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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 421-423, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436359

ABSTRACT

Green tea extracts effectively inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Ten-fold serially diluted solutions of catechin mixture reagent from green tea were mixed with the viral culture fluid at a volume ratio of 9:1, respectively, and incubated at room temperature for 5 min. The solution of 10 mg/mL catechin reagent reduced the viral titer by 4.2 log and 1.0 mg/mL solution by one log. Pre-infection treatment of cells with the reagent alone did not affect viral growth. In addition, cells treated with only the reagent were assayed for host cell viability using the WST-8 system, and almost no host cell damage by the treatment was observed. These findings suggested that the direct treatment of virus with the reagent before inoculation decreased the viral activity and that catechins might have the potential to suppress SARSCoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tea/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
2.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100140

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged to be the greatest threat to humanity in the modern world and has claimed nearly 2.2 million lives worldwide. The United States alone accounts for more than one fourth of 100 million COVID-19 cases across the globe. Although vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has begun, its efficacy in preventing a new or repeat COVID-19 infection in immunized individuals is yet to be determined. Calls for repurposing of existing, approved, drugs that target the inflammatory condition in COVID-19 are growing. Our initial gene ontology analysis predicts a similarity between SARS-CoV-2 induced inflammatory and immune dysregulation and the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, many of the drugs related to rheumatoid arthritis have been found to be lifesaving and contribute to lower COVID-19 morbidity. We also performed in silico investigation of binding of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a well-known catechin, and other catechins on viral proteins and identified papain-like protease protein (PLPro) as a binding partner. Catechins bind to the S1 ubiquitin-binding site of PLPro, which might inhibit its protease function and abrogate SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory function on ubiquitin proteasome system and interferon stimulated gene system. In the realms of addressing inflammation and how to effectively target SARS-CoV-2 mediated respiratory distress syndrome, we review in this article the available knowledge on the strategic placement of EGCG in curbing inflammatory signals and how it may serve as a broad spectrum therapeutic in asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tea/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans
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