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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 147(4): 947-958, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The accepted "one-size-fits-all" dose strategy for prophylactic enoxaparin may not optimize the medication's risks and benefits after surgical procedures. The authors hypothesized that weight-based administration might improve the pharmacokinetics of prophylactic enoxaparin when compared to fixed-dose administration. METHODS: The FIxed or Variable Enoxaparin (FIVE) trial was a randomized, double-blind trial that compared the pharmacokinetic and clinical outcomes of patients assigned randomly to postoperative venous thromboembolism prophylaxis using enoxaparin 40 mg twice daily or enoxaparin 0.5 mg/kg twice daily. Patients were randomized after surgery and received the first enoxaparin dose at 8 hours after surgery. Primary hypotheses were (1) weight-based administration is noninferior to a fixed dose for avoiding underanticoagulation (anti-factor Xa <0.2 IU/ml) and (2) weight-based administration is superior to fixed-dose administration for avoiding overanticoagulation (anti-factor Xa >0.4 IU/ml). Secondary endpoints were 90-day venous thromboembolism and bleeding. RESULTS: In total, 295 patients were randomized, with 151 assigned to fixed-dose and 144 to weight-based administration of enoxaparin. For avoidance of under anticoagulation, weight-based administration had a greater effectiveness (79.9 percent versus 76.6 percent); the 3.3 percent (95 percent CI, -7.5 to 12.5 percent) greater effectiveness achieved statistically significant noninferiority relative to the a priori specified -12 percent noninferiority margin (p = 0.004). For avoidance of overanticoagulation, weight-based enoxaparin administration was superior to fixed-dose administration (90.6 percent versus 82.2 percent); the 8.4 percent (95 percent CI, 0.1 to 16.6 percent) greater effectiveness showed significant safety superiority (p = 0.046). Ninety-day venous thromboembolism and major bleeding were not different between fixed-dose and weight-based cohorts (0.66 percent versus 0.69 percent, p = 0.98; 3.3 percent versus 4.2 percent, p = 0.72, respectively). CONCLUSION: Weight-based administration showed superior pharmacokinetics for avoidance of underanticoagulation and overanticoagulation in postoperative patients receiving prophylactic enoxaparin. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, I.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Period
2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 33: 100774, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathies are a major class among COVID-19 associated complications. Although anticoagulants such as unfractionated Heparin and Enoxaparin are both being used for therapeutic mitigation of COVID associated coagulopathy (CAC), differences in their clinical outcomes remain to be investigated. METHODS: We analyzed records of 1,113 patients in the Mayo Clinic Electronic Health Record (EHR) database who were admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 between April 4, 2020 and August 31, 2020, including 19 different Mayo Clinic sites in Arizona, Florida, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Among this patient population, we compared cohorts of patients who received different types of anticoagulants, including 441 patients who received unfractionated Heparin and 166 patients who received Enoxaparin. Clinical outcomes at 28 days were compared, and propensity score matching was used to control for potential confounding variables including: demographics, comorbidities, ICU status, chronic kidney disease stage, and oxygenation status. Patients with a history of acute kidney injury and patients who received multiple types of anticoagulants were excluded from the study. FINDINGS: We find that COVID-19 patients administered unfractionated Heparin but not Enoxaparin have higher rates of 28-day mortality (risk ratio: 4.3; 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.].: [1.8, 10.2]; p-value: 8.5e-4, Benjamini Hochberg [BH] adjusted p-value: 2.1e-3), after controlling for potential confounding factors. INTERPRETATION: This study emphasizes the need for mechanistically investigating differential modulation of the COVID-associated coagulation cascades by Enoxaparin versus unfractionated Heparin. FUNDING: This work was supported by Nference, inc.

3.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4303-4318, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118166

ABSTRACT

Here we analyze hospitalized andintensive care unit coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient outcomes from the international VIRUS registry (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04323787). We find that COVID-19 patients administered unfractionated heparin but not enoxaparin have a higher mortality-rate (390 of 1012 = 39%) compared to patients administered enoxaparin but not unfractionated heparin (270 of 1939 = 14%), presenting a risk ratio of 2.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: [2.42, 3.16]; p = 4.45e-52). This difference persists even after balancing on a number of covariates including demographics, comorbidities, admission diagnoses, and method of oxygenation, with an increased mortality rate on discharge from the hospital of 37% (268 of 733) for unfractionated heparin versus 22% (154 of 711) for enoxaparin, presenting a risk ratio of 1.69 (95% CI: [1.42, 2.00]; p = 1.5e-8). In these balanced cohorts, a number of complications occurred at an elevated rate for patients administered unfractionated heparin compared to patients administered enoxaparin, including acute kidney injury, acute cardiac injury, septic shock, and anemia. Furthermore, a higher percentage of Black/African American COVID patients (414 of 1294 [32%]) were noted to receive unfractionated heparin compared to White/Caucasian COVID patients (671 of 2644 [25%]), risk ratio 1.26 (95% CI: [1.14, 1.40]; p = 7.5e-5). After balancing upon available clinical covariates, this difference in anticoagulant use remained statistically significant (311 of 1047 [30%] for Black/African American vs. 263 of 1047 [25%] for White/Caucasian, p = .02, risk ratio 1.18; 95% CI: [1.03, 1.36]). While retrospective studies cannot suggest any causality, these findings motivate the need for follow-up prospective research into the observed racial disparity in anticoagulant use and outcomes for severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Healthcare Disparities , Heparin/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy
4.
BMJ ; 372: n311, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 March to 31 July 2020 with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and without a history of anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, initiating therapeutic anticoagulation (a proxy for clinical deterioration, including thromboembolic events), and bleeding that required transfusion. RESULTS: Of 4297 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19, 3627 (84.4%) received prophylactic anticoagulation within 24 hours of admission. More than 99% (n=3600) of treated patients received subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin. 622 deaths occurred within 30 days of hospital admission, 513 among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation. Most deaths (510/622, 82%) occurred during hospital stay. Using inverse probability of treatment weighted analyses, the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.1% to 15.5%) among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation and 18.7% (15.1% to 22.9%) among those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive prophylactic anticoagulation, those who did had a 27% decreased risk for 30 day mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.81). Similar associations were found for inpatient mortality and initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation. Receipt of prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with increased risk of bleeding that required transfusion (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.71 to 1.05). Quantitative bias analysis showed that results were robust to unmeasured confounding (e-value lower 95% confidence interval 1.77 for 30 day mortality). Results persisted in several sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation among patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 was associated with a decreased risk of 30 day mortality and no increased risk of serious bleeding events. These findings provide strong real world evidence to support guidelines recommending the use of prophylactic anticoagulation as initial treatment for patients with covid-19 on hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/virology , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
5.
J Intern Med ; 289(6): 906-920, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic causes high global morbidity and mortality and better medical treatments to reduce mortality are needed. OBJECTIVE: To determine the added benefit of cyclosporine A (CsA), to low-dose steroid treatment, in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Open-label, non randomized pilot study of patients with confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized from April to May 2020 at a single centre in Puebla, Mexico. Patients were assigned to receive either steroids or CsA plus steroids. Pneumonia severity was assessed by clinical, laboratory, and lung tomography. The death rate was evaluated at 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 209 adult patients were studied, 105 received CsA plus steroids (age 55.3 ± 13.3; 69% men), and 104 steroids alone (age 54.06 ± 13.8; 61% men). All patients received clarithromycin, enoxaparin and methylprednisolone or prednisone up to 10 days. Patient's death was associated with hypertension (RR = 3.5) and diabetes (RR = 2.3). Mortality was 22 and 35% for CsA and control groups (P = 0.02), respectively, for all patients, and 24 and 48.5% for patients with moderate to severe disease (P = 0.001). Higher cumulative clinical improvement was seen for the CsA group (Nelson Aalen curve, P = 0.001, log-rank test) in moderate to severe patients. The Cox proportional hazard analysis showed the highest HR improvement value of 2.15 (1.39-3.34, 95%CI, P = 0.0005) for CsA treatment in moderate to severe patients, and HR = 1.95 (1.35-2.83, 95%CI, P = 0.0003) for all patients. CONCLUSION: CsA used as an adjuvant to steroid treatment for COVID-19 patients showed to improve outcomes and reduce mortality, mainly in those with moderate to severe disease. Further investigation through controlled clinical trials is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
6.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 10(1): 6, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with coagulation abnormalities which are indicators of higher mortality especially in severe cases. METHODS: We studied patients with proven COVID-19 disease in the intensive care unit of Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China from 30 to 2019 to 31 March 2020. RESULTS: Of 180 patients, 89 (49.44 %) had died, 85 (47.22 %) had been discharged alive, and 6 (3.33 %) were still hospitalised by the end of data collection. A D-dimer concentration of > 0.5 mg/L on admission was significantly associated with 30 day mortality, and a D-dimer concentration of > 5 mg/L was found in a much higher proportion of non-survivors than survivors. Sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) scoring systems were dichotomised as < 4 or ≥ 4 and < 5 or ≥ 5, respectively, and the mortality rate was significantly different between the two stratifications in both scoring systems. Enoxaparin was administered to 68 (37.78 %) patients for thromboembolic prophylaxis, and stratification by the D-dimer concentration and DIC score confirmed lower mortality in patients who received enoxaparin when the D-dimer concentration was > 2 than < 2 mg/L or DIC score was ≥ 5 than < 5. A low platelet count and low serum calcium concentration were also related to mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A D-dimer concentration of > 0.5 mg/L on admission is a risk factor for severe disease. A SIC score of > 4 and DIC score of > 5 may be used to predict mortality. Thromboembolic prophylaxis can reduce mortality only in patients with a D-dimer concentration of > 2 mg/L or DIC score of ≥ 5.

7.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(3): 1049-1054, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014014

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19 patients receiving enoxaparin and antiplatelets therapy, aggregometry and thromboelastography might be considered an adjunctive tool to identify the time to perform procedures at risk of bleeding, such as tracheostomy.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 569567, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983751

ABSTRACT

Importance: The use of anticoagulant therapy with heparins decreased mortality in hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Even if enoxaparin and fondaparinux have the same clinical indication for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention; to date, there are no data about the use of fondaparinux in terms of safety, effectiveness, and impact on clinical prognosis among COVID-19 patients. Objective: To evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and clinical impact of VTE prophylaxis with fondaparinux and enoxaparin among COVID-19 patients hospitalized in internal medicine units. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective multicenter observation study, including consecutive symptomatic patients with laboratory-proven COVID-19 admitted to internal medicine units of five Italian hospitals from 15th February to 15th March 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary safety outcome was the composite of major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding; the primary effectiveness outcome was the composite of all events classified as pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis. The secondary effectiveness outcome included acute respiratory distress syndrome and all-cause death. Results: Among 120 COVID-19 patients enrolled in the study, 74 were taking enoxaparin (4,000 or 6,000 units/day) and 46 fondaparinux (2.5 units/day). No statistically significant difference in demographic and laboratory and clinical characteristics between the two groups has been shown. During a median follow-up of 32 (interquartile range: 14-51) days, the cumulative incidence rates of VTE and bleeding events on pharmacological thromboprophylaxis with heparins were 19% and 8%, respectively. The incidence of both VTE (6.5 vs. 13.5%; P = 0.36) and bleeding events (6.5 vs. 4.1%; P = 0.68) did not show a significant difference between COVID-19 patients on fondaparinux compared with those on enoxaparin therapy. The regression model for the risk of outcome events according to different VTE prophylaxis drugs did not show significant differences. Conclusions and Relevance: Although these results need confirmation by prospective studies including a larger population, our study provides preliminary evidence of a safe and efficacy use of fondaparinux for VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

9.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100562, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with hypercoagulability caused by direct invasion of endothelial cells and\or proinflammatory cytokine release. Thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin is recommended by current guidelines, but evidence is still weak. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin on hospital mortality in patients admitted for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The effects of enoxaparin on intensive care admission and hospital length-of-stay were evaluated as secondary outcomes. METHODS: Observational cohort study, with data collected from patients admitted to Poliambulanza Foundation with positive real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 from 20th February to 10th May 2020. Multivariate logistic regression with overlap weight propensity score was used to model hospital mortality and intensive care admission, hospital length-of-stay was analyzed with a multivariate Poisson regression. Seven hundred and ninety nine (57%) patients who received enoxaparin at least once during the hospitalization were included in the enoxaparin cohort, 604 (43%) patients who did not were included in the control cohort. FINDINGS: At the adjusted analysis enoxaparin was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (Odds Ratio 0·53, 95% C.I. 0·40-0·70) compared with no enoxaparin treatment. Hospital length-of-stay was longer for patients treated with enoxaparin (Incidence Rate Ratios 1·45, 95% C.I. 1·36-1·54). Enoxaparin treatment was associated with reduced risk of intensive care admission at the adjusted analysis (Odds Ratio 0·48, 95% C.I. 0·32-0·69). INTERPRETATION: This study shows that treatment with enoxaparin during hospital stay is associated with a lower death rate and, while results from randomized clinical trials are still pending, this study supports the use of thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin in all patients admitted for COVID-19. Moreover, when enoxaparin is used on the wards, it reduces the risk of Intensive Care Unit admission.

10.
Trials ; 21(1): 770, 2020 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755207

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The OVID study will demonstrate whether prophylactic-dose enoxaparin improves survival and reduces hospitalizations in symptomatic ambulatory patients aged 50 or older diagnosed with COVID-19, a novel viral disease characterized by severe systemic, pulmonary, and vessel inflammation and coagulation activation. TRIAL DESIGN: The OVID study is conducted as a multicentre open-label superiority randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion Criteria 1. Signed patient informed consent after being fully informed about the study's background. 2. Patients aged 50 years or older with a positive test for SARS-CoV2 in the past 5 days and eligible for ambulatory treatment. 3. Presence of respiratory symptoms (i.e. cough, sore throat, or shortness of breath) or body temperature >37.5° C. 4. Ability of the patient to travel to the study centre by private transportation, performed either by an accompanying person from the same household or by the patient themselves 5. Ability to comply with standard hygiene requirements at the time of in-hospital visit, including a face mask and hand disinfectant. 6. Ability to walk from car to study centre or reach it by wheelchair transport with the help of an accompanying person from the same household also complying with standard hygiene requirements. 7. Ability to self-administer prefilled enoxaparin injections after instructions received at the study centre or availability of a person living with the patient to administer enoxaparin. Exclusion Criteria 1. Any acute or chronic condition posing an indication for anticoagulant treatment, e.g. atrial fibrillation, prior venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute confirmed symptomatic VTE, acute coronary syndrome. 2. Anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis deemed necessary in view of the patient's history, comorbidity or predisposing strong risk factors for thrombosis: a. Any of the following events occurring in the prior 30 days: fracture of lower limb, hospitalization for heart failure, hip/knee replacement, major trauma, spinal cord injury, stroke, b. previous VTE, c. histologically confirmed malignancy, which was diagnosed or treated (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) in the past 6 months, or recurrent, or metastatic, or inoperable. 3. Any clinically relevant bleeding (defined as bleeding requiring hospitalization, transfusion, surgical intervention, invasive procedures, occurring in a critical anatomical site, or causing disability) within 30 days prior to randomization or sign of acute bleeding. 4. Intracerebral bleeding at any time in the past or signs/symptoms consistent with acute intracranial haemorrhage. 5. Haemoglobin <8 g/dL and platelet count <50 x 109 cells/L confirmed by recent laboratory test (<90 days). 6. Subjects with any known coagulopathy or bleeding diathesis, including known significant liver disease associated with coagulopathy. 7. Severe renal insufficiency (baseline creatinine clearance <30 mL/min calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula) confirmed by recent laboratory test (<90 days). 8. Contraindications to enoxaparin therapy, including prior heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and known hypersensitivity. 9. Current use of dual antiplatelet therapy. 10. Participation in other interventional studies over the past 30 days. 11. Non-compliance or inability to adhere to treatment or lack of a family environment or support system for home treatment. 12. Cognitive impairment and/or inability to understand information provided in the study information. Patient enrolment will take place at seven Swiss centres, including five university hospitals and two large cantonal hospitals. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomized to the intervention group will receive subcutaneous enoxaparin at the recommended dose of 4,000 IU anti-Xa activity (40 mg/0.4 ml) once daily for 14 days. Patients randomized to the comparator group will receive no anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome: a composite of any hospitalization or all-cause death occurring within 30 days of randomization. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: (i) a composite of cardiovascular events, including deep vein thrombosis (including catheter-associated), pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction/myocarditis, arterial ischemia including mesenteric and extremities, acute splanchnic vein thrombosis, or ischemic stroke within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of randomization; (ii) each component of the primary efficacy outcome, within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of randomization; (iii) net clinical benefit (accounting for the primary efficacy outcome, composite cardiovascular events, and major bleeding), within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of enrolment; (iv) primary efficacy outcome, within 14 days, and 90 days of enrolment; (v) disseminated intravascular coagulation (ISTH criteria, in-hospital diagnosis) within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of enrolment. RANDOMISATION: Patients will undergo block stratified randomization (by age: 50-70 vs. >70 years; and by study centre) with a randomization ratio of 1:1 with block sizes varying between 4 and 8. Randomization will be performed after the signature of the informed consent for participation and the verification of the eligibility criteria using the electronic data capture software (REDCAP, Vanderbilt University, v9.1.24). BLINDING (MASKING): In this open-label study, no blinding procedures will be used. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size calculation is based on the parameters α = 0.05 (2-sided), power: 1-ß = 0.8, event rate in experimental group, pexp = 0.09 and event rate in control group, pcon = 0.15. The resulting total sample size is 920. To account for potential dropouts, the total sample size was fixed to 1000 with 500 patients in the intervention group and 500 in the control group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.0, 14 April 2020. Protocol version 3.0, 18 May 2020 Recruiting start date: June 2020. Last Patient Last Visit: March 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04400799 First Posted: May 26, 2020 Last Update Posted: July 16, 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Equivalence Trials as Topic , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1124, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heparin administration in COVID-19 patients is recommended by expert consensus, although evidence about dosage, duration and efficacy are limited. We aim to investigate the association between different dosages of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and mortality among COVID-19 hospitalized patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective study of 450 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Sant'Orsola Bologna Hospital from March 01 to April 10, 2020. Clinical, laboratory and treatment data were collected and analyzed. The in-hospital mortality between COVID-19 patients treated with standard prophylactic LMWH dosage vs. intermediate LMWH dosage was compared. Out of 450 patients, 361 received standard deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis enoxaparin treatment (40-60mg daily) and 89 patients received intermediate enoxaparin dosage (40-60 mg twice daily) for 7 days. No significant differences in the main demographic characteristics and laboratory testings at admission were observed in the two heparin regimen subgroups, except for older age and prevalence of hypertension in the group treated with "standard" prophylaxis LMWH dosage. The intermediate LMWH administration was associated with a lower in-hospital all-cause mortality compared to the "standard" prophylactic LMWH dosage (18.8% vs. 5.8%, p = 0.02). This difference remained significant after adjustment with the propensity score for variables that differed significantly between the dosage groups (OR= 0.260, 95% CI 0.089-0.758, p=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Intermediate LMWH dosage seems to be associated with lower incidence of mortality compared to standard DVT prophylaxys in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our study paves the way to further pathophysiological investigations and controlled studies of anticoagulation therapy in Covid-19 disease.

12.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1425-1433, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728263

ABSTRACT

The association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and venous thrombotic disorders is still unclear. We assessed the association between COVID-19 infection-related pneumonia and proximal deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in a cohort of patients admitted to our hospital during the European outbreak in the front line of Cremona, Lombardy. In a single-center cross-sectional study, all patients hospitalized for more than 5 days in Internal Medicine Department with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia received 2-point compressive ultrasound assessment (CUS) of the leg vein system during a single day. Ninety-four percent of patients received enoxaparin as standard pharmacological prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism. The presence of DVT was defined as incompressibility of popliteal or common femoral vein. Out of 121 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (mean age 71.8, 66.3% males) hospitalized on March 31st, 70 stayed in hospital for over 5 days and 66 of them underwent CUS of deep venous system of the legs. The presence of asymptomatic DVT was found in 9 patients (13.6%). No symptomatic DVT was found. Patients with DVT showed mean age = 75.7 years, mean D-dimer levels = 4.02 ng/ml and all of them received enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis, except one. Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram confirmed pulmonary embolism in five patients. One every seven patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia, hospitalized for more than 5 days, had asymptomatic proximal DVT and half of them had confirmed PE despite standard pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. This observational study suggests the need of an active surveillance through CUS in patients hospitalized with acute SARS-COV-2 and underline the need of a more intense thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/physiopathology
13.
Trials ; 21(1): 724, 2020 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the hypothesis that an adjunctive therapy with methylprednisolone and unfractionated heparin (UFH) or with methylprednisolone and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are more effective in reducing any-cause mortality in critically-ill ventilated patients with pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to LMWH alone. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is designed as a multi-centre, interventional, parallel group, superiority, randomized, investigator sponsored, three arms study. Patients, who satisfy all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria, will be randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups in a ratio 1:1:1. PARTICIPANTS: Inpatients will be recruited from 8 Italian Academic and non-Academic Intensive Care Units INCLUSION CRITERIA (ALL REQUIRED): 1. Positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic (on pharyngeal swab of deep airways material) 2. Positive pressure ventilation (either non-invasive or invasive) from > 24 hours 3. Invasive mechanical ventilation from < 96 hours 4. PaO2/FiO2 ratio lower than 150 mmHg 5. D-dimer level > 6 times the upper limit of normal reference range 6. C-reactive Protein > 6-fold upper the limit of normal reference range EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Age < 18 years 2. On-going treatment with anticoagulant drugs 3. Platelet count < 100.000/mm3 4. History of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia 5. Allergy to sodium enoxaparin or other LMWH, UFH or methylprednisolone 6. Active bleeding or on-going clinical condition deemed at high risk of bleeding contraindicating anticoagulant treatment 7. Recent (in the last 1 month prior to randomization) brain, spinal or ophthalmic surgery 8. Chronic assumption or oral corticosteroids 9. Pregnancy or breastfeeding or positive pregnancy test. In childbearing age women, before inclusion, a pregnancy test will be performed if not available 10. Clinical decision to withhold life-sustaining treatment or "too sick to benefit" 11. Presence of other severe diseases impairing life expectancy (e.g. patients are not expected to survive 28 days given their pre-existing medical condition) 12. Lack or withdrawal of informed consent INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: • LMWH group: patients in this group will be administered enoxaparin at standard prophylactic dosage. • LMWH + steroid group: patients in this group will receive enoxaparin at standard prophylactic dosage and methylprednisolone. • UFH + steroid group: patients in this group will receive UFH at therapeutic dosages and methylprednisolone. UFH will be administered intravenously in UFH + steroid group at therapeutic doses. The infusion will be started at an infusion rate of 18 UI/kg/hour and then modified to obtain aPTT Ratio in between the range of 1.5-2.0. aPTT will be periodically checked at intervals no longer than 12 hours. The treatment with UFH will be administered up to ICU discharge. After ICU discharge anticoagulant therapy may be interrupted or switched to prophylaxis with LMWH in the destination ward up to clinical judgement of the attending physician. Enoxaparin will be administered in both LMWH group and LMWH + steroid group at standard prophylactic dose (i.e., 4000 UI once day, increased to 6000 UI once day for patients weighting more than 90 kg). The treatment will be administered subcutaneously once a day up to ICU discharge. After ICU discharge it may be continued or interrupted in the destination ward up to clinical judgement of the attending physician. Methylprednisolone will be administered in both LMWH + steroid group and UHF + steroid group intravenously with an initial bolus of 0,5 mg/kg followed by administration of 0,5 mg/kg 4 times daily for 7 days, 0,5 mg/kg 3 times daily from day 8 to day 10, 0,5 mg/kg 2 times daily at days 11 and 12 and 0,5 mg/kg once daily at days 13 and 14. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Efficacy Endpoint: All-cause mortality at day 28 Secondary Efficacy Endpoints: - Ventilation free days (VFDs) at day 28, defined as the total number of days that patient is alive and free of ventilation (either invasive or non-invasive) between randomization and day 28 (censored at hospital discharge). - Need of rescue administration of high-dose steroids or immune-modulatory drugs; - Occurrence of switch from non-invasive to invasive mechanical ventilation during ICU stay; - Delay from start of non-invasive ventilation to switch to invasive ventilation; - All-cause mortality at ICU discharge and hospital discharge; - ICU free days (IFDs) at day 28, defined as the total number of days between ICU discharge and day 28. - Occurrence of new infections from randomization to day 28; including infections by Candida, Aspergillus, Adenovirus, Herpes Virus e Cytomegalovirus - Occurrence of new organ dysfunction and grade of dysfunction during ICU stay. - Objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism, stroke or myocardial infarction; Safety endpoints: - Occurrence of major bleeding, defined as transfusion of 2 or more units of packed red blood cells in a day, bleeding that occurs in at least one of the following critical sites [intracranial, intra-spinal, intraocular (within the corpus of the eye; thus, a conjunctival bleed is not an intraocular bleed), pericardial, intra-articular, intramuscular with compartment syndrome, or retroperitoneal], bleeding that necessitates surgical intervention and bleeding that is fatal (defined as a bleeding event that was the primary cause of death or contributed directly to death); - Occurrence of clinically relevant non-major bleeding, defined ad acute clinically overt bleeding that does not meet the criteria for major and consists of any bleeding compromising hemodynamic; spontaneous hematoma larger than 25 cm2, intramuscular hematoma documented by ultrasonography, haematuria that was macroscopic and was spontaneous or lasted for more than 24 hours after invasive procedures; haemoptysis, hematemesis or spontaneous rectal bleeding requiring endoscopy or other medical intervention or any other bleeding requiring temporary cessation of a study drug. RANDOMIZATION: A block randomisation will be used with variable block sizes (block size 4-6-8), stratified by 3 factors: Centre, BMI (<30/≥30) and Age (<75/≥75). Central randomisation will be performed using a secure, web-based, randomisation system with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The allocation sequence will be generated by the study statistician using computer generated random numbers. BLINDING (MASKING): Participants to the study will be blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The target sample size is based on the hypothesis that the combined use of UHF and steroid versus the LMWH group will significantly reduce the risk of death at day 28. The overall sample size in this study is expected to be 210 with a randomization 1:1:1 and seventy patients in each group. Assuming an alpha of 2.5% (two tailed) and mortality rate in LMWH group of 50%, as indicated from initial studies of ICU patients, the study will have an 80% power to detect at least a 25 % absolute reduction in the risk of death between: a) LMHW + steroid group and LMWH group or b) UHF + steroid group and LMWH group. The study has not been sized to assess the difference between LMHW + steroid group and UHF + steroid group, therefore the results obtained from this comparison will need to be interpreted with caution and will need further adequately sized studies confirm the effect. On the basis of a conservative estimation, that 8 participating sites admit an average of 3 eligible patients per month per centre (24 patients/month). Assuming that 80 % of eligible patients are enrolled, recruitment of 210 participants will be completed in approximately 10 months. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.1 of April 26th, 2020. Recruitment start (expected): September 1st, 2020 Recruitment finish (expected): June 30th, 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2020-001921-30 , registered on April 15th, 2020 AIFA approval on May 4th, 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Heparin/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , COVID-19 , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Pandemics , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Trials ; 21(1): 574, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617182

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether high doses of Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) (i.e. Enoxaparin 70 IU/kg twice daily) compared to standard prophylactic dose (i.e., Enoxaparin 4000 IU once day), in hospitalized patients with COVID19 not requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation [IMV], are: a)more effective in preventing clinical worsening, defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following events, whichever comes first: 1.Death2.Acute Myocardial Infarction [AMI]3.Objectively confirmed, symptomatic arterial or venous thromboembolism [TE]4.Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were receiving standard oxygen therapy5.IMV in patients who at randomisation were receiving non-invasive mechanical ventilationb)Similar in terms of major bleeding risk TRIAL DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised controlled, superiority, open label, parallel group, two arms (1:1 ratio), in-hospital study. PARTICIPANTS: Inpatients will be recruited from 7 Italian Academic and non-Academic Internal Medicine Units, 2 Infectious Disease Units and 1 Respiratory Disease Unit. INCLUSION CRITERIA (ALL REQUIRED): 1. Age > 18 and < 80 years 2. Positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic (on pharyngeal swab of deep airways material) 3. Severe pneumonia defined by the presence of at least one of the following criteria: a.Respiratory Rate ≥25 breaths /minb.Arterial oxygen saturation≤93% at rest on ambient airc.PaO2/FiO2 ≤300 mmHg 4. Coagulopathy, defined by the presence of at least one of the following criteria: a.D-dimer >4 times the upper level of normal reference rangeb.Sepsis-Induced Coagulopathy (SIC) score >4 5. No need of IMV EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Age <18 and >80 years 2. IMV 3. Thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 80.000 mm3) 4. Coagulopathy: INR >1.5, aPTT ratio > 1.4 5. Impaired renal function (eGFR calculated by CKD-EPI Creatinine equation < 30 ml/min) 6. Known hypersensitivity to enoxaparin 7. History of heparin induced thrombocytopenia 8. Presence of an active bleeding or a pathology susceptible of bleeding in presence of anticoagulation (e.g. recent haemorrhagic stroke, peptic ulcer, malignant cancer at high risk of haemorrhage, recent neurosurgery or ophthalmic surgery, vascular aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations) 9. Concomitant anticoagulant treatment for other indications (e.g. atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, prosthetic heart valves) 10. Concomitant double antiplatelet therapy 11. Administration of therapeutic doses of LMWH, fondaparinux, or unfractionated heparin (UFH) for more than 72 hours before randomization; prophylactic doses are allowed 12. Pregnancy or breastfeeding or positive pregnancy test 13. Presence of other severe diseases impairing life expectancy (e.g. patients are not expected to survive 28 days given their pre-existing medical condition) 14. Lack or withdrawal of informed consent INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Control Group (Low-Dose LMWH): patients in this group will be administered Enoxaparin (Inhixa®) at standard prophylactic dose (i.e., 4000 UI subcutaneously once day). Intervention Group (High-Dose LMWH): patients in this group will be administered Enoxaparin (Inhixa®) at dose of 70 IU/kg every 12 hours, as reported in the following table. This dose is commonly used in Italy when a bridging strategy is required for the management of surgery or invasive procedures in patients taking anti-vitamin K oral anticoagulants Body Weight (kg)Enoxaparin dose every 12 hours (IU)<50200050-69400070-89600090-1108000>11010000 The treatment with Enoxaparin will be initiated soon after randomization (maximum allowed starting time 12h after randomization). The treatment will be administered every 12 hours in the intervention group and every 24 hours in the control group. Treatments will be administered in the two arms until hospital discharge or the primary outcomes detailed below occur. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Efficacy Endpoint: Clinical worsening, defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following events, whichever comes first: 1.Death2.Acute Myocardial Infarction [AMI]3.Objectively confirmed, symptomatic arterial or venous thromboembolism [TE]4.Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were in standard oxygen therapy by delivery interfaces5.Need for IMV, in patients who at randomisation were in Cpap or NIV Time to the occurrence of each of these events will be recorded. Clinical worsening will be analysed as a binary outcome as well as a time-to-event one. Secondary Efficacy Endpoints: Any of the following events occurring within the hospital stay 1.Death2.Acute Myocardial Infarction [AMI]3.Objectively confirmed, symptomatic arterial or venous thromboembolism [TE]4.Need of either: a.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (Cpap) or Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) orb.IMV in patients who at randomisation were in standard oxygen therapy by delivery interfaces5.Need for IMV in patients who at randomisation were in Cpap or NIV6.Improvement of laboratory parameters of disease severity, including: o D-dimer levelo Plasma fibrinogen levelso Mean Platelet Volumeo Lymphocyte/Neutrophil ratioo IL-6 plasma levels MORTALITY AT 30 DAYS: Information about patients' status will be sought in those who are discharged before 30 days on Day 30 from randomisation. Time to the occurrence of each of these events will be recorded. Each of these events will be analysed as a binary outcome and as a time-to-event one. Primary safety endpoint: Major bleeding, defined as an acute clinically overt bleeding associated with one or more of the following: Decrease in haemoglobin of 2 g/dl or more;Transfusion of 2 or more units of packed red blood cells;Bleeding that occurs in at least one of the following critical sites [intracranial, intraspinal, intraocular (within the corpus of the eye; thus, a conjunctival bleed is not an intraocular bleed), pericardial, intra-articular, intramuscular with compartment syndrome, or retroperitoneal];Bleeding that is fatal (defined as a bleeding event that was the primary cause of death or contributed directly to death);Bleeding that necessitates surgical intervention Time to the occurrence of each of these events will be recorded. Each of these events will be analysed as a binary outcome and as a time-to-event one. Secondary safety endpoint: Clinically Relevant non-major bleeding, defined as an acute clinically overt bleeding that does not meet the criteria for major and consists of: 1.Any bleeding compromising hemodynamic2.Spontaneous hematoma larger than 25 cm2, or 100 cm2 if there was a traumatic cause3.Intramuscular hematoma documented by ultrasonography4.Epistaxis or gingival bleeding requiring tamponade or other medical intervention5.Bleeding from venipuncture for >5 minutes6.Haematuria that was macroscopic and was spontaneous or lasted for more than 24 hours after invasive procedures7.Haemoptysis, hematemesis or spontaneous rectal bleeding requiring endoscopy or other medical intervention8.Any other bleeding requiring temporary cessation of a study drug. Time to the occurrence of each of these events will be recorded. Each of these events will be analysed as a binary outcome and as a time-to-event one. RANDOMISATION: Randomisation (with a 1:1 randomisation ratio) will be centrally performed by using a secure, web-based system, which will be developed by the Methodological and Statistical Unit at the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Modena. Randomisation stratified by 4 factors: 1) Gender (M/F); 2) Age (<75/≥75 years); 3) BMI (<30/≥30); 4) Comorbidities (0-1/>2) with random variable block sizes will be generated by STATA software. The web-based system will guarantee the allocation concealment. Blinding (masking) The study is conceived as open-label: patients and all health-care personnel involved in the study will be aware of the assigned group. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The target sample size is based on the hypothesis that LMWH administered at high doses versus low doses will significantly reduce the risk of clinical worsening. The overall sample size in this study is expected to be 300 with 150 in the Low-Dose LMWH control group and 150 in the High-Dose LMWH intervention group, recruited over 10-11 months. Assuming an alpha of 5% (two tailed) and a percentage of patients who experience clinical worsening in the control group being between 25% and 30%, the study will have 80% power to detect at least 50% relative reduction in the risk of death between low and high doses of heparin. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 of 11/05/2020. Recruitment start (expected): 08/06/2020 Recruitment finish (expected): 30/04/2021 Trial registration EudraCT 2020-001972-13, registered on April 17th, 2020 Full protocol The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1797, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72066
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