Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
1.
Chest ; 160(3): 944-955, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Working in the ICU during the first COVID-19 wave was associated with high levels of mental health disorders. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the mental health symptoms in health care providers (HCPs) facing the second wave? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study (October 30-December 1, 2020) was conducted in 16 ICUs during the second wave in France. HCPs completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (for post-traumatic stress disorder), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: Of 1,203 HCPs, 845 responded (70%) (66% nursing staff, 32% medical staff, 2% other professionals); 487 (57.6%) had treated more than 10 new patients with COVID-19 in the previous week. Insomnia affected 320 (37.9%), and 7.7% were taking a psychotropic drug daily. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout were reported in 60.0% (95% CI, 56.6%-63.3%), 36.1% (95% CI, 32.9%-39.5%), 28.4% (95% CI, 25.4%-31.6%), and 45.1% (95% CI, 41.7%-48.5%) of respondents, respectively. Independent predictors of such symptoms included respondent characteristics (sex, profession, experience, personality traits), work organization (ability to rest and to care for family), and self-perceptions (fear of becoming infected or of infecting family and friends, feeling pressure related to the surge, intention to leave the ICU, lassitude, working conditions, feeling they had a high-risk profession, and "missing the clapping"). The number of patients with COVID-19 treated in the first wave or over the last week was not associated with symptoms of mental health disorders. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of symptoms of mental health disorders is high in ICU HCPs managing the second COVID-19 surge. The highest tiers of hospital management urgently need to provide psychological support, peer-support groups, and a communication structure that ensure the well-being of HCPs.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Physicians/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence
2.
Jpn J Nurs Sci ; : e12424, 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258948

ABSTRACT

Determining the number of nurses required for patients with coronavirus disease receiving mechanical ventilation and/or veno-veno extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is important to provide quality care. Therefore, we conducted this cross-sectional survey of 725 intensive care units in Japan. Data from 152 units with experience of managing patients with coronavirus disease who required tracheal intubation were analyzed. The median number of nurses required for a patient receiving mechanical ventilation or veno-veno extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was two. This number was more than that according to the Japanese standard determined by government. We conclude that more nursing staff is required for caring for patients critically ill with coronavirus disease in intensive care units.

3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 205, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209790

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the objective was to identify the predictive factors contributing to COVID-related deaths in Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: this was a 4-month (12th March to 12th July 2020) cross sectional study carried out in the intensive care unit of the COVID treatment center of Donka National Hospital, the only hospital with a COVID intensive care unit in Guinea. RESULTS: during our period of study 140 patients were hospitalized in the COVID intensive care unit and 35 patients died (25%). In univariate analysis, the occurrence of death was associated with: confusional syndrome (p<0.001), time to admission (p<0.001), use of an inotropic or vasopressor (p<0.001), Brescia score ≥ 2 (p=0.004), non-invasive ventilation (p=0.011), stroke (p=0.014), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (p=0.015), male (p=0.021), provenance (p=0.021), acute renal failure (p=0.022), pulmonary embolism (p=0.022), invasive ventilation (p=0.022), and age > 60 years (p=0.047). In multivariate analysis, the factors predictive of mortality were: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (OR= 6.33, 95% CI [1.66-29]; p=0.007), a Brescia score ≥ 2 (OR =5.8, 95% CI [1.7-19.2]; p=0.004) and admission delay (OR =5.6, 95% CI [1.8-17.5]; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: our study shows that the acute respiratory distress syndrome, then the Brescia score ≥ 2, and finally the time to admission to intensive care were all associated with an increased risk of death for patients. These results are different from those reported in Asia, Europe and North America.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guinea , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Risk Factors , Time Factors
4.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 34(2): 239-249, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of safety guidelines in the workplace, the authors analyzed the work-related exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and the source of COVID­19 infections among healthcare workers (HCWs), together with the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in tertiary hospitals in the Uusimaa region, Finland, with 1072 volunteers being enrolled in the study from among the HCWs at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 866 (80.8%) HCWs (including 588 nurses, 170 doctors, and 108 laboratory and medical imaging nurses) completed the questionnaire by July 15, 2020, with 52% of the participants taking care of COVID­19 patients. The participants answered a structured questionnaire regarding their use of PPE, the ability to follow safety guidelines, exposure to COVID­19, and the source of potential COVID­19 infections. The participants with COVID­19 symptoms were tested with the SARS-CoV-2 realtime polymerase chain reaction method. All infected participants were contacted, and their answers were confirmed regarding COVID­19 exposure. RESULTS: In total, 41 (4.7%) participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, with 22 (53.6%) of infections being confirmed or likely occupational, and 12 (29.3%) originating from colleagues. In 14 cases (63.6%), occupational infections occurred while using a surgical mask, and all infections originating from patients occurred while using a surgical mask or no mask at all. No occupational infections were found while using an FFP2/3 respirator and following aerosol precautions. The combined odds ratio for working at an intensive care unit, an emergency department, or a ward was 3.4 (95% CI: 1.2-9.2, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: A high infection rate was found among HCWs despite safety guidelines. Based on these findings, the authors recommend the use of FFP2/3 respirators in all patient contacts with confirmed or suspected COVID­19, along with the use of universal masking, also in personnel rooms. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(2):239-49.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
5.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13634, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154806

ABSTRACT

Background On March 3, 2020, the first case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was reported by the Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Within days, the government confirmed more cases and adopted lockdown measures with travel restrictions from March to June 2020. A distinctive coronavirus was isolated from 190,823 patients by June 30. The pandemic resulted in a significant risk to public health. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the rate of premature births. Method In this cross-sectional study, we observed premature births at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The study site is a 1,500-bed teaching hospital, with around 4,500 annual deliveries, 70 beds in level II and level III, and tertiary care NICU. We compared the birth rates among preterm infants between March 1 to June 30, 2017-2019, to the similar calendar months of 2020. Information on nationality, gestational age, and maternal conditions were collected from the medical records. We used the Poisson regression model to assess the preterm birth rate's temporal trends before lockdown versus during lockdown. Results Among 7,226 total live neonates, we recorded 1,320 preterm infants during the study period of 2017-2020. The preterm birth rate per 1,000 live births during lockdown showed a 23% drop in the overall preterm birth rate with Prevented Fraction of 36% in extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age) births and 26% in moderate/late premature (32 weeks to 36 weeks + 6 days gestational age) births. The estimated preterm birth rate among the Saudi expats (15.11/1,000 live births) showed an increased tendency compared to Saudi nationals (odds ratio [OR]=1.07; 95% CI: 0.75-1.52) and was statistically not significant during the strict lockdown. Conclusion There was a significant reduction in the birth rate of extremely preterm and moderate/late preterm infants during lockdown when compared to the preceding three years. A national dataset is required to evaluate the extent of lockdown's impact on the preterm birth rate.

6.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(2): 134-139, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the event of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) spread worldwide, frontline healthcare workers play a key role in the containment of this devastating pandemic, and to prevent the cross-transmission and gain confidence in battle with the pandemic, they are wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To explore the adverse health problems and skin reactions caused by the use of PPEs among the frontline nurses in the ICUs of COVID hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online-based questionnaire assessing the physical problems, and adverse skin reactions of PPEs were sent among the 150 frontline nurses in ICUs of COVID hospital. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We got 137 valid responses from frontline nurses, and the most common adverse health effects expressed by them were headache (73.4%), extreme sweating (59.6%), and difficulty in breathing (36.7%); 91.7% complained about the fogging of the goggle. Majority of frontline nurses expressed nasal bridge scarring (76.64%) and indentation and pain on the back of the ears (66.42%) as the adverse skin reactions after wearing N95 masks. The common skin problems identified due to double gloving of latex gloves were excessive skin soakage with sweat (70.07%) and skin chapping (19%). The protective clothing caused minimal adverse reactions, and excessive sweating (71.53%) was the most reported. CONCLUSION: The healthcare workers wearing PPE for a prolonged period show significant adverse effects, so appropriate strategies should be taken to prevent the adverse effects by designing effective PPEs and education of preventive measures among healthcare workers. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Jose S, Cyriac MC, Dhandapani M. Health Problems and Skin Damages Caused by Personal Protective Equipment: Experience of Frontline Nurses Caring for Critical COVID-19 Patients in Intensive Care Units. Health Problems and Skin Damages Caused by Personal Protective Equipment: Experience of Frontline Nurses Caring for Critical COVID-19 Patients in Intensive Care Units. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(2):134-139.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e045127, 2021 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine burn-out levels and associated factors among healthcare personnel working in a tertiary hospital of a highly burdened area of north-east Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Observational study conducted from 21 April to 6 May 2020 using a web-based questionnaire. SETTING: Research conducted in the Verona University Hospital (Veneto, Italy). PARTICIPANTS: Out of 2195 eligible participants, 1961 healthcare workers with the full range of professional profiles (89.3%) completed the survey. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Levels of burn-out, assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with burn-out in each MBI-GS dimension (emotional exhaustion, EX; professional efficacy, EF; cynicism, CY). RESULTS: Overall, 38.3% displayed high EX, 46.5% low EF and 26.5% high CY. Burn-out was frequent among staff working in intensive care units (EX 57.0%; EF 47.8%; CY 40.1%), and among residents (EX 34.9%; EF 63.9%; CY 33.4%) and nurses (EX 49.2%; EF 46.9%; CY 29.7%). Being a resident increased the risk of burn-out (by nearly 2.5 times) in all the three MBI subscales and being a nurse increased the risk of burn-out in the EX dimension in comparison to physicians. Healthcare staff directly engaged with patients with COVID-19 showed more EX and CY than those working in non-COVID wards. Finally, the risk of burn-out was higher in staff showing pre-existing psychological problems, in those having experienced a COVID-related traumatic event and in those having experienced interpersonal avoidance in the workplace and personal life. CONCLUSIONS: Burn-out represents a great concern for healthcare staff working in a large tertiary hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact is more burdensome for front-line junior physicians. This study underlines the need to carefully address psychological well-being of healthcare workers to prevent the increase of burn-out in the event of a new COVID-19 healthcare emergency.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Workplace/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
8.
J Crit Care ; 62: 265-270, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019249

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A national cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the severity of burnout and its associated factors among doctors and nurses in ICUs in mainland China. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 2411 ICU doctors and nurses in mainland China were included. Demographic and psychological data were collected via questionnaire. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to evaluate burnout. Differences among regions and departments were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to determine the associated factors. RESULTS: Among the participants, 1122 (46.54%) were doctors, and 1289 (53.46%) were nurses. A total of 800 doctors (71.3% of all doctors) and 881 nurses (68.3% of all nurses) were deemed to be burnout. People working in the general ICU were most likely to be burnout. Factors associated with burnout included having low frequency of exercise, having comorbidities, working in a high-quality hospital, having more years of work experience, having more night shifts and having fewer paid vacation days. CONCLUSIONS: The burnout rate of ICU doctors and nurses in mainland China is 69.7%. Our study provides baseline data about burnout among Chinese medical staff predating COVID-19, which could help in the analysis and interpretation of burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(1): 93-98, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of confirmed novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease or infants under investigation among a cohort of U.S. neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Secondarily, to evaluate hospital policies regarding maternal COVID-19 screening and related to those infants born to mothers under investigation or confirmed to have COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Serial cross-sectional surveys of MEDNAX-affiliated NICUs from March 26 to April 3, April 8 to April 19, May 4 to May 22, and July 13 to August 2, 2020. The surveys included questions regarding COVID-19 patient burden and policies regarding infant separation, feeding practices, and universal maternal screening. RESULTS: Among 386 MEDNAX-affiliated NICUs, responses were received from 153 (42%), 160 (44%), 165 (45%), 148 (38%) across four rounds representing an active patient census of 3,465, 3,486, 3,452, and 3,442 NICU admitted patients on the day of survey completion. Confirmed COVID-19 disease in NICU admitted infants was rare, with the prevalence rising from 0.03 (1 patient) to 0.44% (15 patients) across the four survey rounds, while the prevalence of patients under investigation increased from 0.8 to 2.6%. Hospitals isolating infants from COVID-19-positive mothers fell from 46 to 20% between the second and fourth surveys, while centers permitting direct maternal breastfeeding increased 17 to 47% over the same period. Centers reporting universal severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening for all expectant mothers increased from 52 to 69%. CONCLUSION: Among a large cohort of NICU infants, the prevalence of infants under investigation or with confirmed neonatal COVID-19 disease was low. Policies regarding universal maternal screening for SARS-CoV-2, infant isolation from positive mothers, and direct maternal breastfeeding for infants born to positive mothers are rapidly evolving. As universal maternal screening for SARS-CoV-2 becomes more common, the impact of these policies requires further investigation. KEY POINTS: · In this cohort, neonatal COVID-19 is rare.. · Policies regarding isolation and breastfeeding for infants are rapidly evolving.. · Most hospitals are now providing universal screening for expectant mothers for SARS-CoV-2..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Mass Screening , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Policy Making , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17419, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872733

ABSTRACT

Changes in immune and coagulation systems and possible viral spread through the blood-brain barrier have been described in SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we evaluated the possible retinal involvement and ocular findings in severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 46 patients affected by severe COVID-19 who were hospitalized in one intensive care unit (ICU) and in two infectious disease wards, including bedside eye screening, corneal sensitivity assessment and retinography. A total of 43 SARS-CoV-2-positive pneumonia patients affected with COVID-19 pneumonia were included, including 25 males and 18 females, with a median age of 70 years [IQR 59-78]. Except for one patient with unilateral posterior chorioretinitis of opportunistic origin, of whom aqueous tap was negative for SARS-CoV-2, no further retinal manifestation related to COVID-19 infection was found in our cohort. We found 3 patients (7%) with bilateral conjunctivitis in whom PCR analysis on conjunctival swabs provided negative results for SARS-CoV-2. No alterations in corneal sensitivity were found. We demonstrated the absence of retinal involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients. Ophthalmologic evaluation in COVID-19, particularly in patients hospitalized in an ICU setting, may be useful to reveal systemic co-infections by opportunistic pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retina/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Conjunctivitis/complications , Conjunctivitis/pathology , Conjunctivitis/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertensive Retinopathy/complications , Hypertensive Retinopathy/diagnosis , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retina/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(4): e13698, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744742

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the efficacy of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a marker of the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in the South-Asian population. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, analytic study conducted at HDU/ICU of District Headquarter Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from May through July 2020. Sixty-three eligible patients, admitted to the HDU/ICU, were prospectively enrolled in the study. Their NLR, C-reactive protein, serum albumin and serum fibrinogen were measured. Patients' demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical manifestations of COVID-19 infection, medication use and history of lung malignancy were retrieved from their medical history. Patients were categorised into either a general group (with mild COVID-19) or a heavy group (with moderate to severe COVID-19). RESULTS: There were significant differences between the two groups in diabetes prevalence, NLR, C-reactive protein and serum albumin. NLR and C-reactive protein were positively correlated (P < .001, P = .04, respectively) whereas serum albumin was negatively correlated (P = .009) with severe COVID-19. NLR was found to be an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 pneumonia in the heavy group (OR = 1.264, 95% CI: 1.046~1.526, P = .015). The calculated AUC using ROC for NLR was 0.831, with an optimal limit of 4.795, sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.75, which is highly suggestive of NLR being a marker for the early detection of deteriorating severe COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: NLR can be used as an early warning signal for deteriorating severe COVID-19 infection and can provide an objective basis for early identification and management of severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pakistan , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(10): 1388-1398, 2020 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737623

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Frontline healthcare providers (HCPs) during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic are at high risk of mental morbidity.Objectives: To assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and peritraumatic dissociation in HCPs.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in 21 ICUs in France between April 20, 2020, and May 21, 2020. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire were used. Factors independently associated with reported symptoms of mental health disorders were identified.Measurements and Main Results: The response rate was 67%, with 1,058 respondents (median age 33 yr; 71% women; 68% nursing staff). The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and peritraumatic dissociation was 50.4%, 30.4%, and 32%, respectively, with the highest rates in nurses. By multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with lower prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and peritraumatic dissociation (odds ratio of 0.58 [95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.79], 0.57 [95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.82], and 0.49 [95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.72], respectively). HCPs working in non-university-affiliated hospitals and nursing assistants were at high risk of symptoms of anxiety and peritraumatic dissociation. Importantly, we identified the following six modifiable determinants of symptoms of mental health disorders: fear of being infected, inability to rest, inability to care for family, struggling with difficult emotions, regret about the restrictions in visitation policies, and witnessing hasty end-of-life decisions.Conclusions: HCPs experience high levels of psychological burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals, ICU directors, and ICU staff must devise strategies to overcome the modifiable determinants of adverse mental illness symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stress Disorders, Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Critical Care/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL