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1.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 44: 101415, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: and purpose. COVID-19 is a novel viral disease causing worldwide pandemia. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of adjunctive individualized homeopathic treatment delivered to hospitalized patients with confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. PATIENT PRESENTATION: Thirteen patients with COVID-19 were admitted. Mean age was 73.4 ± 15.0 (SD) years. Twelve (92.3%) were speedily discharged without relevant sequelae after 14.4 ± 8.9 days. A single patient admitted in an advanced stage of septic disease died in hospital. A time-dependent improvement of relevant clinical symptoms was observed in the 12 surviving patients. Six (46.2%) were critically ill and treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Mean stay at the ICU of the 5 surviving patients was 18.8 ± 6.8 days. In six patients (46.2%) gastrointestinal disorders accompanied COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The observations suggest that adjunctive homeopathic treatment may be helpful to treat patients with confirmed COVID-19 even in high - risk patients especially since there is no conventional treatment of COVID-19 available at present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224078

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to cause respiratory tract infections ranging from colds to more severe diseases, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). New Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which led to deaths as well as social and economic disruptions, is an ongoing worldwide pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, there is no approved treatment for COVID-19. Hence, only supportive care has been approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) for now. Pharmacological agents used for the adjunctive treatment of COVID-19 following the current literature and clinical experiences include antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-malaria drugs, and other traditional or untraditional treatments. However, it has been reported that the use of these drugs may have some negative effects and comorbidities. Moreover, the current data have indicated that the risk of drug-drug interactions may also be high in polypharmacy cases, especially in elderly people, some comorbidity situations, and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. It is highly possible that these situations can not only increase the risk of drug-drug interactions but also increase the risk of food/nutrition-drug interactions and affect the nutritional status. However, this issue has not yet been entirely discussed in the literature. In this review, current information on the possible mechanisms as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of some pharmacological agents used in the treatment of COVID-19 and/or their secondary interactions with nutrition were evaluated and some future directions were given.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Food-Drug Interactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(2): 139-148, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the practice of ventilation management in patients with COVID-19. We aimed to describe the practice of ventilation management and to establish outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 in a single country during the first month of the outbreak. METHODS: PRoVENT-COVID is a national, multicentre, retrospective observational study done at 18 intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands. Consecutive patients aged at least 18 years were eligible for participation if they had received invasive ventilation for COVID-19 at a participating ICU during the first month of the national outbreak in the Netherlands. The primary outcome was a combination of ventilator variables and parameters over the first 4 calendar days of ventilation: tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), respiratory system compliance, and driving pressure. Secondary outcomes included the use of adjunctive treatments for refractory hypoxaemia and ICU complications. Patient-centred outcomes were ventilator-free days at day 28, duration of ventilation, duration of ICU and hospital stay, and mortality. PRoVENT-COVID is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04346342). FINDINGS: Between March 1 and April 1, 2020, 553 patients were included in the study. Median tidal volume was 6·3 mL/kg predicted bodyweight (IQR 5·7-7·1), PEEP was 14·0 cm H2O (IQR 11·0-15·0), and driving pressure was 14·0 cm H2O (11·2-16·0). Median respiratory system compliance was 31·9 mL/cm H2O (26·0-39·9). Of the adjunctive treatments for refractory hypoxaemia, prone positioning was most often used in the first 4 days of ventilation (283 [53%] of 530 patients). The median number of ventilator-free days at day 28 was 0 (IQR 0-15); 186 (35%) of 530 patients had died by day 28. Predictors of 28-day mortality were gender, age, tidal volume, respiratory system compliance, arterial pH, and heart rate on the first day of invasive ventilation. INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who were invasively ventilated during the first month of the outbreak in the Netherlands, lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volume and low driving pressure was broadly applied and prone positioning was often used. The applied PEEP varied widely, despite an invariably low respiratory system compliance. The findings of this national study provide a basis for new hypotheses and sample size calculations for future trials of invasive ventilation for COVID-19. These data could also help in the interpretation of findings from other studies of ventilation practice and outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19. FUNDING: Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location Academic Medical Center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180946

ABSTRACT

Severe anaemia in patients who cannot receive blood transfusion is an indication for the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). Most reports of the use of HBO for anaemia involve patients with acute blood loss. This report details a case of HBO used for a patient with severe pernicious anaemia. A 35-year-old Jehovah's Witnesses believer presented to a hospital with fatigue, dyspnoea and haemoglobin of 26 g/L. She was diagnosed with pernicious anaemia. As she could not receive blood transfusion due to her religious beliefs, vitamin B12 supplementation and HBO were administered and resulted in significant improvement in her condition. The mechanisms of action of HBO, including increased systemic plasma oxygenation, can alleviate signs and symptoms of anaemia regardless of its aetiology. HBO administration can greatly enhance the plasma arterial oxygen content, leading to clinical improvement in patients with anaemia who cannot receive blood transfusion.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Pernicious , Anemia , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Jehovah's Witnesses , Adult , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/therapy , Anemia, Pernicious/complications , Anemia, Pernicious/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Female , Humans
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(5): 1676-1686, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128113

ABSTRACT

Non-intubated patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 could benefit from awake proning. Awake proning is an attractive intervention in settings with limited resources, as it comes with no additional costs. However, awake proning remains poorly used probably because of unfamiliarity and uncertainties regarding potential benefits and practical application. To summarize evidence for benefit and to develop a set of pragmatic recommendations for awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, focusing on settings where resources are limited, international healthcare professionals from high and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with known expertise in awake proning were invited to contribute expert advice. A growing number of observational studies describe the effects of awake proning in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in whom hypoxemia is refractory to simple measures of supplementary oxygen. Awake proning improves oxygenation in most patients, usually within minutes, and reduces dyspnea and work of breathing. The effects are maintained for up to 1 hour after turning back to supine, and mostly disappear after 6-12 hours. In available studies, awake proning was not associated with a reduction in the rate of intubation for invasive ventilation. Awake proning comes with little complications if properly implemented and monitored. Pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications were formulated and adjusted for resource-limited settings. Awake proning, an adjunctive treatment for hypoxemia refractory to supplemental oxygen, seems safe in non-intubated patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory failure. We provide pragmatic recommendations including indications and contraindications for the use of awake proning in LMICs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Prone Position/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Health Personnel , Humans , Wakefulness
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125931

ABSTRACT

We describe the practice of ventilation and mortality rates in invasively ventilated normal-weight (18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0 ≤ BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) COVID-19 ARDS patients in a national, multicenter observational study, performed at 22 intensive care units in the Netherlands. The primary outcome was a combination of ventilation variables and parameters over the first four calendar days of ventilation, including tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), respiratory system compliance, and driving pressure in normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients. Secondary outcomes included the use of adjunctive treatments for refractory hypoxaemia and mortality rates. Between 1 March 2020 and 1 June 2020, 1122 patients were included in the study: 244 (21.3%) normal-weight patients, 531 (47.3%) overweight patients, and 324 (28.8%) obese patients. Most patients received a tidal volume < 8 mL/kg PBW; only on the first day was the tidal volume higher in obese patients. PEEP and driving pressure were higher, and compliance of the respiratory system was lower in obese patients on all four days. Adjunctive therapies for refractory hypoxemia were used equally in the three BMI groups. Adjusted mortality rates were not different between BMI categories. The findings of this study suggest that lung-protective ventilation with a lower tidal volume and prone positioning is similarly feasible in normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients with ARDS related to COVID-19. A patient's BMI should not be used in decisions to forgo or proceed with invasive ventilation.

7.
Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes ; 14: 1179551421994102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121535

ABSTRACT

Establishing a definitive diagnosis of Cushing disease (CD), given its clinical and biochemical heterogeneity, initiating effective treatment to control the effects of hypercortisolism, and managing recurrence are challenging disease aspects to address. Mifepristone is a competitive glucocorticoid receptor antagonist that is approved in the US by the Food and Drug Administration to control hyperglycemia secondary to endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing syndrome) in patients who have glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus and have failed surgery or are not candidates for surgery. Herein, we describe 6 patients with CD who received mifepristone as adjunct/bridge therapy in the following clinical settings: to assess clinical benefits of treatment for suspected recurrent disease, to control hypercortisolism preoperatively for severe disease, to control hypercortisolism during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to provide adjunctive treatment to radiation therapy. The patients were treated at multiple medical practice settings. Mifepristone treatment in each of the described cases was associated with clinical improvements, including improvements in overall glycemia, hypertension, and weight loss. In addition, in one case where biochemical and radiological evidence of disease recurrence was uncertain, clinical improvement with mifepristone pointed toward likely disease recurrence. Adverse events associated with mifepristone reported in the 6 cases were consistent with those previously reported in the pivotal trial and included cortisol withdrawal symptoms, antiprogesterone effects (vaginal bleeding), hypothyroidism (treated with levothyroxine), and hypokalemia (treated with spironolactone). These cases show how mifepristone can potentially be utilized as a therapeutic trial in equivocal cases of CD recurrence; as a presurgical treatment strategy, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic; and as bridge therapy, while awaiting the effects of radiation.

9.
Postgrad Med ; 133(4): 421-427, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087566

ABSTRACT

Background: The opioid epidemic continues to generate a significant mental and physical health burden on patients, and claims the life of almost 150 Americans daily. Making matters worse, an increase in relapses and/or opioid-related deaths has been reported in more than 40 U.S. states since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is one of the single most expensive disorders in the United States, generating average medical costs of $60B from just 2 million Americans diagnosed with the disorder. In commercial use since 2019, reSET-O is a non-drug, prescription digital therapeutic (PDT) that delivers evidence-based neurobehavioral treatment for OUD and helps overcome the barriers associated with access to care, stigma, and social distancing. Although shown to be cost effective and efficacious in clinical trials and real-world evidence studies, respectively, information on its value for money from a health utilities and cost per quality-adjusted life-year is needed to inform policy discussions.Objectives: To evaluate the impact of reSET-O on health utilities and assess its overall cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained vs. treatment-as-usual (TAU).Methods: Decision analytic model comparing reSET-O plus TAU to TAU alone (i.e. buprenorphine, face-to-face counseling, and contingency management) over 12 weeks. Clinical effectiveness data (abstinence and health utility) were obtained from a clinical trial, and resource utilization and cost data were adapted from a recent claims data analysis to reflect less frequent face-to-face counseling with the therapeutic.Results: The addition of reSET-O to TAU decreases total health care costs by -$131 and resulted in post-treatment utility values within population norms, with a corresponding gain of 0.003 QALYs. reSET-O when used adjunctively to TAU was economically dominant (less costly, more effective) vs. TAU alone.Conclusion: reSET-O is an economically-dominant adjunctive treatment for OUD and is associated with an overall reduction in total incremental cost vs TAU.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Behavior Therapy/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Humans , Models, Econometric , Opioid Epidemic , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma
11.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e928421, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) is a method that combines mechanical ventilation with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. This report describes 3 cases of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who received intermittent adjunctive treatment with HFPV at a single center without requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). CASE REPORT Case 1 was a 60-year-old woman admitted to the hospital 14 days after the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms, and cases 2 and 3 were men aged 65 and 72 years who were admitted to the hospital 10 days after the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms. All 3 patients presented with clinical deterioration accompanied by worsening lung lesions on computed tomography (CT) scans after 21 days from the onset of symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in all patients by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay from nasal swabs. All 3 patients had impending respiratory failure when non-invasive intermittent HFPV therapy was initiated. After therapy, the patients had significant clinical improvement and visibly decreased lung lesions on followup CT scans performed 4-6 days later. CONCLUSIONS The 3 cases described in this report showed that the use of intermittent adjunctive treatment with HFPV in patients with severe pneumonia due to infection with SARS-CoV-2 improved lung function and may have prevented clinical deterioration. However, recommendations on the use of intermittent HFPV as an adjunctive treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia requires large-scale controlled clinical studies. In the pandemic context, with a shortage of ICU beds, avoiding ICU admission by using adjunctive therapies on the ward is a useful option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , High-Frequency Ventilation , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Deterioration , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/therapy , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(2): 139-148, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the practice of ventilation management in patients with COVID-19. We aimed to describe the practice of ventilation management and to establish outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 in a single country during the first month of the outbreak. METHODS: PRoVENT-COVID is a national, multicentre, retrospective observational study done at 18 intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands. Consecutive patients aged at least 18 years were eligible for participation if they had received invasive ventilation for COVID-19 at a participating ICU during the first month of the national outbreak in the Netherlands. The primary outcome was a combination of ventilator variables and parameters over the first 4 calendar days of ventilation: tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), respiratory system compliance, and driving pressure. Secondary outcomes included the use of adjunctive treatments for refractory hypoxaemia and ICU complications. Patient-centred outcomes were ventilator-free days at day 28, duration of ventilation, duration of ICU and hospital stay, and mortality. PRoVENT-COVID is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04346342). FINDINGS: Between March 1 and April 1, 2020, 553 patients were included in the study. Median tidal volume was 6·3 mL/kg predicted bodyweight (IQR 5·7-7·1), PEEP was 14·0 cm H2O (IQR 11·0-15·0), and driving pressure was 14·0 cm H2O (11·2-16·0). Median respiratory system compliance was 31·9 mL/cm H2O (26·0-39·9). Of the adjunctive treatments for refractory hypoxaemia, prone positioning was most often used in the first 4 days of ventilation (283 [53%] of 530 patients). The median number of ventilator-free days at day 28 was 0 (IQR 0-15); 186 (35%) of 530 patients had died by day 28. Predictors of 28-day mortality were gender, age, tidal volume, respiratory system compliance, arterial pH, and heart rate on the first day of invasive ventilation. INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who were invasively ventilated during the first month of the outbreak in the Netherlands, lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volume and low driving pressure was broadly applied and prone positioning was often used. The applied PEEP varied widely, despite an invariably low respiratory system compliance. The findings of this national study provide a basis for new hypotheses and sample size calculations for future trials of invasive ventilation for COVID-19. These data could also help in the interpretation of findings from other studies of ventilation practice and outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19. FUNDING: Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location Academic Medical Center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063435

ABSTRACT

Currently, the world is under a pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2), responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). This disease is characterized by a respiratory syndrome that can progress to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. To date, limited effective therapies are available for the prevention or treatment of COVID­19; therefore, it is necessary to propose novel treatment options with immunomodulatory effects. Vitamin D serves functions in bone health and has been recently reported to exert protective effects against respiratory infections. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and a poor prognosis of COVID­19; this is alarming as vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. In Latin America, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is unknown, and currently, this region is in the top 10 according to the number of confirmed COVID­19 cases. Supplementation with vitamin D may be a useful adjunctive treatment for the prevention of COVID­19 complications. The present review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of COVID­19 and sets out vitamin D recommendations for the Latin American population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Bone and Bones , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Latin America , Prevalence , Renin-Angiotensin System
14.
Can Commun Dis Rep ; 46(1112): 384-386, 2020 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Canadian Immunization Guide (CIG) is a comprehensive resource on immunization for health professionals and vaccine program decision-makers. It is developed based on the evidence-based recommendations of the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI). The NACI Vaccine Safety Working Group (VSWG) is comprised of NACI members, liaison members and external experts. The World Allergy Organization now recommends that antihistamines should not be used in the initial treatment of anaphylaxis. The update of the chapter was also used to provide further information and clarity to several tables in the chapter. METHODS: In updating the CIG anaphylaxis guidance, VSWG conducted an environmental scan, a review of relevant literature and consulted international and Canadian experts and professional societies. RESULTS: The use of diphenhydramine hydrochloride as adjunctive treatment in the management of anaphylaxis in a community setting is no longer recommended. Other notable changes made to the chapter include the following: 1) retitled: "Anaphylaxis and other acute reactions following vaccination"; 2) inclusion of new tables: "Key distinguishing features of anaphylaxis and vasovagal syncope" and "Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis"; and 3) updated tables: "Anaphylaxis management kit: recommended items" and "Dosage of intramuscular EPINEPHrine 1:1000 (1 mg/mL) solution, by age or weight". CONCLUSION: The updated CIG chapter provides healthcare providers with further clarity in recognizing and managing anaphylaxis in community settings. The updated intramuscular epinephrine dosage table will aid in optimal epinephrine administration, while the revised guidance against the use of diphenhydramine hydrochloride will prevent its unnecessary stockpiling in preparation for potential mass vaccination clinics related to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

15.
Cytokine ; 137: 155312, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, as a newly-emerged viral infection has now spread all over the world after originating in Wuhan, China. Pneumonia is the hallmark of the disease, with dyspnea in half of the patients and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in up to one -third of the cases. Pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration, and inflammatory cytokine release are the pathologic signs of this disease. The anti-inflammatory effect of the photobiomodulation (PBM) has been confirmed in many previous studies. Therefore, this review study was conducted to evaluate the direct effect of PBM on the acute lung inflammation or ARDS and also accelerating the regeneration of the damaged tissues. The indirect effects of PBM on modulation of the immune system, increasing the blood flow and oxygenation in other tissues were also considered. METHODOLOGY: The databases of PubMed, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar were searched to find the relevant studies. Keywords included the PBM and related terms, lung inflammation, and COVID-19 -related signs. Studies were categorized with respect to the target tissue, laser parameters, and their results. RESULTS: Seventeen related papers were included in this review. All of them were in animal models. They showed that the PBM could significantly decrease the pulmonary edema, neutrophil influx, and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), reactive oxygen species (ROS), isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)). CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that the PBM could be helpful in reducing the lung inflammation and promoting the regeneration of the damaged tissue. PBM can increase the oxygenation indirectly in order to rehabilitate the affected organs. Thus, the infra-red lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are recommended in this regard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Low-Level Light Therapy , Lung/radiation effects , Pneumonia/radiotherapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , PubMed , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Pulmonary Edema/radiotherapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/radiotherapy
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 135: 111200, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002355

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) has had major global impact. The relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection and psychiatric diseases is of great concern, with an evident link between corona virus infections and various central and peripheral nervous system manifestations. Unmitigated neuro-inflammation has been noted to underlie not only the severe respiratory complications of the disease but is also present in a range of neuro-psychiatric illnesses. Several neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by immune-inflammatory states, while treatments for these disorders have distinct anti-inflammatory properties and effects. With inflammation being a common contributing factor in SARS-CoV-2, as well as psychiatric disorders, treatment of either condition may affect disease progression of the other or alter response to pharmacological treatment. In this review, we elucidate how viral infections could affect pre-existing psychiatric conditions and how pharmacological treatments of these conditions may affect overall progress and outcome in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. We address whether any treatment-induced benefits and potential adverse effects may ultimately affect the overall treatment approach, considering the underlying dysregulated neuro-inflammatory processes and potential drug interactions. Finally, we suggest adjunctive treatment options for SARS-CoV-2-associated neuro-psychiatric symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e928422, 2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Icosapent ethyl, a form of eicosapentaenoic acid with anti-inflammatory activity, has been approved as an adjunctive treatment with statins in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Icosapent ethyl is currently undergoing clinical trials to determine its anti-inflammatory effects in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This report describes 3 intensive care unit (ICU) patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia treated with icosapent ethyl as part of their supportive care who had favorable outcomes. CASE REPORT Case 1 was a 75-year-old man with a past medical history of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Case 2 was a 23-year old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Case 3 was a 24-year old man with a history of autism. All cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were confirmed from a nasopharyngeal swab using the Becton Dickinson nasopharyngeal reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. All patients in these cases were treated with a course of 2 g of icosapent ethyl twice a day by nasogastric tube. CONCLUSIONS This report of 3 cases describes the use of icosapent ethyl as a component of supportive treatments in ICU patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia. However, as of yet there are no evidence-based treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection from controlled clinical trials. The outcomes of ongoing clinical trials are awaited to determine whether icosapent ethyl has anti-inflammatory effects in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and which patients might benefit from the use of this adjunctive treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Young Adult
18.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6218-6221, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972475

ABSTRACT

Although corticosteroids dampen the dysregulated immune system and sometimes are prescribed as an adjunctive treatment for pneumonia, their effectiveness in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. In this issue of the JCI, Liu and Zhang et al. evaluated corticosteroid treatment in more than 400 patients with severe COVID-19. The authors assessed subjects retrospectively for cardiac and liver injury, shock, ventilation, mortality, and viral clearance. Corticosteroids in severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were associated with increased mortality and delayed viral clearance. Here, we consider how to reconcile the negative effects of corticosteroids revealed by Liu and Zhang et al. with the favorable effects (reduced mortality) that were described in the RECOVERY trial. We posit that treatment timing, dosage, and COVID-19 severity determine immune response and viral outcome. Patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia are likely to benefit from moderate-dose corticosteroid treatment when administered relatively late in the disease course.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Aging Dis ; 11(6): 1352-1362, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955206

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an evolving pandemic that has far reaching global effects, with a combination of factors that makes the virus difficult to contain. The symptoms of infection can be devastating or at the least very debilitating for vulnerable individuals. It is clear that the elderly are at most risk of the adverse impacts of the virus, including hospitalization and death. Others at risk are those with comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic conditions and those with a hyper-excitable immune response. Treatment options for those with acute responses to the virus are limited and there is an urgent need for potential strategies that can mitigate these severe effects. One potential avenue for treatment that has not been explored is the microbiome gut/lung axis. In addition to those severely affected by their acute reaction to the virus, there is also a need for treatment options for those that are slow to recover from the effects of the infection and also those who have been adversely affected by the measures put in place to arrest the spread of the virus. One potential treatment option is photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy. PBM has been shown over many years to be a safe, effective, non-invasive and easily deployed adjunctive treatment option for inflammatory conditions, pain, tissue healing and cellular energy. We have also recently demonstrated the effectiveness of PBM to alter the gut microbiome. PBM therapy is worthy of consideration as a potential treatment for those most vulnerable to COVID-19, such as the elderly and those with comorbidities. The treatment may potentially be advantageous for those infected with the virus, those who have a slow recovery from the effects of the virus and those who have been denied their normal exercise/rehabilitation programs due to the isolation restrictions that have been imposed to control the COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 59(6): 102993, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899612

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic plasmapheresis (TP) is the process of the separation and removal of plasma from other blood components and is considered as an adjunctive treatment strategy to the discarded abnormal agent in the management of respiratory viral pandemics. This article reviews the mechanisms of immunopathogenesis and coagulopathy induced by SARS-CoV-2 and the potential benefits of TP as adjunctive treatment in critically COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Plasma Exchange , Plasmapheresis , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation Disorders/economics , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
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