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2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266400

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 has highly variable disease severity and a bimodal course characterized by acute respiratory viral infection followed by hyperinflammation in a subset of patients with severe disease. This immune dysregulation is characterized by lymphocytopenia, elevated levels of plasma cytokines and proliferative and exhausted T cells, among other dysfunctional cell types. Immunocompromised persons often fare worse in the context of acute respiratory infections, but preliminary data suggest this may not hold true for COVID-19. In this review, we explore the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on mortality in four populations with distinct forms of immunocompromise: (1) persons with hematological malignancies (HM) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients; (2) solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs); (3) persons with rheumatological diseases; and (4) persons living with HIV (PLWH). For each population, key immunological defects are described and how these relate to the immune dysregulation in COVID-19. Next, outcomes including mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection are described for each population, giving comparisons to the general population of age-matched and comorbidity-matched controls. In these four populations, iatrogenic or disease-related immunosuppression is not clearly associated with poor prognosis in HM, HCT, SOTR, rheumatological diseases, or HIV. However, certain individual immunosuppressants or disease states may be associated with harmful or beneficial effects, including harm from severe CD4 lymphocytopenia in PLWH and possible benefit to the calcineurin inhibitor ciclosporin in SOTRs, or tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in persons with rheumatic diseases. Lastly, insights gained from clinical and translational studies are explored as to the relevance for repurposing of immunosuppressive host-directed therapies for the treatment of hyperinflammation in COVID-19 in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Drug Repositioning/methods , Drug Repositioning/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Pandemics , Prognosis , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data
3.
Virol J ; 18(1): 123, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The international SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in an urgent need to identify new anti-viral drugs for treatment of COVID-19. The initial step to identifying potential candidates usually involves in vitro screening that includes standard cytotoxicity controls. Under-appreciated is that viable, but stressed or otherwise compromised cells, can also have a reduced capacity to replicate virus. A refinement proposed herein for in vitro drug screening thus includes a simple growth assay to identify drug concentrations that cause cellular stress or "cytomorbidity", as distinct from cytotoxicity or loss of viability. METHODS: A simple rapid bioassay is presented for antiviral drug screening using Vero E6 cells and inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 induced cytopathic effects (CPE) measured using crystal violet staining. We use high cell density for cytotoxicity assays, and low cell density for cytomorbidity assays. RESULTS: The assay clearly illustrated the anti-viral activity of remdesivir, a drug known to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication. In contrast, nitazoxanide, oleuropein, cyclosporine A and ribavirin all showed no ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 CPE. Hydroxychloroquine, cyclohexamide, didemnin B, γ-mangostin and linoleic acid were all able to inhibit viral CPE at concentrations that did not induce cytotoxicity. However, these drugs inhibited CPE at concentrations that induced cytomorbidity, indicating non-specific anti-viral activity. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the methodology for a simple in vitro drug screening assay that identifies potential anti-viral drugs via their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2-induced CPE. The additional growth assay illustrated how several drugs display anti-viral activity at concentrations that induce cytomorbidity. For instance, hydroxychloroquine showed anti-viral activity at concentrations that slow cell growth, arguing that its purported in vitro anti-viral activity arises from non-specific impairment of cellular activities. The cytomorbidity assay can therefore rapidly exclude potential false positives.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Assay , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(6): 619-627, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191660

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the medical community has faced major challenges that affect disease management in all areas. Dermatologists and immunologists have to choose appropriate treatment strategy taking into consideration the risk of infection and possible exacerbation of the course of the disease in patients with confirmed infection. Management of atopic dermatitis (AD) in moderate to severe cases is based on systemic therapy such as cyclosporine, azathioprine, methotrexate and dupilumab.Areas covered: A literature search in PubMed database was performed until 6 March 2021. In this review, the authors discuss non-biologic and biologic systemic medications for AD and provide an overview of therapeutic recommendations during COVID-19 pandemic.Expert opinion: In case of an active COVID-19 infection, conventional systemic treatment and biological treatment needs to be stopped until clinical recovery. Noninfected patients with systemic treatment of AD should continue their therapy via self-application. The authors can conclude that understanding of dupilumab therapy is better recognized in context AD treatment during COVID-19 pandemic in comparison to cyclosporine, azathioprine and methotrexate. However, this systemic immunosuppressants still require further investigation and literature complementation.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Biological Products/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Cell Rep ; 35(1): 108959, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163484

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for antivirals to treat the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To identify new candidates, we screen a repurposing library of ∼3,000 drugs. Screening in Vero cells finds few antivirals, while screening in human Huh7.5 cells validates 23 diverse antiviral drugs. Extending our studies to lung epithelial cells, we find that there are major differences in drug sensitivity and entry pathways used by SARS-CoV-2 in these cells. Entry in lung epithelial Calu-3 cells is pH independent and requires TMPRSS2, while entry in Vero and Huh7.5 cells requires low pH and triggering by acid-dependent endosomal proteases. Moreover, we find nine drugs are antiviral in respiratory cells, seven of which have been used in humans, and three are US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, including cyclosporine. We find that the antiviral activity of cyclosporine is targeting Cyclophilin rather than calcineurin, revealing essential host targets that have the potential for rapid clinical implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vero Cells
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2191-2194, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153166

ABSTRACT

December 2019 saw the emergence of a new epidemic of pneumonia of varying severity, called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a newly identified coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). No therapeutic option is available to treat this infection that has already killed > 310 000 people worldwide. This Viewpoint summarizes the strong scientific arguments supporting the use of alisporivir, a nonimmunosuppressive analogue of cyclosporine A with potent cyclophilin inhibition properties that has reached phase 3 clinical development, for the treatment of COVID-19. They include the strong cyclophilin dependency of the life cycle of many coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and preclinical data showing strong antiviral and cytoprotective properties of alisporivir in various models of coronavirus infection, including SARS-CoV-2. Alisporivir should be tested without delay on both virological and clinical endpoints in patients with or at risk of severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclophilins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Rats
7.
J Intern Med ; 289(6): 906-920, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic causes high global morbidity and mortality and better medical treatments to reduce mortality are needed. OBJECTIVE: To determine the added benefit of cyclosporine A (CsA), to low-dose steroid treatment, in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Open-label, non randomized pilot study of patients with confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized from April to May 2020 at a single centre in Puebla, Mexico. Patients were assigned to receive either steroids or CsA plus steroids. Pneumonia severity was assessed by clinical, laboratory, and lung tomography. The death rate was evaluated at 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 209 adult patients were studied, 105 received CsA plus steroids (age 55.3 ± 13.3; 69% men), and 104 steroids alone (age 54.06 ± 13.8; 61% men). All patients received clarithromycin, enoxaparin and methylprednisolone or prednisone up to 10 days. Patient's death was associated with hypertension (RR = 3.5) and diabetes (RR = 2.3). Mortality was 22 and 35% for CsA and control groups (P = 0.02), respectively, for all patients, and 24 and 48.5% for patients with moderate to severe disease (P = 0.001). Higher cumulative clinical improvement was seen for the CsA group (Nelson Aalen curve, P = 0.001, log-rank test) in moderate to severe patients. The Cox proportional hazard analysis showed the highest HR improvement value of 2.15 (1.39-3.34, 95%CI, P = 0.0005) for CsA treatment in moderate to severe patients, and HR = 1.95 (1.35-2.83, 95%CI, P = 0.0003) for all patients. CONCLUSION: CsA used as an adjuvant to steroid treatment for COVID-19 patients showed to improve outcomes and reduce mortality, mainly in those with moderate to severe disease. Further investigation through controlled clinical trials is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
8.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e13934, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066660

ABSTRACT

Cyclosporine A (CYA) belongs to calcineurin inhibitor family, which has the ability to selectively suppress T cells. Owing to its immune-modulatory effects, it had been in use for graft vs host diseases and organ transplant rejection for many years, but in dermatology, it was first approved for use in 1997 in the treatment of psoriasis. Other off-label indications for skin diseases include atopic dermatitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria, lichen planus, pyoderma gangrenosum, alopecia areata, granuloma annulare, and several others. A thorough search of Medline-PubMed database, Google Scholar, and Uptodate was performed for evidence-based and peer-reviewed information. We have summarized the use of cyclosporine in dermatological diseases with respect to its, dosage, safety considerations, and monitoring guidelines. Furthermore, brief overview of its pharmacology, drug interactions, use in pregnancy, and lactation has been discussed. Despite of its common adverse effects like nephrotoxicity and hypertension, cyclosporine offers good safety profile when used in skin diseases. Decision to start cyclosporine therapy is individualized and it should be based on analysis of risk vs benefit. Nevertheless, CYA is preferred over other immunosuppressants in dermatology because of early therapeutic response and less myelosupression. This article offers concise but detailed summary of this beneficial immune-suppressive agent in skin diseases.


Subject(s)
Dermatology , Psoriasis , Skin Diseases , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Psoriasis/diagnosis , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Skin Diseases/drug therapy
9.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(4): 271-281, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of evidence to support safe and effective management of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to identify alterations to established conventional evidence-based management of acute severe ulcerative colitis during the early COVID-19 pandemic, the effect on outcomes, and any associations with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: The PROTECT-ASUC study was a multicentre, observational, case-control study in 60 acute secondary care hospitals throughout the UK. We included adults (≥18 years) with either ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease unclassified, who presented with acute severe ulcerative colitis and fulfilled the Truelove and Witts criteria. Cases and controls were identified as either admitted or managed in emergency ambulatory care settings between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic period cohort), or between Jan 1, 2019, and June 30, 2019 (historical control cohort), respectively. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or colectomy. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04411784. FINDINGS: We included 782 patients (398 in the pandemic period cohort and 384 in the historical control cohort) who met the Truelove and Witts criteria for acute severe ulcerative colitis. The proportion of patients receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or surgery was higher during the pandemic period than in the historical period (217 [55%] of 393 patients vs 159 [42%] of 380 patients; p=0·00024) and the time to rescue therapy was shorter in the pandemic cohort than in the historical cohort (p=0·0026). This difference was driven by a greater use of rescue and primary induction therapies with biologicals, ciclosporin, or tofacitinib in the COVID-19 pandemic period cohort than in the historical control period cohort (177 [46%] of 387 patients in the COVID-19 cohort vs 134 [36%] of 373 patients in the historical cohort; p=0·0064). During the pandemic, more patients received ambulatory (outpatient) intravenous steroids (51 [13%] of 385 patients vs 19 [5%] of 360 patients; p=0·00023). Fewer patients received thiopurines (29 [7%] of 398 patients vs 46 [12%] of 384; p=0·029) and 5-aminosalicylic acids (67 [17%] of 398 patients vs 98 [26%] of 384; p=0·0037) during the pandemic than in the historical control period. Colectomy rates were similar between the pandemic and historical control groups (64 [16%] of 389 vs 50 [13%] of 375; p=0·26); however, laparoscopic surgery was less frequently performed during the pandemic period (34 [53%] of 64] vs 38 [76%] of 50; p=0·018). Five (2%) of 253 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during hospital treatment. Two (2%) of 103 patients re-tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the 3-month follow-up were positive 5 days and 12 days, respectively, after discharge from index admission. Both recovered without serious outcomes. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 pandemic altered practice patterns of gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons in the management of acute severe ulcerative colitis but was associated with similar outcomes to a historical cohort. Despite continued use of high-dose corticosteroids and biologicals, the incidence of COVID-19 within 3 months was low and not associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colitis, Ulcerative/surgery , Colonoscopy , Acute Disease , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2020(1): 319-327, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043090

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids constitute a first-line therapy for adults and children suffering from nonmalignant immune-mediated hematologic diseases. However, high disease relapse rates during the tapering period or upon drug discontinuation result in long-term corticosteroid use that increases the risk of infection. This same concept applies to other immunosuppressive agents, such as antimetabolites, calcineurin inhibitors, and cyclophosphamide. Corticosteroids are associated with a length-of-treatment and dose-dependent risk for infection. Screening and antimicrobial prophylaxis against tuberculosis, hepatitis B, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) might be indicated in patients who are scheduled to be on high-dose corticosteroids for >4 weeks (>30 mg of prednisone-equivalent dose [PEQ]) or in patients chronically treated (≥8 weeks of continuous or intermittent corticosteroid use) with moderate doses (≥15 to <30 mg PEQ). Antimetabolites (azathioprine, mycophenolate) increase the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML); however, other opportunistic infections and viral reactivation have also been reported. In case of new onset of neurological symptoms, PML needs to be considered, and an urgent neurology consultation should be obtained. Cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression can lead to serious infections related to neutropenia. PJP prophylaxis should be considered with combination therapy of cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids until a PEQ dose ≤ 5 mg/d is reached. Data on infectious risk when cyclosporine is used in patients with nonmalignant hematologic diseases are lacking. Discontinuation of any immunosuppressive agent during an episode of infection is recommended. In all patients, adherence to an age-based immunization schedule is appropriate.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antimetabolites/adverse effects , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Infections/chemically induced , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Antimetabolites/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Female , Hematologic Diseases/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster/chemically induced , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/prevention & control , Strongyloidiasis/chemically induced , Strongyloidiasis/prevention & control
11.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(1): 64-67, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826850

ABSTRACT

An entire, female, mixed-breed cat of unknown age was presented with a 6-week history of lethargy, anorexia and vomiting. There was an increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood, including neutrophils and eosinophils; moderate anaemia; ascites; and possible mesenteric peritonitis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed firm, multifocal small nodules in the mesentery. As the nodules were surgically unresectable, they were biopsied. Histologically, the nodules were composed of thin trabeculae of dense collagen fibres mixed with plump fibroblasts and numerous eosinophils, consistent with feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia. Bacteria were not detected on histological examination of the nodules and cytology of the ascites. Remission of disease occurred following treatment with prednisolone and ciclosporin A for 22 days and antibiotics for 40 days. After remission, ciclosporin A was administered for 236 days and then discontinued. Eosinophilia also resolved after treatment with ciclosporin A. The cat is still alive and in good condition on day 689. This report describes what may be an atypical case of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia, lacking involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, and was apparently cured by treatment that involved ciclosporin A.


Subject(s)
Eosinophilia/veterinary , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Biopsy/veterinary , Cat Diseases , Cats , Female , Mesentery
12.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679599

ABSTRACT

This review updates current knowledge regarding the risk of viral infections, including COVID-19, in patients treated with cyclosporine. We also shortly refer to bacterial infections and parasitic infestations in patients treated with cyclosporin. Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive drug, which is widely used in medicine, including in the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases in dermatology, rheumatology, ophthalmology and nephrology, and in organ transplantation. A usual concern associated with immunosuppressive treatment is the potential risk of infections. Interestingly, several data indicate a relatively low risk of infections, especially viral infections, in patients receiving cyclosporine. It was shown that cyclosporine exerts an inhibitory effect on the replication of some viruses, or may have a potentially beneficial effect on the disease course in infections. These include hepatitis C, influenza virus, rotavirus, human immunodeficiency virus and coronavirus infections. Available data indicate that cyclosporine may have a beneficial effect on COVID-19, which is caused by the coronavirus SARS-COV2.

13.
J Dermatolog Treat ; 33(2): 1111-1113, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659162

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2, became pandemic very quickly. Management of severe dermatologic disorders in patients who require systemic immunosuppressive treatment is a major concern in COVID-19 pandemic era. Here, we report a 45-year-old homeless addicted male with second flare of psoriatic erythroderma and positive PCR test for COVID 19. His first attack occurred two months earlier, when he was screened for SARS-CoV-2 before admission which all evaluations showed nagative results. The patient was treated and relatively controlled with cyclosporine and therefore he was discharged. During this interval, he not only discontinued his medication, but also became SARS-CoV-2 positive. It seems that both factors participated in flare of his erythroderma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Exfoliative , COVID-19/complications , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Dermatitis, Exfoliative/drug therapy , Dermatitis, Exfoliative/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Drug Discov ; 7: 100056, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651663

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of pneumonia caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in December 2019, and spread rapidly throughout the world. There have been other severe coronavirus outbreaks worldwide, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). Because the genetic diversity of coronaviruses renders the design of vaccines complicated, broad spectrum-anti-coronavirus drugs have become a critical approach to control the coronavirus epidemic. Cyclophilin A is an important protein needed for coronavirus replication, and its inhibitor cyclosporine A has the ability to suppress coronavirus on a broad spectrum. CD147-S protein was found to be one route by which SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells, while CD147 was found to play a functional role in facilitating the infection of host cells by SARS-CoV. The CyPA/CD147 interaction may play a critical role in the ability of the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter the host cells. However, cyclosporine A has immunosuppressive effects, so the conditions for its use as an antiviral drug are limited. As a result, cyclosporine A analogues without immunosuppressive side effects have attracted lots of interest. This review primarily discusses the drug development prospects of cyclophilin A as a therapeutic target for the treatment of coronavirus infection, especially coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and non-immunosuppressive cyclosporine analogues.

15.
Eur Respir J ; 56(5)2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648811

ABSTRACT

While severe coronavirus infections, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), cause lung injury with high mortality rates, protective treatment strategies are not approved for clinical use.We elucidated the molecular mechanisms by which the cyclophilin inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) and alisporivir (ALV) restrict MERS-CoV to validate their suitability as readily available therapy in MERS-CoV infection.Calu-3 cells and primary human alveolar epithelial cells (hAECs) were infected with MERS-CoV and treated with CsA or ALV or inhibitors targeting cyclophilin inhibitor-regulated molecules including calcineurin, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATs) or mitogen-activated protein kinases. Novel CsA-induced pathways were identified by RNA sequencing and manipulated by gene knockdown or neutralising antibodies. Viral replication was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR and 50% tissue culture infective dose. Data were validated in a murine MERS-CoV infection model.Both CsA and ALV reduced MERS-CoV titres and viral RNA replication in Calu-3 cells and hAECs, improving epithelial integrity. While neither calcineurin nor NFAT inhibition reduced MERS-CoV propagation, blockade of c-Jun N-terminal kinase diminished infectious viral particle release but not RNA accumulation. Importantly, CsA induced interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), a pronounced type III interferon (IFNλ) response and expression of antiviral genes. Downregulation of IRF1 or IFNλ increased MERS-CoV propagation in the presence of CsA. Importantly, oral application of CsA reduced MERS-CoV replication in vivo, correlating with elevated lung IFNλ levels and improved outcome.We provide evidence that cyclophilin inhibitors efficiently decrease MERS-CoV replication in vitro and in vivo via upregulation of inflammatory antiviral cell responses, in particular IFNλ. CsA might therefore represent a promising candidate for treating MERS-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cyclophilins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Interferons/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Culture Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/drug effects , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , Interferons/drug effects , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
16.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3173-3181, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594980

ABSTRACT

Minimization of immunosuppression and administration of antiretrovirals have been recommended for kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, outcomes remain poor. Given the likely benefit of cyclosporine because of its antiviral and immunomodulatory effect, we have been using it as a strategy in KTRs diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We studied 29 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) who were admitted to our institution with COVID-19 between March 15and April, 24, 2020. Mycophenolate and/or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) were discontinued in all patients. Two therapeutic strategies were compared: Group 1, minimization of calcineurin inhibitors (N = 6); and Group 2, cyclosporine-based therapy (N = 23), with 15 patients switched from tacrolimus. Hydroxychloroquine was considered in both strategies but antivirals in none. Six patients died after respiratory distress (20.6%). Five required mechanical ventilation (17.2%), and 3 could be weaned. Nineteen patients had an uneventful recovery (65.5%). In group 1, 3 of 6 patients died (50%) and 1 of 6 required invasive mechanical ventilation (16.7%). In group 2, 3 of 23 patients died (12.5%). Renal function did not deteriorate and signs of rejection were not observed in any patient on the second treatment regime. In conclusion, immunosuppressant treatment based on cyclosporine could be safe and effective for KTRs diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Transplant Recipients
19.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1864-1868, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46462

ABSTRACT

An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in Wuhan, China, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries. The clinical course of patients remains to be fully characterized, clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure, and no pharmacological therapies of proven efficacy yet exist. We report a case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a renal transplant recipient with excellent outcome. This case states the importance of close monitoring of the concentration of cyclosporine in patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir; the routine treatment of corticosteroid can be continued. This is a rare report of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a renal transplant recipient. Further data are needed to achieve better understanding of the impact of immunosuppressive therapy on the clinical presentation, severity, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infections in solid organ transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cyclosporine/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Transplant Recipients , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Living Donors , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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