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1.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S36-S39, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with the spectrum of disease from asymptomatic or mild disease to severe cases requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In India, it started with milder presentation affecting younger population. Later on, an increase in disease severity was observed involving older age group as well. However, there is a paucity of published data regarding patients requiring ICU care in India. This case series describes the initial experience of an ICU in India regarding epidemiological profile, clinical course, and outcome of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This case series included 27 consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients who were admitted in a tertiary care ICU over 14 days period, followed up till their discharge from ICU. Demographic and clinical data, including laboratory and radiological findings, were compiled with special attention to co-morbidities of the patients. The management of these patients was done as per the institutional protocol for critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 50 years with no difference in gender. Comorbid conditions were seen in 85% of the patients with diabetes (43.7%) and hypertension (37.5%) as the most common conditions. The median duration of symptoms before admission was 6 days with fever as the most common clinical symptom at presentation. Chest roentogram showed bilateral lung infiltrates in 88.8% of the patients. Mild, moderate, and severe hypoxia were observed in 3, 8, and 16 patients, respectively. Ten patients were managed with oxygen therapy. Seventeen patients (62.9%) required ventilatory support. Mortality rate among patients admitted to our ICU was 59.2%. CONCLUSIONS: This case series shows middle-aged patients with comorbid diseases present with severe COVID-19 disease and have poor outcome.

2.
Ann Emerg Med ; 77(1): 19-31, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382201

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the evidence regarding the infection risk associated with different modalities of oxygen therapy used in treating patients with severe acute respiratory infection. Health care workers face significant risk of infection when treating patients with a viral severe acute respiratory infection. To ensure health care worker safety and limit nosocomial transmission of such infection, it is crucial to synthesize the evidence regarding the infection risk associated with different modalities of oxygen therapy used in treating patients with severe acute respiratory infection. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from January 1, 2000, to April 1, 2020, for studies describing the risk of infection associated with the modalities of oxygen therapy used for patients with severe acute respiratory infection. The study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by independent reviewers. The primary outcome measure was the infection of health care workers with a severe acute respiratory infection. Random-effect models were used to synthesize the extracted data. RESULTS: Of 22,123 citations, 50 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis and 16 for meta-analysis. Globally, the quality of the included studies provided a very low certainty of evidence. Being exposed or performing an intubation (odds ratio 6.48; 95% confidence interval 2.90 to 14.44), bag-valve-mask ventilation (odds ratio 2.70; 95% confidence interval 1.31 to 5.36), and noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio 3.96; 95% confidence interval 2.12 to 7.40) were associated with an increased risk of infection. All modalities of oxygen therapy generate air dispersion. CONCLUSION: Most modalities of oxygen therapy are associated with an increased risk of infection and none have been demonstrated as safe. The lowest flow of oxygen should be used to maintain an adequate oxygen saturation for patients with severe acute respiratory infection, and manipulation of oxygen delivery equipment should be minimized.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Cross Infection/therapy , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
4.
Can Respir J ; 2021: 6638048, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301736

ABSTRACT

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy has been recommended for use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory failure and many other clinical conditions. HFNC devices produced by different manufacturers may have varied performance. Whether there is a difference in these devices and the extent of the differences in performance remain unknown. Methods: Four HFNC devices (AIRVO 2, TNI softFlow 50, HUMID-BH, and OH-70C) and a ventilator with an HFNC module (bellavista 1000) were evaluated. The flow was set at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, and 80 L/min, and the FiO2 was set at 21%, 26%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. Then, one side of the cannulas was clipped to simulate the compression, bending, or blocking of the nasal cannulas. The flow and FiO2 of the delivered gas were recorded and compared among settings and devices. Results: The actual-flow and actual-FiO2 delivered by different settings and devices varied. AIRVO 2 had superior performance in flow and FiO2 accuracy. bellavista 1000 and OH-70C had good performance in the accuracy of actual-flows and actual-FiO2, respectively. bellavista 1000 and HUMID-BH had a larger flow range from 10 to 80 L/min, but only bellavista 1000 could provide a stable flow with an excessive resistance up to 60 L/min. TNI softFlow 50 had the best flow compensation and could provide sufficient flow with excessive resistance at 20-50 L/min. Conclusions: The variation in flow, FiO2 settings, and devices could influence the actual-flow and actual-FiO2 delivered. AIRVO 2 and OH-70C showed better FiO2 accuracy. TNI softFlow 50, bellavista 1000, and HUMID-BH could lower the risk of insufficient flow support due to accidental compression or blocking of the cannulas. In addition, ventilators with HFNC modules provided comparable flow and FiO2 and could be an alternative to standalone HFNC devices.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19 , Cannula , Inhalation/physiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula/classification , Cannula/standards , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Humans , Materials Testing/methods , Maximal Respiratory Pressures , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tidal Volume/physiology
5.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 20: 100113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275575

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure. Accumulation of mucus in the airways is a hallmark of the disease and can result in hypoxemia. Here, we show that quantitative proteome analysis of the sputum from severe patients with COVID-19 reveal high levels of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) components, which was confirmed by microscopy. Extracellular DNA from excessive NET formation can increase sputum viscosity and lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recombinant human DNase (Pulmozyme; Roche) has been shown to be beneficial in reducing sputum viscosity and improve lung function. We treated five patients pwith COVID-19 resenting acute symptoms with clinically approved aerosolized Pulmozyme. No adverse reactions to the drug were seen, and improved oxygen saturation and recovery in all severely ill patients with COVID-19 was observed after therapy. Immunofluorescence and proteome analysis of sputum and blood plasma samples after treatment revealed a marked reduction of NETs and a set of statistically significant proteome changes that indicate reduction of hemorrhage, plasma leakage and inflammation in the airways, and reduced systemic inflammatory state in the blood plasma of patients. Taken together, the results indicate that NETs contribute to acute respiratory failure in COVID-19 and that degrading NETs may reduce dependency on external high-flow oxygen therapy in patients. Targeting NETs using recombinant human DNase may have significant therapeutic implications in COVID-19 disease and warrants further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyribonuclease I/pharmacology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Proteome/analysis , Aged , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Severity of Illness Index , Sputum/drug effects , Sputum/metabolism , Sputum/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
6.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 40(4): 100897, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252365

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally and can cause a shortage of medical resources, in particular, mechanical ventilators. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) are frequently used for acute respiratory failure patients as alternatives to invasive mechanical ventilation. They are drawing attention because of a potential role to save mechanical ventilators. However, their effectiveness and risk of viral spread are unclear. The latest network meta-analysis of pre-COVID-19 trials reported that treatment with non-invasive oxygenation strategies was associated with improved survival when compared with conventional oxygen therapy. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a lot of clinical research on COVID-19 related acute respiratory failure has been reported. Several observational studies and small trials have suggested HFNC or NPPV as an alternative of standard oxygen therapy to manage COVID-19 related acute respiratory failure, provided that appropriate infection prevention is applied by health care workers to avoid risks of the virus transmission. Awake proning is an emerging strategy to optimise the management of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory failure. However, the benefits of awake proning have yet to be assessed in properly designed clinical research. Although HFNC and NPPV are probably effective for acute respiratory failure, the safety data are mostly based on observational and experimental reports. As such, they should be implemented carefully if adequate personal protective equipment and negative pressure rooms are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238899

ABSTRACT

Differences in oxygen delivery methods to treat hypoxemia have the potential to worsen CO2 retention in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Oxygen administration using high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has multiple physiological benefits in treating respiratory failure including reductions in PaCO2 in a flow-dependent manner. We hypothesized that patients with COPD would develop worsening hypercapnia if oxygen fraction was increased without increasing flow rate. We evaluated the acute response to HFNC in subjects with severe COPD when flow remained constant and inspired oxygen was increased. In total, 11 subjects with severe COPD (FEV1 < 50%) on supplemental oxygen with baseline normocapnia (PaCO2 < 45 mm Hg; n = 5) and hypercapnia (PaCO2 ≥ 45 mm Hg; n = 6) were studied. Arterial blood gas responses were studied at three timepoints: Baseline, HFNC at a flow rate of 30 L/min at resting oxygen supplementation for 1 h, and FiO2 30% above baseline with the same flow rate for the next hour. The primary endpoint was the change in PaCO2 from baseline. No significant changes in PaCO2 were noted in response to HFNC applied at baseline FiO2 in the normocapnic and hypercapnic group. At HFNC with FiO2 30% above baseline, the normocapnic group did not show a change in PaCO2 (baseline: 38.9 ± 1.8 mm Hg; HFNC at higher FiO2: 38.8 ± 3.1 mm Hg; p = 0.93), but the hypercapnic group demonstrated significant increase in PaCO2 (baseline: 58.2 ± 9.3 mm Hg; HFNC at higher FiO2: 63.3 ± 10.9 mm Hg; p = 0.025). We observed worsening hypercapnia in severe COPD patients and baseline hypercapnia who received increased oxygen fraction when flow remained constant. These data show the need for careful titration of oxygen therapy in COPD patients, particularly those with baseline hypercapnia when flow rate is unchanged.

8.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 238(5): 569-578, 2021 May.
Article in English, German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238039

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide and has caused severe health and economic issues on a global scale. By the end of February 2021, more than 100 million SARS-CoV-2 cases had been reported worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that can be divided into three phases: An early phase with fever and cough (phase I), a pulmonary vascular disease (phase II) and a hyperinflammatory syndrome (phase III). Since viral replication plays a particularly important role in the early stage of the disease and the patient's immune system in the later course of infection, different therapeutic options arise depending on the stage of the disease. The antiviral nucleoside analogue remdesivir is the only antiviral compound with conditional approval in the European Union. Treatment with remdesivir should be initiated early (within the first seven days of symptom onset) in patients receiving supplemental oxygen without invasive ventilation. In turn, the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone should be administered later in the course of disease in patients receiving oxygen therapy. Since autopsies indicate an increased frequency of thromboembolic events due to COVID-19, additional treatment with anticoagulants is recommended. Since the development of novel antivirals may take years, the application of convalescent plasma from patients who recovered from a SARS-CoV-2 infection for the treatment of COVID-19 is reasonable. However, large-scale studies indicated low efficacy of convalescent plasma. Furthermore, vaccination of the population is essential to control the pandemic. Currently, the mRNA vaccine Tozinameran from BioNTech and Pfizer, the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna as well as the vector vaccine AZD1222 from AstraZeneca are licensed in the European Union. All three vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy in large clinical trials. In addition to these licensed vaccines, many others are being tested in clinical trials. In the present article, an overview of therapeutic options for COVID-19 as well as vaccines for protection against SARS-CoV-2 is provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Vaccination
9.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(5): 378-386, 2021 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232491

ABSTRACT

High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) are an oxygen therapy device developed in the last years for the treatment of patients with acute or acute on chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure with different etiology and severity (including covid-19 pneumonia). HFNC combine the possibility of delivering high flows of gases, actively humidified and heated, with the use of a comfortable nasal interface, resulting generally well tolerated by most patients. In light of these characteristics, together with the simplicity of use and versatility, they have spread not only in intensive and semi-intensive care units but also in general medical ward in which they can play an important role in the treatment of elderly, frail patients with comorbidity where other more aggressive and invasive methods of ventilations are not indicated or not practicable.


Subject(s)
Cannula , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Acidosis, Respiratory/complications , Acidosis, Respiratory/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Equipment Design , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Internal Medicine , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Palliative Care , Pulmonary Edema/complications , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications
10.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(5): 298-312, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224768

ABSTRACT

Non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS) in adult, pediatric, and neonatal patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) comprises two treatment modalities, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy. However, experts from different specialties disagree on the benefit of these techniques in different clinical settings. The objective of this consensus was to develop a series of good clinical practice recommendations for the application of non-invasive support in patients with ARF, endorsed by all scientific societies involved in the management of adult and pediatric/neonatal patients with ARF. To this end, the different societies involved were contacted, and they in turn appointed a group of 26 professionals with sufficient experience in the use of these techniques. Three face-to-face meetings were held to agree on recommendations (up to a total of 71) based on a literature review and the latest evidence associated with 3 categories: indications, monitoring and follow-up of NIRS. Finally, the experts from each scientific society involved voted telematically on each of the recommendations. To classify the degree of agreement, an analogue classification system was chosen that was easy and intuitive to use and that clearly stated whether the each NIRS intervention should be applied, could be applied, or should not be applied.


Subject(s)
Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Cannula , Child , Consensus , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Oxygen , Pyruvates , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Societies, Scientific
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 469-483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222730

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which spread throughout the world. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is the most dangerous complication of COVID-19 pneumonia. To date, no specific therapeutic drugs or vaccines have been proven efficacious. Ventilatory support is still a significant challenge for physicians facing COVID-19. The mechanisms underlying hypoxemia in those patients are not fully understood, but a new physiopathology model has been proposed. Oxygen therapy should be delivered to patients with mild to moderate hypoxemia. More severe patients could benefit from other treatments (high-flow nasal cannula, noninvasive ventilation or intubation, and invasive ventilation). Given the rapid evolution of COVID-19, there has been a paucity of the high-quality data that typically inform clinical practice guidelines from professional societies, and a worldwide consensus is still lacking. This chapter aims to illustrate the potentials of ventilatory support as therapeutic options for adult and pediatric patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25819, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216695

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Respiratory failure is the major cause of death in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Data on factors affecting the need for oxygen therapy in early-stage COVID-19 are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with the need for oxygen therapy in patients with COVID-19.This is a retrospective study of consecutive COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized between February 27 and June 28, 2020, in South Korea. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with the need for oxygen therapy.Of the 265 patients included in the study, 26 (9.8%) received oxygen therapy, and 7 of these patients (29.2%) were transferred to a step-up facility, and 3 (11.5%) died. The median age of all patients was 46 years (IQR, 30-60 years), and the median modified early warning score at admission was 1 (IQR, 1-2). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a current smoker (odds ratio [OR] 7.641, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.686-34.630, P = .008), heart rate (OR 1.053, 95% CI 1.010-1.097, P = .014), aspartate aminotransferase values (OR 1.049, 95% CI 1.008-1.092, P = .020), blood urea nitrogen levels (OR 1.171, 95% CI 1.073-1.278, P < .001), and chest radiographic findings (OR 3.173, 95% CI 1.870-5.382, P < .001) were associated with oxygen therapy.In patients with less severe COVID-19, the need for oxygen therapy is affected by smoking and elevated values of aspartate aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen. Further research is warranted on the risk factors for deterioration in COVID-19 to efficiently allocate medical resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Urea Nitrogen , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/adverse effects
13.
Placenta ; 110: 9-15, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause an abnormal development of the placenta, thus influencing maternal and fetal outcomes. Few studies have reported data on placental morphology and histology in infected pregnant patients, although not compared with carefully matched controls. The aim of this study is to compare placental morphology and histology of pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2 to non-infected controls. METHODS: This is a prospective multicenter case-control study on 64 pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2 who delivered at term or late-preterm. Data were collected about pregnancy course, maternal and fetal outcomes, placental biometry and macro- and microscopical morphology. 64 not-infected women were identified as controls, matched by age, body mass index and ethnicity. RESULTS: Cases and controls had similar fetal and maternal outcomes. No significant differences were observed in placental macro- or microscopical morphology between the two groups. In the cases treated with antivirals, chloroquine, LMWH or antibiotics, placentas were heavier but not more efficient than the non-treated, since the fetal/placental weight ratio did not differ. Moreover, delayed villous maturation was more frequent in treated women, although not significantly. The newborns whose mothers received oxygen therapy as treatment had higher levels of umbilical cord pO2 at birth. DISCUSSION: In this prospective case-control study, SARS-CoV-2 infection during the third trimester did not influence placental histological pattern. Pharmacological and oxygen therapy administered to women affected by this viral infection could impact maternal and fetal outcomes and be associated to placental histological alterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/drug effects , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1092-1098, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is a lifesaving strategy for critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aim to report the case series of critical patients receiving IMV in Wuhan and to discuss the timing of IMV in these patients. METHODS: Data of 657 patients admitted to emergency intensive care unit of Zhongnan Hospital and isolated isolation wards of Wuhan Union Hospital from January 1 to March 10, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. All medical records of 40 COVID-19 patients who required IMV were collected at different time points, including baseline (at admission), before receiving IMV, and before death or hospital discharge. RESULTS: Among 40 COVID-19 patients with IMV, 31 died, and 9 survived and was discharged. The median age was 70 years (interquartile range [IQR], 62-76 years), and nonsurvivors were older than survivors. The median period from the noninvasive mechanic ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) to intubation was 7 hours (IQR, 2-42 hours) in IMV survivors and 54 hours (IQR, 28-143 hours) in IMV nonsurvivors. We observed that, when the time interval from NIV/HFNC to intubation was less than 50 hours (about 2 calendar days), together with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score of less than 10 or pneumonia severity index (PSI) score of less than 100, mortality can be reduced to 60% or less. Prolonged interval from NIV/HFNC to intubation and high levels of APACHE II and PSI before intubation were associated with higher mortality in critically ill patients. Multiple organ damage was common among these nonsurvivors in the course of treatment. CONCLUSION: Early initial intubation after NIV/HFNC might have a beneficial effect in reducing mortality for critically ill patients meeting IMV indication. Considering APACHE II and PSI scores might help physicians in decision making about timing of intubation for curbing subsequent mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level V.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , APACHE , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
15.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 65: 102309, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, more than 105,805,951 cases of COVID-19 have been diagnosed including 2,312,278 deaths. Many patients have cardiovascular risk-factors and/or co-morbidities and a lot of them developed de novo heart conditions during the active or the post-infectious phase of the infection. A number of studies tried to demonstrate an association between poor prognostic outcomes and cardiovascular comorbidities and related damages, but the quality of current evidence is still weak. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The aim of this single-center report is to describe the prevalence of cardiac injuries among our COVID-19 patients, to explore their association with survival outcomes and to demonstrate the medical care provided in our real-world setting. Our study included 610 COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of our university hospital of whom13.77% (n = 84) presented cardiovascular injuries and which we included in this case series. RESULTS: The average age of our patients was 65 years (27-90). 60 were men (71.42%) while 24 were women (28.55%). Their average BMI was 29.7 kg/m2. Among them, 50 had a pulmonary embolism (59.52%), 12 patients had a myocardial infarction (14.28%), 10 presented pericarditis (11.9%) and 3 developed myocarditis (3.57%). There were 6 cases of ischemia (7.14%), 2 cases of stroke (2.38%), and 1 case of decompensated heart failure (1.19%). Among our patients, 46.42% had diabetes, 32.14% had a high blood pressure, 13.09% had a chronic renal failure and 14.28% had a history of ischemic heart disease. 14 patients (16.66%) had an elevated troponin with higher levels than 1000 ng/mL. The D-dimer value was high in almost all patients (80.95%). Lung damage from COVID-19 was extensive in 27.38%, severe in 32.14%, and critical in 40.47% of enrolled cases. CT chest angiography, ECG, and cardiac ultrasound were performed to the paraclinical confirmatory exploration of cardiac damages of these patients. Medical care was based on isolation, azithromycin, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin D, salicylic acid, dexamethasone followed with methylprednisolone, and anticoagulation for all hospitalized patients. Tocilizumab was indicated for 17 patients with hyperferritinemia (20.23% of patients). The initial respiratory care of our patients required oxygen therapy using nasal cannula (7.14%) high concentration masks (33.33%), high flow nasal cannula treatment (11.9%), non-invasive ventilation (NIV) (5.95%), and mechanical ventilation (41.66%). Thrombolysis was performed in three subjects with myocardial infarction and 2 underwent angioplasty with placement of an active stent at the proximal interventricular anterior artery, which all were successful. Three massive pulmonary embolisms died despite adequate treatment. Colchicine and salicylic acid were administered for pericarditis cases. Thromboprophylaxis was indicated for all patients and was reinforced if a venous thrombotic episode was confirmed. Patients with limb ischemia underwent surgical treatment. Among the 84 patients included in our cohort, 34 (40.47%) died in intensive care unit and 50 (59.52%) had a favorable evolution. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular involvement during COVID-19 should not be neglected and are associated with severe outcomes.

16.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(4): 698-708, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186616

ABSTRACT

Patients hospitalized for pneumonia are at high risk for mortality. Effective therapies are therefore needed. Recent randomized clinical trials suggest that systemic steroids can reduce the length of hospital stays among patients hospitalized for pneumonia. Furthermore, preliminary findings from a feasibility study demonstrated that early treatment with a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a bronchodilator can improve oxygenation and reduce risk of respiratory failure in patients at risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Whether such a combination administered early is effective in reducing acute respiratory failure (ARF) among patients hospitalized with pneumonia is unknown. Here we describe the ARREST Pneumonia (Arrest Respiratory Failure due to Pneumonia) trial designed to address this question. ARREST Pneumonia is a two-arm, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a ß-agonist compared with placebo for the prevention of ARF in hospitalized participants with severe pneumonia. The primary outcome is ARF within 7 days of randomization, defined as a composite endpoint of intubation and mechanical ventilation; need for high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy or noninvasive ventilation for >36 hours (each alone or combined); or death within 36 hours of being placed on respiratory support. The planned enrollment is 600 adult participants at 10 academic medical centers. In addition, we will measure selected plasma biomarkers to better understand mechanisms of action. The trial is funded by the U.S. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04193878).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Neurobiol Stress ; 14: 100326, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180112

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic. It dramatically affects people's health and daily life. Neurological complications are increasingly documented for patients with COVID-19. However, the effect of COVID-19 on the brain is less studied, and existing quantitative neuroimaging analyses of COVID-19 were mainly based on the univariate voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM) that requires corrections for a large number of tests for statistical significance, multivariate approaches that can reduce the number of tests to be corrected have not been applied to study COVID-19 effect on the brain yet. In this study, we leveraged source-based morphometry (SBM) analysis, a multivariate extension of VBM, to identify changes derived from computed tomography scans in covarying gray matter volume patterns underlying COVID-19 in 120 neurological patients (including 58 cases with COVID-19 and 62 patients without COVID-19 matched for age, gender and diseases). SBM identified that lower gray matter volume (GMV) in superior/medial/middle frontal gyri was significantly associated with a higher level of disability (modified Rankin Scale) at both discharge and six months follow-up phases even when controlling for cerebrovascular diseases. GMV in superior/medial/middle frontal gyri was also significantly reduced in patients receiving oxygen therapy compared to patients not receiving oxygen therapy. Patients with fever presented significant GMV reduction in inferior/middle temporal gyri and fusiform gyrus compared to patients without fever. Patients with agitation showed GMV reduction in superior/medial/middle frontal gyri compared to patients without agitation. Patients with COVID-19 showed no significant GMV differences from patients without COVID-19 in any brain region. Results suggest that COVID-19 may affect the frontal-temporal network in a secondary manner through fever or lack of oxygen.

18.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 44(4): 354-359, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173001

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of patients with fatal coronavirus disease (COVID-19), in order to provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed data on 141 fatal cases of confirmed COVID-19 that occurred among patients in Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, China, from January 20 to March 6, 2020. We analyzed their epidemiological characteristics, clinical and radiological features, laboratory results, and treatment. Results: Of the 141 patients (49 females, 92 males), the median age was 77 years (range: 24-92 years). The most likely source of exposure included the Huanan seafood market (n=3, 2%), family members (n=6, 4%), and hospital-acquired infection (n=8, 6%). The remaining 116 patients (72%) had no known source of exposure. Of the patients, 101 (72%) had chronic diseases. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The most common clinical manifestations were fever (n=121, 85%), dry cough (n=77, 54%), shortness of breath (n=23, 16%), and chest pain (n=15, 10%). Less common clinical manifestations included fatigue (n=7, 4%), headache (n=3, 2%), disorders of consciousness (n=2, 1%), diarrhea (n=2, 1%) and lumbago (n=1, 0.7%). In terms of laboratory tests, the absolute value of lymphocytes in most patients was reduced (n=132, 94%), but C-reactive protein (n=141, 100%), procalcitonin(n=121, 89%), serum amyloid (n=140, 99%) were significantly increased. The most common findings on imaging of the lungs were bilateral multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity (n=101, 72%), mainly in the lower lobes (n=15, 10%), with lesions being more common on the right. Other imaging findings included diffuse consolidation (n=4, 3%), ground-glass opacity and consolidation (n=20, 14%), and pneumothorax (n=1, 0.7%). All patients were treated with antibiotics and antiviral drugs. Other treatments included immunoglobulin (n=49, 35%), corticosteroids (n=45, 32%), continuous renal replacement therapy (n=24, 17%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=12, 9%). All patients were treated with oxygen therapy. The mode of administration included invasive mechanical ventilation (n=61, 43%), noninvasive mechanical ventilation (n=65, 46%), and nasal catheter oxygen inhalation (n=15, 11%). The direct causes of death were acute respiratory distress syndrome (n=90, 64%), multiple organ failure (n=24, 17%), sudden cardiac arrest (n=11, 8%), viral myocarditis (n=8, 5%), acute myocardial infarction (n=4, 3%), cerebrovascular accident (n=3, 2%), and acute gastrointestinal bleeding (n=1, 0.7%). Conclusions: Risk factors for death due to COVID-19 included older age, male sex, and the presence of comorbidities. The most common direct causes of death were acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, sudden cardiac arrest, and viral myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
19.
Respir Care ; 66(6): 891-896, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a persistent concern over the risk of respiratory pathogen transmission, including SARS-CoV-2, via the formation of aerosols (ie, a suspension of microdroplets and residual microparticles after evaporation) generated during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. This concern is fueled by limited available studies on this subject. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that HFNC treatment is not associated with increased aerosol formation as compared to conventional oxygen therapy. METHODS: We used laser light scattering and a handheld particle counter to detect and quantify aerosols in healthy subjects and in adults with acute respiratory disease, including COVID-19, during HFNC or conventional oxygen therapy. RESULTS: The use of HFNC was not associated with increased formation of aerosols as compared to conventional oxygen therapy in both healthy subjects (n = 3) and subjects with acute respiratory disease, including COVID-19 (n = 17). CONCLUSIONS: In line with scarce previous clinical and experimental findings, our results indicate that HFNC itself does not result in overall increased aerosol formation as compared to conventional oxygen therapy. This suggests there is no increased risk of respiratory pathogen transmission to health care workers during HFNC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Aerosols , Cannula , Critical Illness , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 90, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the COVID-19 response preparedness of the Mozambican health system by 1) determining the location of oxygen-ready public health facilities, 2) estimating the oxygen treatment capacity, and 3) determining the population coverage of oxygen-ready health facilities in Mozambique. METHODS: This analysis utilizes information on the availability of oxygen sources and delivery apparatuses to determine if a health facility is ready to deliver oxygen therapy to patients in need, and estimates how many patients can be treated with continuous oxygen flow for a 7-day period based on the available oxygen equipment at health facilities. Using GIS mapping software, the study team modeled varying travel times to oxygen-ready facilities to estimate the proportion of the population with access to care. RESULTS: 0.4% of all health facilities in Mozambique are prepared to deliver oxygen therapy to patients, for a cumulative total of 283.9 to 406.0 patients-weeks given the existing national capacity, under varying assumptions including ability to divert oxygen from a single source to multiple patients. 35% of the population in Mozambique has adequate access within one-hour driving time of an oxygen-ready health facility. This varies widely by region; 89.1% of the population of Maputo City was captured by the one-hour driving time network, as compared ot 4.4% of the population of Niassa province. CONCLUSIONS: The Mozambican health system faces the dual challenges of under-resourced health facilities and low geographic accessibility to healthcare as it prepares to confront the COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis also illustrates the disparity between provinces in preparedness to deliver oxygen therapy to patient, with Cabo Delgado and Nampula being particularly under-resourced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Facilities , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Mozambique/epidemiology , Pandemics
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