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1.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1279-1290, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) may be susceptible to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, anti-CRC/COVID-19 treatment options are currently unavailable. Since niacin is a vitamin with cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory functions, this study aimed to evaluate the possible functional roles and underlying mechanisms of action of niacin as an anti-COVID-19 and -CRC therapy. INTERVENTIONS: We used a series of network pharmacology-based and computational analyses to understand and characterize the binding capacity, biological functions, pharmacological targets and therapeutic mechanisms of niacin in CRC/COVID-19. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We revealed the clinical characteristics of CRC patients and COVID-19 patients, including predisposing genes, survival rate and prognosis. Moreover, the results of molecular docking analysis indicated that niacin exerted effective binding capacity in COVID-19. Further, we disclosed the targets, biological functions and signaling pathways of niacin in CRC/COVID-19. The analysis indicated that niacin could help in treating CRC/COVID-19 through cytoprotection, enhancement of immunologic functions, inhibition of inflammatory reactions and regulation of cellular microenvironment. Furthermore, five core pharmacological targets of niacin in CRC/COVID-19 were also identified, including BCL2L1, PTGS2, IL1B, IFNG and SERPINE1. CONCLUSIONS: This study, for the first time, revealed the niacin-associated molecular functions and pharmacological targets for treating CRC/COVID-19, as COVID-19 remains a serious pandemic. But the findings were not validated in actual CRC patients infected with COVID-19, so further investigation is needed to confirm the potential use of niacin for treating CRC/COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , Niacin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Docking Simulation , Niacin/pharmacology
2.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
3.
Future Sci OA ; 6(9): FSO628, 2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256152

ABSTRACT

AIM: Low levels of immune-related micronutrients have been identified in ß-thalassemia samples. Moreover, the excess amount of iron, contributing to oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease, alters the immune system in ß-thalassemia, which is important during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS & METHODS: Searches of PUBMED and EMBASE were conducted to identify the level and supplementation of micronutrients in ß-thalassemia, published from 2001-May 2020. RESULTS: The review found six observational and five interventional studies supporting the importance of supplementing vitamins and minerals among patients with ß-thalassemia. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of immune-related vitamins and minerals might bring benefits to the immune system, especially in reducing oxidative stress in ß-thalassemia.

4.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 2091-2110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244939

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), later named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO), was initiated at Wuhan, Hubei, China, and there was a rapid spread of novel SARS-CoV-2 and the disease COVID-19 in late 2019. The entire world is now experiencing the challenge of COVID-19 infection. However, still very few evidence-based treatment options are available for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 disease. The present review aims to summarize the publicly available information to give a comprehensive yet balanced scientific overview of all the fat-soluble vitamins concerning their role in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. The roles of different fat-soluble vitamins and micronutrients in combating SARS-CoV-2 infection have been recently explored in several studies. There are various hypotheses to suggest their use to minimize the severity of COVID-19 infection. These vitamins are pivotal in the maintenance and modulation of innate and cell-mediated, and antibody-mediated immune responses. The data reported in recent literature demonstrate that deficiency in one or more of these vitamins compromises the patients' immune response and makes them more vulnerable to viral infections and perhaps worse disease prognosis. Vitamins A, D, E, and K boost the body's defense mechanism against COVID-19 infection and specifically prevent its complications such as cytokine storm and other inflammatory processes, leading to increased morbidity and mortality overemphasis. However, more detailed randomized double-blind clinical pieces of evidence are required to define the use of these supplements in preventing or reducing the severity of the COVID-19 infection.

5.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(1 Suppl. 2): 3-8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227257

ABSTRACT

In the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era, the need to use preventive-curative treatments is compelling. A series of non-pharmacological compounds, including oligo-elements, vitamins, nutraceuticals, and bacteriotherapy, might affect the risk of COVID-19, both reinforcing the immune system and improving the inflammation resolution during respiratory infections. Non-pharmacological remedies are very popular and usually have no relevant side effects. Bacterial and natural products may potentiate the immune system against respiratory viruses. Moreover, these compounds also exert antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity. Consequently, these non-chemical remedies could be prescribed to build up the immune defence and adequately treat the upper respiratory infection. In this way, natural compounds could be used to manage people in the pandemic COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins
6.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(4): 583-595, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to present the current state of knowledge on the influence of vitamin D levels on the severity of the course of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The latest available literature was reviewed until October 30, 2020 from the PubMed database. RESULTS: The literature reports that vitamin D has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. It reduces the expression of cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and INF-γ, regulates the activity of T helper lymphocytes, and other elements of the immune system at the molecular level. The deficiency of this vitamin promotes the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, contributing to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The severity of the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on comorbidities, the development and course of which may also be affected by vitamin D levels (coagulopathies, pulmonary, cardiological, metabolic diseases). Most of the analyzed research studies from different countries indicated a relationship between insufficient vitamin D levels and a more severe course of COVID-19 and an increase in mortality due to it, especially among the elderly. Researchers agree that further analyzes are necessary concerning both the influence of the vitamin D blood serum levels on the morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 as well as the use of its supplementation in the struggle against SARS-CoV-2 virus. There are reports of possible beneficial interactions of vitamin D with other substances, such as quercetin, estradiol, some microelements, and other vitamins. CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining an adequate level of vitamin D has a positive effect on the functioning of the immune system. At the moment, there is insufficient evidence to establish a clear relationship between vitamin D levels and the severity of COVID-19. It is necessary to conduct further research on a larger study group. The literature does not mention the use of vitamin D as a medication for COVID-19. People at risk of vitamin D deficiency should consider vitamin D supplementation at the current time of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(3): e366-e371, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149597

ABSTRACT

Inclusion of pregnant women in COVID-19 clinical trials would allow evaluation of effective therapies that might improve maternal health, pregnancy, and birth outcomes, and avoid the delay of developing treatment recommendations for pregnant women. We explored the inclusion of pregnant women in treatment trials of COVID-19 by reviewing ten international clinical trial registries at two timepoints in 2020. We identified 155 COVID-19 treatment studies of non-biological drugs for the April 7-10, 2020 timepoint, of which 124 (80%) specifically excluded pregnant women. The same registry search for the July 10-15, 2020 timepoint, yielded 722 treatment studies, of which 538 (75%) specifically excluded pregnant women. We then focused on studies that included at least one of six drugs (remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon beta, corticosteroids, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and ivermectin) under evaluation for COVID-19. Of 176 such studies, 130 (74%) listed pregnancy as an exclusion criterion. Of 35 studies that evaluated high-dose vitamin treatment for COVID-19, 27 (77%) excluded pregnant women. Despite the surge in treatment studies for COVID-19, the proportion excluding pregnant women remains consistent. Exclusion was not well justified as many of the treatments being evaluated have no or low safety concerns during pregnancy. Inclusion of pregnant women in clinical treatment trials is urgently needed to identify effective COVID-19 treatment for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Patient Selection/ethics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic/ethics , Eligibility Determination , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 42: 1-14, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin supplementations have increasingly been advertised on media and reported to be widely used by the general public to improve cardiovascular health. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, people have become more interested in ways to improve and maintain their health. Increased awareness of people on healthy lifestyle is translating into inquisition regarding dietary supplements. AIM: First, focus on the most commonly used vitamin supplements and comprehensively review the evidence for and against recommending them to patients to improve and/or maintain cardiovascular health. Second, illustrate how the interest in studies shifted over time from Vitamin A, E, C, and B to Vitamin D and observational studies led to randomized controlled trials. METHODS: A thorough PubMed search with the phrase: "Vitamin supplements and cardiovascular health" was performed. In the present review, focus was maintained on the evidence for the use of vitamin supplements in the prevention of major cardiovascular events and/or the maintenance of cardiovascular health by comprehensively reviewing all previous studies indexed in PubMed. Studies with clinical 'hard' end-points were included only. RESULTS: A total of 87 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in the present article. High-quality evidence suggesting benefits for the use of vitamin supplements to maintain or improve cardiovascular health in people is minimal to non-existent. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin supplementation does not improve clinical cardiovascular outcomes in general population. Counseling on the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle with adequate and nutritious food intake seems more appropriate to improve and maintain cardiovascular health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System , Dietary Supplements , Vitamins , COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D
9.
SAGE Open Med ; 9: 2050312121991246, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093951

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 which has infected over 74 million people, killing more than 1,600,000 million people around the world as of 17th December 2020. Accumulation of free radicals coupled by weakened antioxidant system leads to oxidative stress, which will further worsen respiratory diseases, COVID-19 inclusive. This study aimed to examine the levels of some antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional comparative study in which 50 COVID-19 symptomatic patients who were on admission at the COVID-19 isolation center in Jigawa, Northwestern Nigeria, were recruited. Twenty one (21) apparently healthy individuals were included as controls. Levels of antioxidant trace elements (Se, Zn, Mg, Cu and Cr), 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha and malondialdehyde in the plasma and erythrocytes activity of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were determined. RESULTS: The plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C and E were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in COVID-19 patients than controls. Activities of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were lower in COVID-19 subjects than controls (p < 0.001). The concentrations of Se, Zn, Mg and Cu were significantly lower (p < 0.001; p = 0.039; p < 0.001; and p < 0.001), respectively, in COVID-19 patients than controls, while chromium showed no significant difference (p = 0.605). Oxidative stress marker, 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha, was significantly higher (p = 0.049), while malondialdehyde was lower (p < 0.001) in COVID-19 patients than controls. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, COVID-19 patients are prone to depleted levels of antioxidant substances due to their increase utilization in counterbalancing the negative effect of free radicals. Furthermore, COVID-19 infection with other comorbidities, such as malaria, hypertension and diabetes, are at higher risk of developing oxidative stress.

10.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 29, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex and challenging autoimmune disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) is a novel viral agent that can cause a life-threatening respiratory disorder named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). Association between SARS­CoV­2 and SLE is not clear. We reported the first case of SLE manifestation following COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old Iranian/Persian man with complaints of fever, scaling on the palms of the hands and feet, lower extremity edema, and ankle swelling was referred to Kashan Rheumatology Clinic in 2020. He was infected with SARS-CoV-2 2 months ago. The patient had proteinuria and was positive for SLE laboratory tests. After one week of treatment with prednisolone (30 mg daily) and hydroxychloroquine, paresthesia, proteinuria, and edema continued. The patient was treated with pulse methylprednisolone (1000 mg for three consecutive days), gabapentin, and vitamin B (300 mg daily), which reduced paresthesia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of SLE manifestation following COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 may produce autoantibodies or develop the clinical features of subclinical SLE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/etiology , Adult , Humans , Male
11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 212-217, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039459

ABSTRACT

Anxiety, perceived control and trust in information sources have all been shown to significantly influence health and social behaviours during pandemics. We measured these factors in a nationally representative on-street survey collected across five regions of Thailand (N = 1000, May 2020, response rate 82.6%). Anxiety was positively associated with stocking up on food (OR 2.62 (95% CI 1.88-3.66)) and taking vitamins (OR 2.37 (1.59-3.54)); perceived control with (recommended) coughing into an elbow (OR 2.42 (1.80-3.26)), checking on others (OR 1.52 (1.00-2.31)), and negatively with stockpiling (OR 0.72 (0.55-0.96)). Those relying on family/friends, doctors online or foreign sources were more likely to take vitamins (ORs 4.11, 2.88. 2.82), respondents using TV news less likely to stock up on food (OR 0.57 (0.37-0.86)) and to wear a mask for self-protection (OR 0.27 (0.10-0.73)). Comparing findings with analogous cross-sectional data on anxiety collected at the start of the pandemic (Feb 2020, Goodwin et al., 2020) there was no significant difference between personal anxiety in the two surveys (F (1, 1197) = 0.72, p = .40)) but perceived control was lower in the later survey (F (1, 1197) = 6.72 p = .01)). Findings suggest reduced perceived control as the pandemic developed and illuminate possible negative impacts of anxiety and low sense of control on pandemic behaviours.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Internal-External Control , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thailand , Young Adult
12.
Nutrition ; 81: 111016, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036324

ABSTRACT

The world is currently facing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic which places great pressure on health care systems and workers, often presents with severe clinical features, and sometimes requires admission into intensive care units. Derangements in nutritional status, both for obesity and malnutrition, are relevant for the clinical outcome in acute illness. Systemic inflammation, immune system impairment, sarcopenia, and preexisting associated conditions, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases related to obesity, could act as crucial factors linking nutritional status and the course and outcome of COVID-19. Nevertheless, vitamins and trace elements play an essential role in modulating immune response and inflammatory status. Overall, evaluation of the patient's nutritional status is not negligible for its implications on susceptibility, course, severity, and responsiveness to therapies, in order to perform a tailored nutritional intervention as an integral part of the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to review the current data on the relevance of nutritional status, including trace elements and vitamin status, in influencing the course and outcome of the disease 3 mo after the World Health Organization's declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Obesity/complications , Trace Elements/deficiency , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/complications , Virus Replication
13.
Adv Nutr ; 12(3): 670-681, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030271

ABSTRACT

The importance of balanced dietary habits, which include appropriate amounts of antioxidants to maintain the immune system, has become increasingly relevant during the current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic, because viral infections are characterized by high oxidative stress. Furthermore, the measures taken by governments to control the pandemic have led to increased anxiety, stress, and depression, which affect physical and mental health, all of which are influenced by nutritional status, diet, and lifestyle. The Mediterranean diet (MD), Atlantic diet (AD), and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans all provide the essential vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds needed to activate enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant responses. However, viral pandemics such as the current COVID-19 crisis entail high oxidative damage caused by both the infection and the resultant social stresses within populations, which increases the probability and severity of infection. Balanced dietary patterns such as the MD and the AD are characterized by the consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, and whole grains with low intakes of processed foods and red meat. For a healthy lifestyle in young adults, the MD in particular provides the required amount of antioxidants per day for vitamins D (0.3-3.8 µg), E (17.0 mg), C (137.2-269.8 mg), A (1273.3 µg), B-12 (1.5-2.0 µg), and folate (455.1-561.3 µg), the minerals Se (120.0 µg), Zn (11.0 mg), Fe (15.0-18.8 mg), and Mn (5.2-12.5 mg), and polyphenols (1171.00 mg) needed to maintain an active immune response. However, all of these diets are deficient in the recommended amount of vitamin D (20 µg/d). Therefore, vulnerable populations such as elders and obese individuals could benefit from antioxidant supplementation to improve their antioxidant response. Although evidence remains scarce, there is some indication that a healthy diet, along with supplemental antioxidant intake, is beneficial to COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Antioxidants , Diet , Diet, Western , Humans , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Nutrition ; 81: 111016, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997375

ABSTRACT

The world is currently facing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic which places great pressure on health care systems and workers, often presents with severe clinical features, and sometimes requires admission into intensive care units. Derangements in nutritional status, both for obesity and malnutrition, are relevant for the clinical outcome in acute illness. Systemic inflammation, immune system impairment, sarcopenia, and preexisting associated conditions, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases related to obesity, could act as crucial factors linking nutritional status and the course and outcome of COVID-19. Nevertheless, vitamins and trace elements play an essential role in modulating immune response and inflammatory status. Overall, evaluation of the patient's nutritional status is not negligible for its implications on susceptibility, course, severity, and responsiveness to therapies, in order to perform a tailored nutritional intervention as an integral part of the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to review the current data on the relevance of nutritional status, including trace elements and vitamin status, in influencing the course and outcome of the disease 3 mo after the World Health Organization's declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Obesity/complications , Trace Elements/deficiency , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/complications , Virus Replication
15.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963733

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is having major economic and personal consequences for collegiate and professional sports. Sporting events have been canceled or postponed, and even when baseball and basketball seasons resumed in the United States recently, no fans were in attendance. As play resumed, several players developed COVID-19, disrupting some of the schedules. A hypothesis now under scientific consideration is that taking vitamin supplements to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations could quickly reduce the risk and/or severity of COVID-19. Several mechanisms have been identified through which vitamin D could reduce the risks of infection and severity, death, and long-haul effects of COVID-19: (1) inducing production of cathelicidin and defensins to reduce the survival and replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus; (2) reducing inflammation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and risk of the "cytokine storm" that damages the epithelial layer of the lungs, heart, vascular system, and other organs; and (3) increasing production of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, thus limiting the amount of angiotensin II available to the virus to cause damage. Clinical trials have confirmed that vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of acute respiratory tract infections, and approximately 30 observational studies have shown that incidence, severity, and death from COVID-19 are inversely correlated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D supplementation is already familiar to many athletes and sports teams because it improves athletic performance and increases playing longevity. Thus, athletes should consider vitamin D supplementation to serve as an additional means by which to reduce risk of COVID-19 and its consequences.


Subject(s)
Athletes , COVID-19 , Dietary Supplements , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Athletic Performance , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
16.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 10(6): 529-536, 2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900305

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: As the scientific community is in a marathon in finding out the cure for COVID-19, in this crisis, it is essential for the physicians not to forget about the basics. Due to the pandemic crisis, in many nursing homes and hospitals, there established new policies on decreasing unnecessary medications to minimize cross-contamination. Sometimes these policies are making providers avoid essential drugs such as Vitamins, including Vitamin D. In this paper, we try to emphasize the importance of Vitamin D in COVID-19 and respiratory viral patients. RELEVANCE: Vitamin D helps in decreasing the 'pro-inflammatory cytokines' in the lungs and acts in immunomodulatory function, and 'also it will increase the anti-inflammatory, antiviral responses of the respiratory epithelial cells during infection.' CONCLUSION: Due to the highly contagious nature of COVID-19 and the increased morbidity and mortality with no appropriate therapy and vaccine, one must be cautious and do everything to help COVID-19 patients. In hospitals and other health care settings to decrease cross-contamination, holding other non-essential medications is taking place. Discontinuing Vitamins could increase the mortality and morbidity of those affected, especially in deficient/insufficient individuals. Obtaining serum 25 (OH) D levels in all patients with viral respiratory infections, especially COVID-19, could help in the detection and treatment of Vitamin D deficiency and potentially decrease recovery time and improve outcome. Even though evidence suggests that vitamin D has the anti-inflammatory, antiviral properties, randomized double-blinded controlled trials are needed to verify this further, and to understand Vitamin D and COVID-19 better. ABBREVIATIONS: Vitamin D receptor-VDR; 25(OH)D- 25 hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25 (OH)D-1,25 dihydroxy Vitamin D; 1α,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D-1,25[OH]2 D or calcitriol; IU- International Units; Interferons stimulated genes- ISG; ARI- acute respiratory infection; RSV- respiratory syncytial virus; RTI- Respiratory tract infections; COPD-Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; BMI-Basal metabolic index; USA-USA.

17.
Pharmacol Rep ; 72(6): 1517-1528, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893372

ABSTRACT

The mainstay of management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mainly supportive as to date there is no effective antiviral treatment, apart from remdesivir which has been approved by Food and Drug administration (FDA) for treatment of COVID-19, or vaccine. Supplementation with micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, has gained an increasing interest as part of the supportive management of COVID-19. Vitamin C levels in serum and leukocytes are depleted during the acute stage of infection owing to increased metabolic demands. High-dose vitamin C supplement helps to normalise both serum and leukocytes vitamin C levels. Vitamin C has multiple pharmacological characteristics, antiviral, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, which make it a potential therapeutic option in management of COVID-19. The use of high dose of intravenous vitamin C for management of COVID-19 in China and the United Stated has shown promising results. There were no reported adverse reactions with the short-term use of high dose of vitamin C. Given the fact that vitamin C is cheap, available and safe drug with beneficial effects in management of viral infections and critically ill patients reported in previous clinical trials, it is sensible to add it to COVID-19 management protocol particularly if the current ongoing clinical trials testing the effect of vitamin C in management of COVID-19 show positive results.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Dietary Supplements , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans
18.
Redox Biol ; 37: 101721, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759289

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the hypothetical mechanisms for enhanced vulnerability of African Americans to SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 severity, and increased deaths. A disproportionately higher number of African Americans are afflicted with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, obesity), and SARS-CoV-2 has helped expose these health disparities. Several factors including socioeconomic status, inferior health care, and work circumstances contribute to these disparities. Identifying potential inflammatory biomarkers and decreasing basal levels in high-risk individuals with comorbidities through preventive measures is critical. Immune cells, particularly neutrophils, protect us against pathogens (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) through increased generation of free radicals or oxidants and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that ensnare pathogens, killing them extracellularly. However, continued generation of NETs coupled with the lack of prompt removal pose danger to host cells. NET levels are increased during pro-inflammatory diseases. COVID-19 patients exhibit elevated NET levels, depending upon disease severity. Conceivably, high-risk individuals with elevated basal NET levels would exhibit hyper-inflammation when infected with SARS-CoV-2, amplifying disease severity and deaths. Drugs inhibiting oxidant formation and vitamin supplements decreased NET formation in mice models of inflammation. Thus, it is conceivable that preventive treatments lowering NET levels and inflammation in high-risk individuals could mitigate SARS-CoV-2-induced complications and decrease mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , African Americans , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Repositioning , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Free Radicals/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/epidemiology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
19.
Vopr Pitan ; 89(3): 6-13, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714369

ABSTRACT

Currently, due to the wide spread of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 and the need for anti-epidemic measures, medical science should integrate all efforts to ensure, on the one hand, at the global level - the fight against the spread of infection, on the other hand, at the individual level - increasing the adaptive capacity and immune response of the organism to protect against COVID-19. Nutrition is the most important factor determining human health and the functioning of all mechanisms to protect a person from negative environmental factors. For the prevention and treatment of new coronavirus infection COVID-19, a significant role is played by the correction of eating disorders, including vitamin and micronutrient deficiency. Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology, together with Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (Rospotrebnadzor), prepared Recommendations on nutrition for children and adults, requiring a self-isolation regime or quarantine at home in connection with COVID-19. In order to promptly inform and advise the population on nutrition optimization in the early days of anti-epidemic measures, an information reference Contact Center was created and is continuously functioning on the basis of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology. Equally important is the implementation of measures aimed at the prevention of food contamination with COVID-19 agent. In this regard, the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology, together with Rospotrebnadzor prepared guidelines on measures to prevent the transmission of a new coronavirus infection through foods. Another aspect that the medical community has faced in connection with the pandemic is the need to reorient specialized medical organizations that have not previously worked with patients with infectious diseases in order to create Clinical centers for the treatment of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19. Thus, in the context of the spread of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19, many areas of medicine are involved in the process of providing anti-epidemic measures. Successful completion of the tasks will significantly reduce the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for the state and citizens.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health , Quarantine , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/methods , Public Health/standards , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Quarantine/organization & administration , Quarantine/standards , Russia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Hypertens ; 26: 14, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644675

ABSTRACT

There is current debate concerning the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), for hypertension management, during COVID-19 infection. Specifically, the suggestion has been made that ACE inhibitors or ARBs could theoretically contribute to infection via increasing ACE2 receptor expression and hence increase viral load. The ACE2 receptor is responsible for binding the SAR-CoV2 viral spike and causing COVID-19 infection. What makes the argument somewhat obtuse for ACE inhibitors or ARBs is that ACE2 receptor expression can be increased by compounds that activate or increase the expression of SIRT1. Henceforth common dietary interventions, vitamins and nutrients may directly or indirectly influence the cellular expression of the ACE2 receptor. There are many common compounds that can increase the expression of the ACE2 receptor including Vitamin C, Metformin, Resveratrol, Vitamin B3 and Vitamin D. It is important to acknowledge that down-regulation or blocking the cellular ACE2 receptor will likely be pro-inflammatory and may contribute to end organ pathology and mortality in COVID-19. In conclusion from the perspective of the ACE2 receptor, COVID-19 prevention and treatment are distinctly different. This letter reflects on this current debate and suggests angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and ARBs are likely beneficial during COVID-19 infection for hypertensive and normotensive patients.

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