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1.
Retin Cases Brief Rep ; 16(4): 403-406, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909002

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion associated with paracentral acute middle maculopathy on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography presumably related to heavy cannabis consumption. METHODS: Retrospective case report. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography angiography were performed. RESULTS: A 21-year-old healthy man described the acute onset of superior visual field loss in his right eye. He admitted smoking approximately 15 g daily of cannabis for several weeks during COVID-19 confinement. Ophthalmoscopic examination of the right eye showed inferotemporal retinal whitening. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography illustrated evidence of the ischemic cascade with diffuse hyperreflectivity of the inner and middle retinal layers within the central region of the retinal infarct and paracentral acute middle maculopathy at the border of the infarct. Optical coherence tomography angiography demonstrated predominant flow signal loss at the level of the deep retinal capillary plexus. Fluorescein angiography and complete systemic workup were unremarkable. CONCLUSION: Branch retinal artery occlusion and paracentral acute middle maculopathy may be related to heavy cannabis use as the result of transient arterial vasospasm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Macular Degeneration , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Retinal Diseases , Acute Disease , Adult , Cannabis/adverse effects , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Humans , Infarction , Male , Retina , Retinal Artery Occlusion/chemically induced , Retinal Artery Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Diseases/chemically induced , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Vessels , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Young Adult
2.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(6): 2791-2802, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275857

ABSTRACT

Cloth masks can be an alternative to medical masks during pandemics. Recent studies have examined the performance of fabrics under various conditions; however, the performance against violent respiratory events such as human sneezes is yet to be explored. Accordingly, we present a comprehensive experimental study using sneezes by a healthy adult and a tailored image-based flow measurement diagnostic system evaluating all dimensions of protection of commonly available fabrics and their layered combinations: the respiratory droplet blocking efficiency, water resistance, and breathing resistance. Our results reveal that a well-designed cloth mask can outperform a three-layered surgical mask for such violent respiratory events. Specifically, increasing the number of layers significantly increases the droplet blocking efficiency, on average by ∼20 times per additional fabric layer. A minimum of three layers is necessary to resemble the droplet blocking performance of surgical masks, and a combination of cotton/linen (hydrophilic inner layer)-blends (middle layer)-polyester/nylon (hydrophobic outer layer) exhibited the best performance among overall indicators tested. In an optimum three-layered design, the average thread count should be greater than 200, and the porosity should be less than 2%. Furthermore, machine washing at 60 °C did not significantly impact the performance of cloth masks. These findings inform the design of high-performing homemade cloth masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
3.
Clin Exp Optom ; 104(6): 717-722, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238096

ABSTRACT

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The SARS-COV 2 virus, which is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, acts on the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor in the host cell. Ocular effects may occur because of the ACE-2 receptor in the retina. BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the retinal layers and optic disc parameters in previously confirmed COVID-19 patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: This study included 60 eyes of 60 subjects; 35 of them were in the COVID-19 group and the remaining 25 were in the control group. Patients with the diagnosis of COVID-19 that had a negative result after treatment were included in the study. Macular and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements, each retinal layer thickness of all participants were done 14-30 days after COVID-19 symptom onset, following the negative result of real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test using SD-OCT. RESULTS: The mean value of central macular thickness was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than the control group (p = 0.02). The mean values of the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer thickness in the COVID-19 group were significantly thinner than control group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). Even though mean RNFL thickness measurements in all sections in the COVID-19 group was thinner than controls, there were no significant differences between groups (p > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: In the early recovery phase, changes in the macula, ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer could be seen. These patients should be followed up closely for the recognition of new pathologies that could be seen in the late recovery phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Pandemics , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Visual Acuity , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 648947, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191677

ABSTRACT

The making and breaking of clots orchestrated by the thrombotic and thrombolytic serine protease cascades are critical determinants of morbidity and mortality during infection and with vascular or tissue injury. Both the clot forming (thrombotic) and the clot dissolving (thrombolytic or fibrinolytic) cascades are composed of a highly sensitive and complex relationship of sequentially activated serine proteases and their regulatory inhibitors in the circulating blood. The proteases and inhibitors interact continuously throughout all branches of the cardiovascular system in the human body, representing one of the most abundant groups of proteins in the blood. There is an intricate interaction of the coagulation cascades with endothelial cell surface receptors lining the vascular tree, circulating immune cells, platelets and connective tissue encasing the arterial layers. Beyond their role in control of bleeding and clotting, the thrombotic and thrombolytic cascades initiate immune cell responses, representing a front line, "off-the-shelf" system for inducing inflammatory responses. These hemostatic pathways are one of the first response systems after injury with the fibrinolytic cascade being one of the earliest to evolve in primordial immune responses. An equally important contributor and parallel ancient component of these thrombotic and thrombolytic serine protease cascades are the serine protease inhibitors, termed serpins. Serpins are metastable suicide inhibitors with ubiquitous roles in coagulation and fibrinolysis as well as multiple central regulatory pathways throughout the body. Serpins are now known to also modulate the immune response, either via control of thrombotic and thrombolytic cascades or via direct effects on cellular phenotypes, among many other functions. Here we review the co-evolution of the thrombolytic cascade and the immune response in disease and in treatment. We will focus on the relevance of these recent advances in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is a "respiratory" coronavirus that causes extensive cardiovascular pathogenesis, with microthrombi throughout the vascular tree, resulting in severe and potentially fatal coagulopathies.

5.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 671-674, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185529

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) has been associated with a high risk of thrombotic complications. Here, we report the case of a patient who developed simultaneous bilateral retinal artery occlusion following COVID-19 infection.Case Report: A 42-year-old male with no systemic co-morbidities presented with sudden, painless loss of vision in both eyes. Fundoscopy showed retinal edema and cherry-red spots in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography showed reperfusion, absence of choroidal ischemia, and Optical Coherence Tomography showed thickened inner retinal layers suggestive of retinal edema and the outer retinal layers appeared intact. Blood investigations for vasculitis, coagulation profile, lipids, and homocysteine level were within normal limits.Conclusion: COVID-19 patients may develop a systemic coagulopathy and acquired thrombophilia characterized by a tendency for venous, arterial, and microvascular thrombosis. This hypercoagulable state is believed to be a hyperinflammatory response; physicians and ophthalmologists, alike, should be aware of these possible long-term sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Retinal Artery Occlusion/etiology , Retinal Vessels/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Visual Acuity , Adult , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Retinal Artery Occlusion/diagnosis
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(11): 12912-12927, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185365

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has seen a widespread use of personal protective equipment, especially face masks. This has created the need to develop better and reusable protective masks with built-in antimicrobial, self-cleaning, and aerosol filtration properties to prevent the transmission of air-borne pathogens such as the coronaviruses. Herein, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets are used to prepare modified polycotton fabrics having excellent antibacterial activity and photothermal properties. Upon sunlight irradiation, the nanosheet-modified fabrics rapidly increased the surface temperature to ∼77 °C, making them ideal for sunlight-mediated self-disinfection. Complete self-disinfection of the nanosheet-modified fabric was achieved within 3 min of irradiation, making the fabrics favorably reusable upon self-disinfection. The nanosheet-modified fabrics maintained the antibacterial efficiency even after 60 washing cycles. Furthermore, the particle filtration efficiency of three-layered surgical masks was found to be significantly improved through incorporation of the MoS2-modified fabric as an additional layer of protective clothing, without compromising the breathability of the masks. The repurposed surgical masks could filter out around 97% of 200 nm particles and 96% of 100 nm particles, thus making them potentially useful for preventing the spread of coronaviruses (120 nm) by trapping them along with antibacterial protection against other airborne pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Disulfides/chemistry , Molybdenum/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Personal Protective Equipment , Recycling , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Glutathione/chemistry , Humans , Nanostructures/toxicity , Oxidation-Reduction , Particle Size , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Sunlight , Temperature
7.
Nature ; 594(7862): 246-252, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180252

ABSTRACT

The emergence and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the urgent need for an in-depth understanding of molecular functions of viral proteins and their interactions with the host proteome. Several individual omics studies have extended our knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology1-10. Integration of such datasets to obtain a holistic view of virus-host interactions and to define the pathogenic properties of SARS-CoV-2 is limited by the heterogeneity of the experimental systems. Here we report a concurrent multi-omics study of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Using state-of-the-art proteomics, we profiled the interactomes of both viruses, as well as their influence on the transcriptome, proteome, ubiquitinome and phosphoproteome of a lung-derived human cell line. Projecting these data onto the global network of cellular interactions revealed crosstalk between the perturbations taking place upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV at different levels and enabled identification of distinct and common molecular mechanisms of these closely related coronaviruses. The TGF-ß pathway, known for its involvement in tissue fibrosis, was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 and autophagy was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF3. The extensive dataset (available at https://covinet.innatelab.org ) highlights many hotspots that could be targeted by existing drugs and may be used to guide rational design of virus- and host-directed therapies, which we exemplify by identifying inhibitors of kinases and matrix metalloproteases with potent antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Datasets as Topic , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteome/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
8.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 32(1): 628-636, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133564

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), macular RNFLT, ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness in recovered COVID-19 patients compared to controls. METHODS: Patients previously diagnosed with COVID-19 were included, while healthy patients formed the historic control group. All patients underwent an ophthalmological examination, including macular and optic nerve optical coherence tomography. In the case group, socio-demographic data, medical history, and neurological symptoms were collected. RESULTS: One hundred sixty patients were included; 90 recovered COVID-19 patients and 70 controls. COVID-19 patients presented increases in global RNFLT (mean difference 4.3; CI95% 0.8 to 7.7), nasal superior (mean difference 6.9; CI95% 0.4 to 13.4), and nasal inferior (mean difference 10.2; CI95% 2.4 to 18.1) sectors of peripapillary RNFLT. Macular RNFL showed decreases in COVID-19 patients in volume (mean difference -0.05; CI95% -0.08 to -0.02), superior inner (mean difference -1.4; CI95% -2.5 to -0.4), nasal inner (mean difference -1.1; CI95% -1.8 to -0.3), and nasal outer (mean difference -4.7; CI95% -7.0 to -2.4) quadrants. COVID-19 patients presented increased GCL thickness in volume (mean difference 0.04; CI95% 0.01 to 0.07), superior outer (mean difference 2.1; CI95% 0.8 to 3.3), nasal outer (mean difference 2.5; CI95% 1.1 to 4.0), and inferior outer (mean difference1.2; CI95% 0.1 to 2.4) quadrants. COVID-19 patients with anosmia and ageusia presented an increase in peripapillary RNFLT and macular GCL compared to patients without these symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 may affect the optic nerve and cause changes in the retinal layers once the infection has resolved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Humans , Nerve Fibers , Optic Nerve , Retinal Ganglion Cells , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Environ Res ; 196: 110947, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116586

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the potential of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation by a copper sulfide (CuS) incorporated three-layer mask design. The mask consisted of the outer, middle, and inner layers to give comfort, strength, shape, and safety. The outer layer contained a total of 4.4% CuS (w/w) (2.2% CuS coated & 2.2% CuS impregnated) nylon fibers and the middle entrapment area contain a total of 17.6% CuS (w/w) impregnated nylon. No CuS was present in the inner layer. The antiviral efficacy assessment revealed, CuS incorporated mask is highly effective in inactivating SARS-CoV-2 within 30 min exposure. After, 1h and 2 h exposure, near-complete elimination of virus were observed by cytopathy, fluorescence, and viral copy number. The antiviral activity of the mask material was derived by incorporated solid-state CuS. Noticeably, the antiviral activity of CuS against SARS-CoV-2 was in the form of solid-state CuS, but not as Cu2+ ionic form derived by dissolved CuSO4. The kinetics of droplet entrapment revealed, that the three-layered mask almost completely block virus-containing droplet pass-through for short exposure periods of 1-2 min, and 80% efficacy for longer exposure times of 5-10 min. We also demonstrated the incorporated CuS is evenly distributed all over the fibers assuring the uniformity of potential antiviral activity and proves, CuS particles are not easily shed out of the fabric fibers. The inactivation efficacy demonstrated against SARS-CoV-2 proves that the CuS incorporated three-layer mask will be a lifesaver during the present intense global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Copper , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 701-705, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089038

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changing trends in terms of patient load, presenting complaints, surgical procedures and resource utilization in a multispeciality tertiary care hospital after lockdown due to COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective.data were collected from Ophthalmology in-patient and emergency services of a government medical college and multispecialty tertiary care hospital in North India. Data pertaining to patient census, presenting complaints, surgical procedures and resource consumption were compared in the 6-month period (March 25 to September 30, 2020) following national lockdown and subsequent gradual unlock to data of same time period last year. RESULTS: A total of 1152 new patients visited Ophthalmology emergency service, whereas 324 sought tele-ophthalmology consultation.Majority were males (61.8%, n = 712), whereas average age of presentation was 34 ± 7.2 years. The number.of patients seeking emergency ophthalmic care reduced by 23.9% in the current year, in-patient record reduced by 96.53% and number of surgeries reduced by 98.13%. Tele-ophthalmology services comprised 21.95% of the total patient load. Use of triple layered surgical masks increased by 85.7%, use of disposable gloves increased by 89.5% but interestingly the availability of chlorhexidine hand rub fell by 15.9%, in the current year compared to last year. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown have reduced the number of patients visiting tertiary health care facility for ophthalmic care. As manpower and resource consumption has increased, smart management is needed to tackle the current scenario efficiently. Tele-ophthalmology must be promoted and we must understand the changing trends to plan for the future accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Ophthalmology/trends , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Comorbidity , Emergencies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
CVIR Endovasc ; 4(1): 1, 2021 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Graft thrombosis due to fabric delamination is a rare cause of delayed failure of arteriovenous grafts. Graft delamination is primarily an imaging diagnosis and is confirmed with the help of ultrasound which shows the separation of graft fabric layers. Only two such cases have been described in the literature so far. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of upper extremity arteriovenous graft thrombosis in a 79 year old COVID-19 positive patient with end-stage renal disease. The diagnosis was established on ultrasonography which revealed separation of the graft fabric layers with thrombosis within the "false" and "true" lumen of the graft. The patient was managed with angioplasty and embolectomy of the clot material followed by stent-graft placement across the delaminated portion of the graft. Post-procedural angiography confirmed brisk flow across the graft and patient could successfully have subsequent hemodialysis sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of graft delamination as a cause of graft failure is important as its management differs from other conventional causes since it requires stent-grafts to cover the area of delamination to re-establish flow and salvage the AV graft. The recognition of this phenomenon is essential to provide quality care and successful reuse of the AV graft. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4, Case Report.

12.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(4): 424-429, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) are critical for protecting essential personnel and limiting the spread of disease. Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, FFR supplies are dwindling in many health systems, necessitating re-use of potentially contaminated FFR. Multiple decontamination solutions have been developed to meet this pressing need, including systems designed for bulk decontamination of FFR using vaporous hydrogen peroxide or ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation. However, the large scale on which these devices operate may not be logistically practical for small or rural health care settings or for ad hoc use at points-of-care. METHODS: Here, we present the Synchronous UV Decontamination System, a novel device for rapidly deployable, point-of-care decontamination using UV-C germicidal irradiation. We designed a compact, easy-to-use device capable of delivering over 2 J cm2 of UV-C radiation in one minute. RESULTS: We experimentally tested Synchronous UV Decontamination System' microbicidal capacity and found that it eliminates near all virus from the surface of tested FFRs, with less efficacy against pathogens embedded in the inner layers of the masks. CONCLUSIONS: This short decontamination time should enable care-providers to incorporate decontamination of FFR into a normal donning and doffing routine following patient encounters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Systems , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , COVID-19/virology , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse , Humans
13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570018, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844586

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has induced global eagerness to develop vaccines and therapeutics for treating COVID-19, including neutralizing antibodies. To develop effective therapeutic antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, it is critical to understand the interaction between viral and host's proteins. The human ACE2 (hACE2) protein is the crucial target for the SARS-CoV's Spike protein that allows the virus to adhere to host epithelial cells. X-ray crystal structures and biophysical properties of protein-protein interactions reveal a large interaction surface with high binding-affinity between SARS-CoV-2 and hACE2 (18 interactions), at least 15-fold stronger than between SARS-CoV-1 and hACE2 (eight interactions). This suggests that antibodies against CoV-1 infection might not be very efficient against CoV-2. Furthermore, interspecies comparisons indicate that ACE2 proteins of man and cat are far closer than dog, ferret, mouse, and rat with significant differences in binding-affinity between Spike and ACE2 proteins. This strengthens the notion of productive SARS-CoV-2 transmission between felines and humans and that classical animal models are not optimally suited for evaluating therapeutic antibodies. The large interaction surface with strong affinity between SARS-CoV-2 and hACE2 (dG-12.4) poses a huge challenge to develop reliable antibody therapy that truly blocks SARS-CoV-2 adherence and infection. We gauge that single antibodies against single epitopes might not sufficiently interfere with the strong interaction-synapse between Spike and hACE2 proteins. Instead, appropriate combinations of high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against different epitopes might be needed, preferably of IgA-class for optimal and prolonged activity at epithelial layers of respiratory and intestine tracts.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Affinity , Betacoronavirus , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Avian Pathol ; 49(3): 243-250, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-828848

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the characterization of a new infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain D181, that rapidly evolved from a low-level incidental finding in 2017 to become the second most isolated IBV strain in Dutch layers and breeders in 2018, as well as being found in samples from Germany and Belgium. Based on the sequence of the S gene and the results of cross-neutralization tests, D181 can be considered as a new serotype and the second lineage within genotype II (GII-2). The experimental infection of SPF hens confirmed the ability of D181 to cause a drop in egg production, and immunohistochemistry showed presence of the virus in the trachea, lung and conjunctiva at 5 days post inoculation and in the caecal tonsils at 5 and 8 days post inoculation. In silico analysis of several widely used PCR primers indicated that primer sets adapted for GII might be needed to detect D181, as many general S1 primers might miss it.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology , Serogroup , Animals , Cilia/pathology , Cilia/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Genotype , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/virology
15.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 28(8): 1298-1300, 2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817306

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a unique case of intraocular inflammation and outer retinal changes in a patient with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old woman was seen 12 days after COVID-19 symptoms onset confirmed by positive IgM and IgG serological tests. No anterior chamber cells were seen. Color fundus photograph showed a yellowish lesion within the macular area, and fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence on the topography of the macular lesion in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated hyperreflective pinpoints at the level of posterior vitreous hyaloid, corresponding to vitritis, hyperreflective lesions at the level of inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers, and disruption of the ellipsoid zone. CONCLUSION AND IMPORTANCE: COVID-19 is known to affect the inner retinal layers. The current case not only supports but also adds a vitreal and an outer retinal layer involvement that might also be caused by this infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Eye Diseases/etiology , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Vitreous Body/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Female , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Visual Acuity
16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2204-2224, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811934

ABSTRACT

Management of the global crisis of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic requires detailed appraisal of evidence to support clear, actionable, and consistent public health messaging. The use of cloth masks for general public use is being debated, and is in flux. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and Google for articles reporting the filtration properties of flat cloth or cloth masks. We reviewed the reference lists of relevant articles to identify further articles and identified articles through social and conventional news media. We found 25 articles. Study of protection for the wearer used healthy volunteers, or used a manikin wearing a mask, with airflow to simulate different breathing rates. Studies of protection of the environment, also known as source control, used convenience samples of healthy volunteers. The design and execution of the studies was generally rigorously described. Many descriptions of cloth lacked the detail required for reproducibility; no study provided all the expected details of material, thread count, weave, and weight. Some of the homemade mask designs were reproducible. Successful masks were made of muslin at 100 threads per inch (TPI) in 3 to 4 layers (4-layer muslin or a muslin-flannel-muslin sandwich), tea towels (also known as dish towels), made using 1 layer (2 layers would be expected to be better), and good-quality cotton T-shirts in 2 layers (with a stitched edge to prevent stretching). In flat-cloth experiments, linen tea towels, 600-TPI cotton in 2 layers, and 600-TPI cotton with 90-TPI flannel performed well but 80-TPI cotton in 2 layers did not. We therefore recommend cotton or flannel at least 100 TPI, at least 2 layers. More layers, 3 or 4, will provide increased filtration but there is a trade-off in that more layers increases the resistance to breathing. Although this is not a systematic review, we included all the articles that we identified in an unbiased way. We did not include gray literature or preprints. A plain language summary of these data and recommendations, as well as information on making, wearing and cleaning cloth masks is available at www.clothmasks.ca.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Textiles/standards , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Ophthalmol ; 2020: 4827304, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788242

ABSTRACT

The novel pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has challenged the medical community. While diagnostic and therapeutic efforts have been focused on respiratory complications of the disease, several ocular implications have also emerged. SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been found in tears of the infected patients, and reports suggest that the ocular surface could serve as a portal of entry and a reservoir for viral transmission. Clinically, COVID-19 has been associated with mild conjunctivitis, which can be the first and only symptom of the disease. Subtle retinal changes like hyperreflective lesions in the inner layers on optical coherence tomography (OCT), cotton-wool spots, and microhemorrhages have also been reported. In addition, COVID-19 has been associated with an increased incidence of systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus and Kawasaki disease, which are particularly relevant for ophthalmologists due to their potentially severe ocular manifestations. Several treatment strategies are currently under investigation for COVID-19, but none of them have been proved to be safe and effective to date. Intensive care unit patients, due to risk factors like invasive mechanical ventilation, prone position, and multiresistant bacterial exposure, may develop ocular complications like ocular surface disorders, secondary infections, and less frequently acute ischemic optic neuropathy and intraocular pressure elevation. Among the array of drugs that have shown positive results, the use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine has raised a concern due to their well-known retinal toxic effects. However, the risk of retinal toxicity with short-term high-dose use of antimalarials is still unknown. Ocular side effects have also been reported with other investigational drugs like lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 inhibitors. The aim of this review was to summarize ophthalmological implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection to serve as a reference for eye care and other physicians for prompt diagnosis and management.

18.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 20: 100413, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773622

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel coronavirus which caused the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and infected more than 12 million victims and resulted in over 560,000 deaths in 213 countries around the world. Having no symptoms in the first week of infection increases the rate of spreading the virus. The increasing rate of the number of infected individuals and its high mortality necessitates an immediate development of proper diagnostic methods and effective treatments. SARS-CoV-2, similar to other viruses, needs to interact with the host proteins to reach the host cells and replicate its genome. Consequently, virus-host protein-protein interaction (PPI) identification could be useful in predicting the behavior of the virus and the design of antiviral drugs. Identification of virus-host PPIs using experimental approaches are very time consuming and expensive. Computational approaches could be acceptable alternatives for many preliminary investigations. In this study, we developed a new method to predict SARS-CoV-2-human PPIs. Our model is a three-layer network in which the first layer contains the most similar Alphainfluenzavirus proteins to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The second layer contains protein-protein interactions between Alphainfluenzavirus proteins and human proteins. The last layer reveals protein-protein interactions between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human proteins by using the clustering coefficient network property on the first two layers. To further analyze the results of our prediction network, we investigated human proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2 proteins and reported the most central human proteins in human PPI network. Moreover, differentially expressed genes of previous researches were investigated and PPIs of SARS-CoV-2-human network, the human proteins of which were related to upregulated genes, were reported.

19.
Crit Rev Immunol ; 40(2): 173-184, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663846

ABSTRACT

Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are unconventional, innate-like T lymphocytes with remarkable effector and immunoregulatory functions. They are abundant in the human peripheral blood and also enriched in mucosal layers and in the lungs, SARS-CoV-2's main ports of entry. Once activated, MAIT cells produce inflammatory cytokines and cytolytic effector molecules quickly and copiously. MAIT cells are best known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, they are also activated during viral infections, typically in a cytokine-dependent manner, which may promote antiviral immunity. On the other hand, it is plausible to assume active roles for MAIT cells in infection-provoked cytokine storms and tissue damage. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be asymptomatic, mild, severe, or even fatal, depending on sex, age, the presence of preexisting morbidities, and the individual's immunological competence, or lack thereof, among other factors. Based on the available literature, I propose that MAIT cells regulate the host response to SARS-CoV-2 and constitute attractive targets in the prevention or clinical management of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and some of its complications. Unlike mainstream T cells, MAIT cells are restricted by a monomorphic antigen-presenting molecule called MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). Therefore, MR1 ligands should modify MAIT cell functions relatively uniformly in genetically diverse subjects and may be tested as immunotherapeutic agents or vaccine adjuvants in future studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/metabolism , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Food Secur ; 12(4): 841-851, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646455

ABSTRACT

Disruption to food systems and impacts on livelihoods and diets have been brought into sharp focus by the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to investigate effects of this multi-layered shock on production, sales, prices, incomes and diets for vegetable farmers in India as both producers and consumers of nutrient-dense foods. We undertook a rapid telephone survey with 448 farmers in 4 states, in one of the first studies to document the early impacts of the pandemic and policy responses on farming households. We find that a majority of farmers report negative impacts on production, sales, prices and incomes. Over 80% of farms reported some decline in sales, and over 20% of farms reported devastating declines (sold almost nothing). Price reductions were reported by over 80% of farmers, and reductions by more than half for 50% of farmers. Similarly, farm income reportedly dropped for 90% of farms, and by more than half for 60%. Of surveyed households, 62% reported disruptions to their diets. A majority of farm households reported reduced ability to access the most nutrient-dense foods. Around 80% of households reported ability to protect their staple food consumption, and the largest falls in consumption were in fruit and animal source foods other than dairy, in around half of households. Reported vegetable consumption fell in almost 30% of households, but vegetables were also the only food group where consumption increased for some, in around 15% of households. Our data suggest higher vulnerability of female farmers in terms of both livelihoods and diet, and differential effects on smaller and larger farms, meaning different farms may require different types of support in order to continue to function. Farms reported diverse coping strategies to maintain sales, though often with negative implications for reported incomes. The ability to consume one's own produce may be somewhat protective of diets when other routes to food access fail. The impacts of COVID-19 and subsequent policy responses on both livelihoods and diets in horticultural households risk rolling back the impressive economic and nutrition gains India has seen over the past decade. Food systems, and particularly those making available the most nutrient-dense foods, must be considered in ongoing and future government responses.

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