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1.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
2.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 2091-2110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244939

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), later named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO), was initiated at Wuhan, Hubei, China, and there was a rapid spread of novel SARS-CoV-2 and the disease COVID-19 in late 2019. The entire world is now experiencing the challenge of COVID-19 infection. However, still very few evidence-based treatment options are available for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 disease. The present review aims to summarize the publicly available information to give a comprehensive yet balanced scientific overview of all the fat-soluble vitamins concerning their role in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. The roles of different fat-soluble vitamins and micronutrients in combating SARS-CoV-2 infection have been recently explored in several studies. There are various hypotheses to suggest their use to minimize the severity of COVID-19 infection. These vitamins are pivotal in the maintenance and modulation of innate and cell-mediated, and antibody-mediated immune responses. The data reported in recent literature demonstrate that deficiency in one or more of these vitamins compromises the patients' immune response and makes them more vulnerable to viral infections and perhaps worse disease prognosis. Vitamins A, D, E, and K boost the body's defense mechanism against COVID-19 infection and specifically prevent its complications such as cytokine storm and other inflammatory processes, leading to increased morbidity and mortality overemphasis. However, more detailed randomized double-blind clinical pieces of evidence are required to define the use of these supplements in preventing or reducing the severity of the COVID-19 infection.

3.
SAGE Open Med ; 9: 2050312121991246, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093951

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 which has infected over 74 million people, killing more than 1,600,000 million people around the world as of 17th December 2020. Accumulation of free radicals coupled by weakened antioxidant system leads to oxidative stress, which will further worsen respiratory diseases, COVID-19 inclusive. This study aimed to examine the levels of some antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional comparative study in which 50 COVID-19 symptomatic patients who were on admission at the COVID-19 isolation center in Jigawa, Northwestern Nigeria, were recruited. Twenty one (21) apparently healthy individuals were included as controls. Levels of antioxidant trace elements (Se, Zn, Mg, Cu and Cr), 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha and malondialdehyde in the plasma and erythrocytes activity of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were determined. RESULTS: The plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C and E were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in COVID-19 patients than controls. Activities of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were lower in COVID-19 subjects than controls (p < 0.001). The concentrations of Se, Zn, Mg and Cu were significantly lower (p < 0.001; p = 0.039; p < 0.001; and p < 0.001), respectively, in COVID-19 patients than controls, while chromium showed no significant difference (p = 0.605). Oxidative stress marker, 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha, was significantly higher (p = 0.049), while malondialdehyde was lower (p < 0.001) in COVID-19 patients than controls. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, COVID-19 patients are prone to depleted levels of antioxidant substances due to their increase utilization in counterbalancing the negative effect of free radicals. Furthermore, COVID-19 infection with other comorbidities, such as malaria, hypertension and diabetes, are at higher risk of developing oxidative stress.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 559811, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063325

ABSTRACT

In numerous animal studies, vitamin C has prevented and alleviated viral and bacterial infections. In a few dozen placebo-controlled trials with humans, vitamin C has shortened infections caused by respiratory viruses, which indicates that the vitamin can also influence viral infections in humans. In critically ill patients, plasma vitamin C levels are commonly very low. Gram doses of vitamin C are needed to increase the plasma vitamin C levels of critically ill patients to the levels of ordinary healthy people. A meta-analysis of 12 trials with 1,766 patients calculated that vitamin C reduced the length of ICU stay on average by 8%. Another meta-analysis found that vitamin C shortened the duration of mechanical ventilation in ICU patients. Two randomized placebo-controlled trials found statistically significant reduction in the mortality of sepsis patients. The effects of vitamin C on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) frequently complicating COVID-19 pneumonia should be considered. Vitamin C is a safe and inexpensive essential nutrient.

5.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 29, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex and challenging autoimmune disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) is a novel viral agent that can cause a life-threatening respiratory disorder named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). Association between SARS­CoV­2 and SLE is not clear. We reported the first case of SLE manifestation following COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old Iranian/Persian man with complaints of fever, scaling on the palms of the hands and feet, lower extremity edema, and ankle swelling was referred to Kashan Rheumatology Clinic in 2020. He was infected with SARS-CoV-2 2 months ago. The patient had proteinuria and was positive for SLE laboratory tests. After one week of treatment with prednisolone (30 mg daily) and hydroxychloroquine, paresthesia, proteinuria, and edema continued. The patient was treated with pulse methylprednisolone (1000 mg for three consecutive days), gabapentin, and vitamin B (300 mg daily), which reduced paresthesia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of SLE manifestation following COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 may produce autoantibodies or develop the clinical features of subclinical SLE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/etiology , Adult , Humans , Male
6.
Redox Biol ; 37: 101721, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759289

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the hypothetical mechanisms for enhanced vulnerability of African Americans to SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 severity, and increased deaths. A disproportionately higher number of African Americans are afflicted with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, obesity), and SARS-CoV-2 has helped expose these health disparities. Several factors including socioeconomic status, inferior health care, and work circumstances contribute to these disparities. Identifying potential inflammatory biomarkers and decreasing basal levels in high-risk individuals with comorbidities through preventive measures is critical. Immune cells, particularly neutrophils, protect us against pathogens (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) through increased generation of free radicals or oxidants and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that ensnare pathogens, killing them extracellularly. However, continued generation of NETs coupled with the lack of prompt removal pose danger to host cells. NET levels are increased during pro-inflammatory diseases. COVID-19 patients exhibit elevated NET levels, depending upon disease severity. Conceivably, high-risk individuals with elevated basal NET levels would exhibit hyper-inflammation when infected with SARS-CoV-2, amplifying disease severity and deaths. Drugs inhibiting oxidant formation and vitamin supplements decreased NET formation in mice models of inflammation. Thus, it is conceivable that preventive treatments lowering NET levels and inflammation in high-risk individuals could mitigate SARS-CoV-2-induced complications and decrease mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , African Americans , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Repositioning , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Free Radicals/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/epidemiology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 9(3): 202-209, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640758

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The highly infectious transmissible disease, the novel SARS-CoV-2, causing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has a median incubation time of 5 to 15 days. The symptoms vary from person to person and many are "hidden carriers." Few people experience immediate reaction and even death within 48 h of infection. However, many show mild to chronic symptoms and recover. Nevertheless, the death rate due to COVID-19 transmission is high especially among patients with non-communicable diseases. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence to consider vitamins as epigenetic modifiers to enhance immunity and reduce inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients with non-communicable diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical evidence has suggested the risk of getting infected is high among individuals with non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes, cancer, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and renal disease, as well as the elderly with high mortality rate among the cohort. The impact is due to an already compromised immune system of patients. Every patient has a different response to COVID-19, which shows that the ability to combat the deadly virus varies individually. Thus, treatment can be personalized and adjusted to help protect and combat COVID-19 infections, especially in individuals with non-communicable diseases. Based on current published scientific and medical evidence, the suggestions made in this article for combination of vitamin therapy as epigenetic modifiers to control the unregulated inflammatory and cytokine marker expressions, further needs to be clinically proven. Future research and clinical trials can apply the suggestions given in this article to support metabolic activities in patients and enhance the immune response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Noncommunicable Diseases/drug therapy , Nutrition Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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