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1.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(3): 1047-1056, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively affected the mental health of the general population. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the determinants of quality of life (QOL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Impacts of lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic on 100 patients with PD and their caregivers/spouses were assessed. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression. The physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores of the short form (SF)-8 were used to evaluate health-related QOL. RESULTS: Regarding health-related QOL, physical function, role physical, general health, vitality and the PCS score were significantly worse in PD patients than in caregivers. Worsening of PD-related symptoms, increased stress, and decreased physical activity were observed in 29.0%, 37.0% and 44.0% of PD patients, respectively. Sixteen patients (16.0%) experienced problems with hospital access, but none reported medication shortages. Strong concerns about COVID-19 were reported by 47.0% of caregivers and 50.0% of PD patients. In PD patients, increased gait disturbance and rigidity, disease severity, smoking, the levodopa equivalent dose and decreased body weight predicted a worse PCS score; anxiety, depression, female sex, stress and long disease duration predicted a worse MCS score. In caregivers, age and smoking contributed to a worse PCS score; depression, stress and worsening patient mood contributed to a worse MCS score. CONCLUSION: We report the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on health-related QOL and its determinants in PD patients and their caregivers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Spouses/psychology , Aged , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Exercise/psychology , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Health Surveys , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Parkinson Disease/nursing , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Time Factors
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 632942, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264341

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019 the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is the center of global attention due to its rapid transmission and toll on health care systems and global economy. Population-based serosurveys measuring antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 provide one method for estimating previous infection rates including the symptom-free courses of the disease and monitoring the progression of the epidemic. Methods: In June 2020 we succeeded in testing almost half of the population of an Austrian township (1,359 inhabitants) with a reported higher incidence for COVID-19 infections (17 PCR positive cases have been officially reported until the date of sample collection, i.e., 1.2% of the total population). We determined the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in this population, factors affecting, and symptoms correlated with prior infection. Antibodies were determined using a CE-certified quality-controlled ELISA test for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA antibodies. Results: We found a high prevalence of 9% positive antibodies among the town population in comparison to 6% of the neighboring villages. This was considerably higher than the officially known RT-PCR-approved COVID-19 cases (1.2%) in the town population. Twenty percent of SARS-CoV-2-antibody positive cases declared being asymptomatic in a questionnaire. On the other hand, we identified six single major symptoms, including anosmia/ageusia, weight loss, anorexia, general debility, dyspnea, and fever, and especially their combination to be of high prognostic value for predicting SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient. Conclusions: This population study demonstrated a high prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as a marker of past infections in an Austrian township. Several symptoms revealed a diagnostic value especially in combination.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(9): 1986-1994, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with unintentional weight loss. Little is known on whether and how patients regain the lost weight. We assessed changes in weight and abdominal adiposity over a three-month follow-up after discharge in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: In this sub-study of a large prospective observational investigation, we collected data from individuals who had been hospitalized for COVID-19 and re-evaluated at one (V1) and three (V2) months after discharge. Patient characteristics upon admission and anthropometrics, waist circumference and hunger levels assessed during follow-up were analyzed across BMI categories. RESULTS: One-hundred-eighty-five COVID-19 survivors (71% male, median age 62.1 [54.3; 72.1] years, 80% with overweight/obesity) were included. Median BMI did not change from admission to V1 in normal weight subjects (-0.5 [-1.2; 0.6] kg/m2, p = 0.08), but significantly decreased in subjects with overweight (-0.8 [-1.8; 0.3] kg/m2, p < 0.001) or obesity (-1.38 [-3.4; -0.3] kg/m2, p < 0.001; p < 0.05 vs. normal weight or obesity). Median BMI did not change from V1 to V2 in normal weight individuals (+0.26 [-0.34; 1.15] kg/m2, p = 0.12), but significantly increased in subjects with overweight (+0.4 [0.0; 1.0] kg/m2, p < 0.001) or obesity (+0.89 [0.0; 1.6] kg/m2, p < 0.001; p = 0.01 vs. normal weight). Waist circumference significantly increased from V1 to V2 in the whole group (p < 0.001), driven by the groups with overweight or obesity. At multivariable regression analyses, male sex, hunger at V1 and initial weight loss predicted weight gain at V2. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with overweight or obesity hospitalized for COVID-19 exhibit rapid, wide weight fluctuations that may worsen body composition (abdominal adiposity). CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Body-Weight Trajectory , COVID-19/physiopathology , Obesity, Abdominal/physiopathology , Overweight/physiopathology , Survivors , Adiposity , Aged , Anthropometry , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Abdominal/virology , Overweight/virology , Prospective Studies , Waist Circumference
4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5010-5016, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olanzapine and clozapine are atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) with the greatest risk of weight gain, and changes in feeding behavior are among the most important underlying mechanisms. However, few studies have investigated the role of diet-alone interventions in improving individuals' weight gain by taking AAPs. In closed management mental hospitals of China, family members are allowed to bring food to patients regularly, causing patients to have caloric intake added to their 3 daily meals. However, during the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), bringing food to the hospital was temporarily prohibited in mental health institutions in China to prevent the spread of the virus. This study sought to compare the body weight and body mass index (BMI) changes of patients taking olanzapine or clozapine undergoing diet-alone interventions caused by this prohibition. METHODS: A retrospective self-controlled study was conducted on 90 patients with schizophrenia from a single-center treated with olanzapine or clozapine monotherapy, or combined with aripiprazole or ziprasidone which has a small metabolic impact. A paired-samples t-test was used to compare the changes in body weight and BMI before and after the 3-month prohibition, and general linear regression was used to analyze the effects of gender, age, disease course, duration of drug exposure, and equivalent dose on the BMI improvement. Also, the percentage of people who lost weight and that of individuals who lost 5% of their pre-prohibition body weight were calculated. RESULTS: Paired-samples t-test showed that after 3-month prohibition, the patients' body weight (71.68±6.83 vs. 66.91±7.03, P<0.001) and BMI (26.43±2.11 vs. 24.63±1.81, P<0.001) decreased significantly. Weight loss rate accounted for 99.1%, and weight loss of 5% from the pre-prohibition body weight accounted for 71.8%. General linear regression showed that the duration of drug exposure (ß =-0.678, P<0.001) was significantly and negatively correlated with the BMI changes. No significant correlation of gender, age, disease course, or equivalent dose with BMI changes was found. CONCLUSIONS: Diet-alone interventions facilitate weight loss in chronically hospitalized schizophrenia patients taking AAPs. Conduction of dietary intervention in the early stages of medication may yield greater benefits.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Clozapine , Schizophrenia , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Body Weight , China , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Humans , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risperidone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197246

ABSTRACT

A previously fit and well 72-year-old man was referred to the acute medical unit with acute shortness of breath and confusion. He had presented 6 months earlier to his General Practitioner with a 6-month history of weight loss and lethargy. Despite CT imaging and extensive blood tests, no cause was found. He was having ongoing outpatient investigations, including a respiratory review leading up to his admission; the deterioration in his condition also coincided with the implementation of the COVID-19 lockdown. On admission, he was found to be in acute-on-chronic type 2 respiratory failure; examination revealed scattered fasciculations. Further inpatient electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction study (NCS) confirmed motor neuron disease (MND). This case highlighted the importance of considering neuromuscular causes for acute respiratory failure in acute presentations and demonstrated the challenges in the diagnosis of MND in those presenting atypically with non-specific symptoms and the limitations of remote consultations in complex cases.


Subject(s)
Motor Neuron Disease , Respiratory Insufficiency , Weight Loss , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Motor Neuron Disease/complications , Motor Neuron Disease/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO advised that the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on TB services was estimated to be dramatic due to the disruption of TB services. METHODS: A retrospective data collection and evaluation was conducted to include all the patients hospitalized for TB at INMI from 9 March to 31 August 2020 (lockdown period and three months thereafter). For the purpose of the study, data from patients hospitalized in the same period of 2019 were also collected. RESULTS: In the period of March-August 2019, 201 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of TB, while in the same period of 2020, only 115 patients, with a case reduction of 43%. Patients with weight loss, acute respiratory failure, concurrent extrapulmonary TB, and higher Timika radiographic scores were significantly more frequently hospitalized during 2020 vs. 2019. The median patient delay was 75 days (IQR: 40-100) in 2020 compared to 30 days (IQR: 10-60) in 2019 (p < 0.01). Diagnostic delays in 2020 remain significant in the multiple logistic model (AOR = 6.93, 95%CI: 3.9-12.3). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggests that COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on TB patient care in terms of higher diagnostic delay, reduction in hospitalization, and a greater severity of clinical presentations.

7.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(1): 9-13, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001858

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 disease are prone to develop significant weight loss and clinical cachexia. Three reports with altogether 589 patients that reported on weight loss and cachexia in COVID-19 were identified. Disease severity of patients and the timing of the assessment during the disease course in these patients were variable-65 patients (11%) were intensive care treated at the time of assessment, and 183 (31%) were cared for in sub-intensive or intermediate care structures. The frequency of weight loss ≥5% (that defines cachexia) was 37% (range 29-52%). Correlates of weight loss occurrence were reported to be raised C-reactive protein levels, impaired renal function status, and longer duration of COVID-19 disease. Underweight status by WHO criteria (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 ) was only observed in 4% of patients analysing data from seven studies with 6661 patients. Cachexia assessment in COVID-19 needs assessment of weight loss. COVID-19 associated cachexia is understood to affect muscle and fat tissue as is also seen in many other chronic illness-associated forms of cachexia. There are many factors that can contribute to body wasting in COVID-19, and they include loss of appetite and taste, fever and inflammation, immobilization, as well as general malnutrition, catabolic-anabolic imbalance, endocrine dysfunction, and organ-specific complications of COVID-19 disease such as cardiac and renal dysfunction. Treatment of COVID-19 patients should include a focus on nutritional support and rehabilitative exercise whenever possible. Specific anti-cachectic therapies for COVID-19 do not exist, but constitute a high medical need to prevent long-term disability due to acute COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cachexia/etiology , Malnutrition/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Weight Loss , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cachexia/pathology , Humans , Malnutrition/pathology
8.
Br J Nutr ; 126(4): 552-560, 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953070

ABSTRACT

Although increased weight, and particularly obesity, has been associated with a more severe clinical course of COVID-19 and risk of fatality, the course of the illness can lead to prolonged length of stay. Changes in nutritional status and weight loss during hospitalisation are largely reported in some populations, but still not explored in COVID-19 patients. Considering that patients with COVID-19 show an increased inflammatory response, other signs and symptoms, which can lead to weight and muscle loss, should be monitored. The aim of this article was to establish possible connections between COVID-19, prolonged hospitalisation and muscle wasting, as well as to propose nutritional recommendations for the prevention and treatment of cachexia, through a narrative review. Identification of risk and presence of malnutrition should be an early step in general assessment of all patients, with regard to more at-risk categories including older adults and individuals suffering from chronic and acute disease conditions, such as COVID-19. The deterioration of nutritional status, and consequently cachexia, increases the risk of mortality and needs to be treated with attention as other complications. There is, however, little hard evidence of nutritional approaches in assisting COVID-19 treatment or its management including cachexia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cachexia/etiology , COVID-19/diet therapy , Cachexia/prevention & control , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Humans , Nutritional Status
9.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(1): 208-214, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between prior metabolic surgery and the severity of COVID-19 in patients with severe obesity. SETTING: Cleveland Clinic Health System in the United States. METHODS: Among 4365 patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) between March 8, 2020 and July 22, 2020 in the Cleveland Clinic Health System, 33 patients were identified who had a prior history of metabolic surgery. The surgical patients were propensity matched 1:10 to nonsurgical patients to assemble a cohort of control patients (n = 330) with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2 at the time of SARS-CoV-2 testing. The primary endpoint was the rate of hospital admission. The exploratory endpoints included admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation and dialysis during index hospitalization, and mortality. After propensity score matching, outcomes were compared in univariate and multivariate regression models. RESULTS: The average BMI of the surgical group was 49.1 ± 8.8 kg/m2 before metabolic surgery and was down to 37.2 ± 7.1 at the time of SARS-CoV-2 testing, compared with the control group's BMI of 46.7 ± 6.4 kg/m2. In the univariate analysis, 6 (18.2%) patients in the metabolic surgery group and 139 (42.1%) patients in the control group were admitted to the hospital (P = .013). In the multivariate analysis, a prior history of metabolic surgery was associated with a lower hospital admission rate compared with control patients with obesity (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.88; P = .028). While none of the 4 exploratory outcomes occurred in the metabolic surgery group, 43 (13.0%) patients in the control group required ICU admission (P = .021), 22 (6.7%) required mechanical ventilation, 5 (1.5%) required dialysis, and 8 (2.4%) patients died. CONCLUSION: Prior metabolic surgery with subsequent weight loss and improvement of metabolic abnormalities was associated with lower rates of hospital and ICU admission in patients with obesity who became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Confirmation of these findings will require larger studies.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery/methods , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Obesity/surgery , Pandemics , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Ohio/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 32, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934642

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is considered a risk factor for complications due to COVID-19. In order to clarify this association, we are exploring the characteristics, the clinical signs, the outcomes and death in diabetic patients with COVID-19. In this retrospective observational study we are evaluating the demographic characteristics, the comorbidities of the patients, the clinical signs of the infection, the signs of clinical severity, the biological assessment at admission, the treatment, the outcomes and the deaths of 133 patients with COVID-19, of which 25 (19,4%) had diabetes. In the compared COVID-19 patients, with and without diabetes, the patients with diabetes were older, had higher blood pressure and more cardio-vascular diseases. Severe forms were more present in diabetic patients (56% versus 27.1%). Weight loss was higher in diabetic patients (6kg versus 3kg). Biologically, diabetic patients had higher levels of C-reactive protein (28 versus 5.8mg/l), procalcitonin (0.28 versus 0,13ng/l), ferritin (501 versus 140ng/ml), lactic dehydrogenase (268 versus 226IU/l) and of D. dimer (665 versus 444µg/l). Diabetic patients required more oxygen therapy (60% versus 26.9%), more mechanical ventilation (20% versus 8.3%) and more frequent admission to the intensive care unit (60% versus 27.8%). They presented more thromboembolic complications (12% versus 9%) but there were not significant differences in the other outcomes and in death rates. The excess of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes was still not fully clarified; the role of demographic factors, the interaction of mediations with ACE-2 receptors and the role of co-morbidities will all need to be studied in order to identify the patient at risk profile, i.e. who can develop severe forms of the diseases and more outcomes. The early identification of a possible hyper inflammation could be very valuable. More attention should be paid to patients with COVID-19 with diabetes because they are at a high risk of complications.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Middle Aged , Morocco/epidemiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
11.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 2420-2426, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may associate with clinical manifestations, ranging from alterations in smell and taste to severe respiratory distress requiring intensive care, that might associate with weight loss and malnutrition. We aimed to assess the incidence of unintentional weight loss and malnutrition in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis of a prospective observational cohort study, we enrolled all adult (age ≥18 years) patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 who had been discharged home from either a medical ward or the Emergency Department of San Raffaele University Hospital, and were re-evaluated after remission at the Outpatient COVID-19 Follow-Up Clinic of the same Institution from April 7, 2020, to May 11, 2020. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters upon admission were prospectively collected. At follow-up, anthropometrics, the mini nutritional assessment screening and a visual analogue scale for appetite were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients were included in the analysis (33% females, median age 59.0 [49.5-67.9] years, 70% overweight/obese upon initial assessment, 73% hospitalised). Sixty-one patients (29% of the total, and 31% of hospitalised patients vs. 21% of patients managed at home, p = 0.14) had lost >5% of initial body weight (median weight loss 6.5 [5.0-9.0] kg, or 8.1 [6.1-10.9]%). Patients who lost weight had greater systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein 62.9 [29.0-129.5] vs.48.7 [16.1-96.3] mg/dL; p = 0.02), impaired renal function (23.7% vs. 8.7% of patients; p = 0.003) and longer disease duration (32 [27-41] vs. 24 [21-30] days; p = 0.047) as compared with those who did not lose weight. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, only disease duration independently predicted weight loss (OR 1.05 [1.01-1.10] p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 might negatively impact body weight and nutritional status. In COVID-19 patients, nutritional evaluation, counselling and treatment should be implemented at initial assessment, throughout the course of disease, and after clinical remission. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Weight Loss , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Anthropometry , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Br J Nurs ; 29(19): 1096-1103, 2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892535

ABSTRACT

The following article was written after the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. On reflection of clinical practice during this time, it was noted by the ICU team that the majority of ventilated patients appeared to have lost weight during their stay. Unfortunately, there was no ability to weigh patients during the pandemic, so this weight loss was a subjective observation. Regardless, this observation lead the ICU dietitian to retrospectively audit prescribed versus delivered feed. It was found that only 10% of admissions received the prescribed daily volume of feed within the first 7 days of admission. A further 6% of admissions were within 10% of achieving daily prescribed target volumes. The main reasons for this were proning patients, high gastric residual volumes and the overwhelming nature of the pandemic. Three areas of practice have been highlighted that will improve feed delivery should a second wave occur. 1. A nasojejunal team comprising 20 members of the ICU multidiciplinary team will be established to insert bedside nasojejunal tubes in all ICU patients on admission. 2. All proned patients will be enterally fed and practice adjusted as per British Dietetic Association recommendations. 3. The international enteral feeding guidelines regarding hypocaloric feeding for the first 7 days will not be followed due to minimal clinical evidence for the ICU COVID-19 demographic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Nutritional Support/nursing , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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