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2.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(14): 3385-3393, 2021 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several reports with clinical, histological and imaging data have observed the involvement of lung vascular function to explain the severe hypoxemia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. It has been hypothesized that an increased pulmonary blood flow associated with an impairment of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is responsible for an intrapulmonary shunt. COVID-19 may lead to refractory hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 ratio below 100 mmHg) despite mechanical ventilation and prone positioning. We hypothesized that the use of a pulmonary vasoconstrictor may help decrease the shunt and thus enhance oxygenation. CASE SUMMARY: We report our experience with three patients with refractory hypoxemia treated with almitrine to enhance oxygenation. Low dose almitrine (Vectarion®; Servier, Suresnes, France) was started at an infusion rate of 4 µg × kg/min on a central line. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio and total respiratory system compliance during almitrine infusion were measured. For the three patients, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio time-course showed a dramatic increase whereas total respiratory system compliance was unchanged. The three patients were discharged from the intensive care unit. The intensive care unit length of stay for patient 1, patient 2 and patient 3 was 30 d, 32 d and 31 d, respectively. Weaning from mechanical ventilation was performed 13 d, 18 d and 15 d after almitrine infusion for patient 1, 2 and 3, respectively. We found no deleterious effects on the right ventricular function, which was similar to previous studies on almitrine safety. CONCLUSION: Almitrine may be effective and safe to enhance oxygenation in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Further controlled studies are required.

3.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 151, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the relatively preserved respiratory system compliance despite severe hypoxemia, with specific pulmonary vascular dysfunction, suggests a possible hemodynamic mechanism for VA/Q mismatch, as hypoxic vasoconstriction alteration. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-almitrine combination to restore oxygenation in severe COVID-19 ARDS (C-ARDS) patients. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric preliminary pilot study in intubated patients with severe C-ARDS. Respiratory mechanics was assessed after a prone session. Then, patients received iNO (10 ppm) alone and in association with almitrine (10 µg/kg/min) during 30 min in each step. Echocardiographic and blood gases measurements were performed at baseline, during iNO alone, and iNO-almitrine combination. The primary endpoint was the variation of oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 ratio). RESULTS: Ten severe C-ARDS patients were assessed (7 males and 3 females), with a median age of 60 [52-72] years. Combination of iNO and almitrine outperformed iNO alone for oxygenation improvement. The median of PaO2/FiO2 ratio varied from 102 [89-134] mmHg at baseline, to 124 [108-146] mmHg after iNO (p = 0.13) and 180 [132-206] mmHg after iNO and almitrine (p < 0.01). We found no correlation between the increase in oxygenation caused by iNO-almitrine combination and that caused by proning. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study of severe C-ARDS patients, iNO-almitrine combination was associated with rapid and significant improvement of oxygenation. These findings highlight the role of pulmonary vascular function in COVID-19 pathophysiology.

4.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): e191-e198, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Treating acute respiratory failure in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is challenging due to the lack of knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology. Hypoxemia may be explained in part by the loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. The present study assessed the effect of almitrine, a selective pulmonary vasoconstrictor, on arterial oxygenation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective observational study. SETTING: ICU of Lille Teaching Hospital, France, from February 27, 2020, to April 14, 2020. PATIENTS: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia confirmed by positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 and acute respiratory distress syndrome according to Berlin definition. Data focused on clinicobiological features, ventilator settings, therapeutics, outcomes, and almitrine-related adverse events. INTERVENTIONS: Almitrine was considered in patients with severe hypoxemia (Pao2/Fio2 ratio < 150 mm Hg) in addition to the recommended therapies, at an hourly IV delivery of 10 µg/kg/min. Comparative blood gases were done before starting almitrine trial and immediately after the end of the infusion. A positive response to almitrine was defined by an increase of Pao2/Fio2 ratio greater than or equal to 20% at the end of the infusion. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 169 patients were enrolled. Thirty-two patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome received an almitrine infusion trial. In most cases, almitrine was infused in combination with inhaled nitric oxide (75%). Twenty-one patients (66%) were responders. The median Pao2/Fio2 ratio improvement was 39% (9-93%) and differs significantly between the responders and nonresponders (67% [39-131%] vs 6% [9-16%], respectively; p < 0.0001). The 28-day mortality rates were 47.6% and 63.6% (p = 0.39) for the responders and nonresponders, respectively. Hemodynamic parameters remained similar before and after the trial, not suggesting acute cor pulmonale. CONCLUSIONS: Almitrine infusion improved oxygenation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome without adverse effects. In a multistep clinical approach to manage severe hypoxemia in this population, almitrine could be an interesting therapeutic option to counteract the loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and redistribute blood flow away from shunting zones.


Subject(s)
Almitrine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory System Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Gas Exchange/drug effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies
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