. Since niacin is a vitamin with cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory functions, this study aimed to evaluate the possible functional roles and underlying mechanisms of action of niacin as an anti-COVID-19 and -CRC therapy. INTERVENTIONS: We used a series of network pharmacology-based and computational analyses to understand and characterize the binding capacity, biological functions, pharmacological targets and therapeutic mechanisms of niacin in CRC/COVID-19. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We revealed the clinical characteristics of CRC patients and COVID-19 patients, including predisposing genes, survival rate and prognosis. Moreover, the results of molecular docking analysis indicated that niacin exerted effective binding capacity in COVID-19. Further, we disclosed the targets, biological functions and signaling pathways of niacin in CRC/COVID-19. The analysis indicated that niacin could help in treating CRC/COVID-19 through cytoprotection, enhancement of immunologic functions, inhibition of inflammatory reactions and regulation of cellular microenvironment. Furthermore, five core pharmacological targets of niacin in CRC/COVID-19 were also identified, including BCL2L1, PTGS2, IL1B, IFNG and SERPINE1. CONCLUSIONS: This study, for the first time, revealed the niacin-associated molecular functions and pharmacological targets for treating CRC/COVID-19, as COVID-19 remains a serious pandemic. But the findings were not validated in actual CRC patients infected with COVID-19, so further investigation is needed to confirm the potential use of niacin for treating CRC/COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , Niacin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Docking Simulation , Niacin/pharmacology
2.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
3.
Future Sci OA ; 6(9): FSO628, 2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256152

ABSTRACT

AIM: Low levels of immune-related micronutrients have been identified in ß-thalassemia samples. Moreover, the excess amount of iron, contributing to oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease, alters the immune system in ß-thalassemia, which is important during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS & METHODS: Searches of PUBMED and EMBASE were conducted to identify the level and supplementation of micronutrients in ß-thalassemia, published from 2001-May 2020. RESULTS: The review found six observational and five interventional studies supporting the importance of supplementing vitamins and minerals among patients with ß-thalassemia. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of immune-related vitamins and minerals might bring benefits to the immune system, especially in reducing oxidative stress in ß-thalassemia.

4.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 10(3): 200-210, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outbreak has manifested into a major public health concern across the globe, affecting particularly the most vulnerable population groups. Currently, there are various clinical trials being conducted to develop effective treatments. It is estimated that it could take one or more years before these drugs pass all safety tests and concrete results with regard to their effectiveness become available. In addition, despite the recent development of vaccines (licensed for use under conditional licenses) and the commencement of COVID-19 vaccination programs in several countries, there is still a need for safe and novel strategies that may reduce the symptomatology and/or prevent the severe complications associated with COVID-19. Natural compounds previously shown to have antiviral potential should be thoroughly considered and investigated for use in prophylactic treatment of COVID-19 due to their availability and safety. RECENT FINDINGS: The current narrative review investigates whether there is evidence in the literature that supplementation with dietary minerals and vitamins may have a role in preventing infection with SARS-CoV-2 or in reducing COVID-19 symptomatology and disease progression. The current evidence from the literature supports that zinc and vitamin C have a potential in reducing the inflammatory response associated with SARS-CoV-2 while folate and vitamin D may have a role in antagonizing the entry of SARs-CoV-2 virus in host calls. Thus, further research should be conducted that could lead to the development of nutritional supplements involving natural and widely available compounds such as zinc, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin D. The latter could be an effective, safe, and inexpensive way to either prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 and/or lessen the burden of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid , Dietary Supplements , Folic Acid , Humans , Pandemics , Vitamin D , Zinc
5.
SAGE Open Med ; 9: 2050312121991246, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093951

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 which has infected over 74 million people, killing more than 1,600,000 million people around the world as of 17th December 2020. Accumulation of free radicals coupled by weakened antioxidant system leads to oxidative stress, which will further worsen respiratory diseases, COVID-19 inclusive. This study aimed to examine the levels of some antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional comparative study in which 50 COVID-19 symptomatic patients who were on admission at the COVID-19 isolation center in Jigawa, Northwestern Nigeria, were recruited. Twenty one (21) apparently healthy individuals were included as controls. Levels of antioxidant trace elements (Se, Zn, Mg, Cu and Cr), 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha and malondialdehyde in the plasma and erythrocytes activity of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were determined. RESULTS: The plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C and E were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in COVID-19 patients than controls. Activities of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were lower in COVID-19 subjects than controls (p < 0.001). The concentrations of Se, Zn, Mg and Cu were significantly lower (p < 0.001; p = 0.039; p < 0.001; and p < 0.001), respectively, in COVID-19 patients than controls, while chromium showed no significant difference (p = 0.605). Oxidative stress marker, 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha, was significantly higher (p = 0.049), while malondialdehyde was lower (p < 0.001) in COVID-19 patients than controls. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, COVID-19 patients are prone to depleted levels of antioxidant substances due to their increase utilization in counterbalancing the negative effect of free radicals. Furthermore, COVID-19 infection with other comorbidities, such as malaria, hypertension and diabetes, are at higher risk of developing oxidative stress.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 559811, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063325

ABSTRACT

In numerous animal studies, vitamin C has prevented and alleviated viral and bacterial infections. In a few dozen placebo-controlled trials with humans, vitamin C has shortened infections caused by respiratory viruses, which indicates that the vitamin can also influence viral infections in humans. In critically ill patients, plasma vitamin C levels are commonly very low. Gram doses of vitamin C are needed to increase the plasma vitamin C levels of critically ill patients to the levels of ordinary healthy people. A meta-analysis of 12 trials with 1,766 patients calculated that vitamin C reduced the length of ICU stay on average by 8%. Another meta-analysis found that vitamin C shortened the duration of mechanical ventilation in ICU patients. Two randomized placebo-controlled trials found statistically significant reduction in the mortality of sepsis patients. The effects of vitamin C on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) frequently complicating COVID-19 pneumonia should be considered. Vitamin C is a safe and inexpensive essential nutrient.

7.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 10(6): 529-536, 2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900305

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: As the scientific community is in a marathon in finding out the cure for COVID-19, in this crisis, it is essential for the physicians not to forget about the basics. Due to the pandemic crisis, in many nursing homes and hospitals, there established new policies on decreasing unnecessary medications to minimize cross-contamination. Sometimes these policies are making providers avoid essential drugs such as Vitamins, including Vitamin D. In this paper, we try to emphasize the importance of Vitamin D in COVID-19 and respiratory viral patients. RELEVANCE: Vitamin D helps in decreasing the 'pro-inflammatory cytokines' in the lungs and acts in immunomodulatory function, and 'also it will increase the anti-inflammatory, antiviral responses of the respiratory epithelial cells during infection.' CONCLUSION: Due to the highly contagious nature of COVID-19 and the increased morbidity and mortality with no appropriate therapy and vaccine, one must be cautious and do everything to help COVID-19 patients. In hospitals and other health care settings to decrease cross-contamination, holding other non-essential medications is taking place. Discontinuing Vitamins could increase the mortality and morbidity of those affected, especially in deficient/insufficient individuals. Obtaining serum 25 (OH) D levels in all patients with viral respiratory infections, especially COVID-19, could help in the detection and treatment of Vitamin D deficiency and potentially decrease recovery time and improve outcome. Even though evidence suggests that vitamin D has the anti-inflammatory, antiviral properties, randomized double-blinded controlled trials are needed to verify this further, and to understand Vitamin D and COVID-19 better. ABBREVIATIONS: Vitamin D receptor-VDR; 25(OH)D- 25 hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25 (OH)D-1,25 dihydroxy Vitamin D; 1α,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D-1,25[OH]2 D or calcitriol; IU- International Units; Interferons stimulated genes- ISG; ARI- acute respiratory infection; RSV- respiratory syncytial virus; RTI- Respiratory tract infections; COPD-Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; BMI-Basal metabolic index; USA-USA.

8.
Redox Biol ; 37: 101721, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759289

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the hypothetical mechanisms for enhanced vulnerability of African Americans to SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 severity, and increased deaths. A disproportionately higher number of African Americans are afflicted with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, obesity), and SARS-CoV-2 has helped expose these health disparities. Several factors including socioeconomic status, inferior health care, and work circumstances contribute to these disparities. Identifying potential inflammatory biomarkers and decreasing basal levels in high-risk individuals with comorbidities through preventive measures is critical. Immune cells, particularly neutrophils, protect us against pathogens (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) through increased generation of free radicals or oxidants and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that ensnare pathogens, killing them extracellularly. However, continued generation of NETs coupled with the lack of prompt removal pose danger to host cells. NET levels are increased during pro-inflammatory diseases. COVID-19 patients exhibit elevated NET levels, depending upon disease severity. Conceivably, high-risk individuals with elevated basal NET levels would exhibit hyper-inflammation when infected with SARS-CoV-2, amplifying disease severity and deaths. Drugs inhibiting oxidant formation and vitamin supplements decreased NET formation in mice models of inflammation. Thus, it is conceivable that preventive treatments lowering NET levels and inflammation in high-risk individuals could mitigate SARS-CoV-2-induced complications and decrease mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , African Americans , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Repositioning , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Free Radicals/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/epidemiology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 887: 173530, 2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738842

ABSTRACT

The global impact of the new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), infection that caused COVID-19 has been evident in the last few months from the unprecedented socioeconomic disruption to more than 600,000 deaths. The lack of vaccine and effective therapeutic agents for the disease prompted world-wide effort to test those antiviral therapeutics already in use for other diseases. Another interesting approach has been based on the pathological sequel of the disease that involve severe inflammatory reaction (or the cytokine storm) associated with pneumonia in critically ill patients. This article outlines the prophylaxis therapeutic potential of supplements vitamins and micronutrients in COVID-19. By ameliorating the inflammatory and oxidative stress associated with the disease and some direct antiviral effects, the application of these agents as adjuvants and other alternative approaches are discussed. Available clinical trials including those currently registered on these supplements are scrutinized.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vitamins/therapeutic use
10.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(10): 2115-2131, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a novel human-infecting coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, had emerged. The WHO has classified the epidemic as a "public health emergency of international concern". A dramatic situation has unfolded with thousands of deaths, occurring mainly in the aged and very ill people. Epidemiological studies suggest that immune system function is impaired in elderly individuals and these subjects often present a deficiency in fat-soluble and hydrosoluble vitamins. METHODS: We searched for reviews describing the characteristics of autoimmune diseases and the available therapeutic protocols for their treatment. We set them as a paradigm with the purpose to uncover common pathogenetic mechanisms between these pathological conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we searched for studies describing the possible efficacy of vitamins A, D, E, and C in improving the immune system function. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces strong immune system dysfunction characterized by the development of an intense proinflammatory response in the host, and the development of a life-threatening condition defined as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). This leads to acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), mainly in aged people. High mortality and lethality rates have been observed in elderly subjects with CoV-2-related infection. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamins may shift the proinflammatory Th17-mediated immune response arising in autoimmune diseases towards a T-cell regulatory phenotype. This review discusses the possible activity of vitamins A, D, E, and C in restoring normal antiviral immune system function and the potential therapeutic role of these micronutrients as part of a therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vitamins/immunology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Aged , Ascorbic Acid/immunology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Th17 Cells/immunology , Vitamin A/immunology , Vitamin A/pharmacology , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin E/immunology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Vitamins/pharmacology
11.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727436

ABSTRACT

There are limited proven therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The role of vitamin and mineral supplementation or "immunonutrition" has previously been explored in a number of clinical trials in intensive care settings, and there are several hypotheses to support their routine use. The aim of this narrative review was to investigate whether vitamin supplementation is beneficial in COVID-19. A systematic search strategy with a narrative literature summary was designed, using the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Trials Register, WHO International Clinical Trial Registry, and Nexis media databases. The immune-mediating, antioxidant and antimicrobial roles of vitamins A to E were explored and their potential role in the fight against COVID-19 was evaluated. The major topics extracted for narrative synthesis were physiological and immunological roles of each vitamin, their role in respiratory infections, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and COVID-19. Vitamins A to E highlighted potentially beneficial roles in the fight against COVID-19 via antioxidant effects, immunomodulation, enhancing natural barriers, and local paracrine signaling. Level 1 and 2 evidence supports the use of thiamine, vitamin C, and vitamin D in COVID-like respiratory diseases, ARDS, and sepsis. Although there are currently no published clinical trials due to the novelty of SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is pathophysiologic rationale for exploring the use of vitamins in this global pandemic, supported by early anecdotal reports from international groups. The final outcomes of ongoing trials of vitamin supplementation are awaited with interest.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiamine/therapeutic use , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin E/therapeutic use
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