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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248675, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a new disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was occurred. Patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 are more likely to die, especially elderly patients. We aimed to describe the effect of age on the clinical and immune characteristics of critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively included 32 patients with COVID-19 who were confirmed to have COVID-19 by the local health authority and who were admitted to the first affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University in Zhengzhou, China between January 3 and March 20, 2020. Clinical information and experimental test data were retrospectively collected for the patients. The 32 patients in this study were all in a critical condition and were classified as severe, according to the guidelines of 2019-nCoV infection from the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Data were compared between those <60 years old and ≥60 years old. RESULTS: Of 32 patients, 13 were under 60 years old, and 19 patients were ≥60 years old. The most common symptom among all patients upon admission was fever (93.8%, 30/32). Compared to younger patients, older patients exhibited increased comorbidities. Among patients who were 60 years and older, platelet count, direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin(IBIL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were significantly higher than in younger patients who were less than 60 years old. CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and NKT lymphocytes were decreased, CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes were significantly increased in all 32 patients, while there were no evident differences between younger and older patients. The CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory, rate, blood pressure plus age ≥65 years), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and pH value were significantly higher in older patients than in patients who were under 60 years old. However, the PaO2 and PaO2:FiO2 were lower in older patients than the younger. Compared to patients under 60 years old, patients who were 60 years and older tended to develop ARDS (15 [78.9%] vs 5 [38.5%]), septic shock (7 [36.8%] vs 0 [0.0%]) and were more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (13 [68.4%] vs 3[23.1%]). Dynamic trajectories of seven laboratory parameters were tracked on days 1, 3, 5 and 7, and significant differences in lymphocyte count (P = 0.026), D-dimer (P = 0.010), lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.000) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.000) were observed between the two age groups. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of critically ill patients were 60 or older. Furthermore, rapid disease progression was noted in elderly patients. Therefore, close monitoring and timely treatment should be performed in elderly COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , CD4-CD8 Ratio , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunity , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(9): 948-954, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522102

ABSTRACT

Background: In trauma, direct pulmonary injury and innate immune response activation primes the lungs for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The inflammasome-dependent release of interleukin-18 (IL-18) was recently identified as a key mediator in ARDS pathogenesis, leading us to hypothesize that plasma IL-18 is a diagnostic predictor of ARDS in severe blunt trauma. Patients and Methods: Secondary analysis of the Inflammation and Host Response to Injury database was performed on plasma cytokines collected within 12 hours of severe blunt trauma. Trauma-related cytokines, including IL-18, were compared between patients with and without ARDS and were evaluated for association with ARDS using regression analysis. Threshold cytokine concentrations predictive of ARDS were determined using receiver-operating curve (ROC) analysis. Results: Cytokine analysis of patients without ARDS patients (n = 61) compared with patients with ARDS (n = 19) demonstrated elevated plasma IL-18 concentration in ARDS and IL-18 remained correlated with ARDS on logistic regression after confounder adjustment (p = 0.008). Additionally, ROC analysis revealed IL-18 as a strong ARDS predictor (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.83), with a threshold IL-18 value of 170 pg/mL (Youden index, 0.3). Unlike in patients without ARDS, elevated IL-18 persisted in patients with ARDS during the acute injury phase (p ≤ 0.02). Other trauma-related cytokines did not correlate with ARDS. Conclusions: In severe blunt trauma, IL-18 is a robust predictor of ARDS and remains elevated throughout the acute injury phase. These findings support the use of IL-18 as a key ARDS biomarker, promoting early identification of trauma patients at greater risk of developing ARDS. Timely recognition of ARDS and implementation of advantageous supportive care practices may reduce trauma-related ARDS morbidity and costs.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Humans , Interleukin-18 , Logistic Models , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk Assessment , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/complications , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/diagnosis
3.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14462, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies have shown that some cytokines in COVID-19 patients were elevated. This study aims to assess whether IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IP-10 and IL-4 serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers of COVID-19. METHODS: The above serum cytokines in COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients were detected by ELISA and SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG were detected by the chemiluminescence method. The independent-sample Mann-Whitney U test was utilised to compare cytokine levels in different groups and courses, the Levene T-test and T'-test were utilised to compare they in different genders and the Spearman correlation test was utilised to analyse the correlation between the cytokine levels with ages and SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM. RESULTS: Serum levels of IL-10, IL-1ß, MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-4 in COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than those in non-COVID-19 patients, while IL-6 were only significantly higher than in healthy people, IP-10 were significantly lower than in other diseases patients. AUCs of COVID-19 diagnosed by IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IP-10 and IL-4 were 0.735, 0.775, 0.595, 0.821, 0.848, 0.38 and 0.682, respectively. In the COVID-19 patients' serum, the levels of IL-10 and MCP-1 of male were noticeably higher than those of female, and all cytokines were significantly positively correlated with age, IL-1ß and IL-4 were significantly negatively correlated with SARS-CoV-2 IgM, while IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF- and IP-10 were significantly negatively correlated with SARS-CoV-2 IgG. IL-10 on 43-56 days was significantly lower than at 29-42 days, TNF-α at 15-42 days was significantly higher than at 0-14 days, IP-10 at 0-14 days was the highest and IL-4 at 29-42 days was significantly higher than at 0-14 days. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of IL-10, IL-1 ß, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-4 would assist the clinical study of COVID-19, and IP-10 may be the cytokine of early elevation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Chemokine CXCL10 , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Male , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 7(7): 958-965, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482579

ABSTRACT

The longitudinal immunologic status of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients and its association with the clinical outcome are barely known. Thus, we sought to analyze the temporal profiles of specific antibodies, as well as the associations between the antibodies, proinflammatory cytokines, and survival of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 1830 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were recruited. The temporal profiles of the virus, antibodies, and cytokines of the patients until 12 weeks since illness onset were fitted by the locally weighted scatter plot smoothing method. The mediation effect of cytokines on the associations between antibody responses and survival were explored by mediation analysis. Of the 1830 patients, 1435 were detectable for SARS-CoV-2, while 395 were positive in specific antibodies only. Of the 1435 patients, 2.4% presented seroconversion for neither immunoglobulin G (IgG) nor immunoglobulin M (IgM) during hospitalization. The seropositive rates of IgG and IgM were 29.6% and 48.1%, respectively, in the first week, and plateaued within five weeks. For the patients discharged from the hospital, the IgM decreased slowly, while high levels of IgG were maintained at around 188 AU·mL-1 for the 12 weeks since illness onset. In contrast, in the patients who subsequently died, IgM declined rapidly and IgG dropped to 87 AU·mL-1 at the twelfth week. Elevated interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-2R, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were observed in the deceased patients in comparison with the discharged patients, and 12.5% of the association between IgG level and mortality risk was mediated by these cytokines. Our study deciphers the temporal profiles of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies within the 12 weeks since illness onset and indicates the protective effect of antibody response on survival, which may help to guide prognosis estimation.

5.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456314

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by an elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960-February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants, and we included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to the control groups. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. Conclusions: Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Intra-Articular Fractures/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Joints/pathology , Synovial Fluid/metabolism
6.
Cytokine ; 148: 155618, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory disease; approximately 5% of patients developing severe COVID-19. It is known that cytokine release is associated with disease severity, but the relationship between the different clinical phenotypes and inflammatory endotypes is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between inflammatory biomarker-based endotypes and severe COVID-19 phenotypes. METHODS: Interleukin (IL) -6, C-reactive protein (CRP), C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL) 9, IL-18, C-C motif chemokine (CCL) 3, CCL17, IL-10, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in 57 COVID-19 patients, and their association with clinical characteristics was examined using a cluster analysis. RESULTS: Significantly higher blood levels of the eight inflammatory markers were noted in patients who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) than in those who did not develop ARDS (non-ARDS). Using a cluster analysis, the patient groups were classified into four clusters, of which two had patients with high IL-6 and CRP levels. In the cluster with high levels of Type 1 (T1) inflammatory markers such as CXCL9 and IL-18, 85% of the patients had ARDS, 65% of the patients developed acute kidney injury (AKI), and 78% of the patients developed pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: In the cluster with high levels of T1 inflammatory markers, the patients frequently suffered from tissue damage, manifested as ARDS and AKI. Our findings identified distinct T1 inflammatory endotypes of COVID-19 and suggest the importance of controlling inflammation by monitoring T1 biomarkers and treating accordingly to limit the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cluster Analysis , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/complications , Lung Compliance , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Virol J ; 18(1): 117, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically described. We determined the levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19 and their relationships with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data of 94 COVID-19 patients with and without ARDS were analyzed. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]) were measured on days 1, 3, and 5 following admission. Seventeen healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. Correlations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines with clinical and laboratory variables were analyzed, furthermore, we also explored the relationships of different cytokines with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. RESULTS: The ARDS group had higher serum levels of all 4 inflammatory cytokines than the controls, and these levels steadily increased after admission. The ARDS group also had higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than the non-ARDS group, and the levels of these cytokines correlated significantly with coagulation parameters and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α correlated with the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen, and were also higher in ARDS patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). All 4 inflammatory cytokines had negative correlations with PaO2/FiO2. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α had positive correlations with the APACHE-II score. Relative to survivors, non-survivors had higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 at admission, and increasing levels over time. CONCLUSIONS: The cytokine storm apparently contributed to the development of ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD in COVID-19 patients. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 correlated with DIC, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with AKI. Relative to survivors, patients who died within 28 days had increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Blood Urea Nitrogen , COVID-19/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
8.
J Hepatol ; 75(3): 647-658, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 is associated with liver injury and elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6). We hypothesized that IL-6 trans-signaling in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) leads to endotheliopathy (a proinflammatory and procoagulant state) and liver injury in COVID-19. METHODS: Coagulopathy, endotheliopathy, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were retrospectively analyzed in a subset (n = 68), followed by a larger cohort (n = 3,780) of patients with COVID-19. Liver histology from 43 patients with COVID-19 was analyzed for endotheliopathy and its relationship to liver injury. Primary human LSECs were used to establish the IL-6 trans-signaling mechanism. RESULTS: Factor VIII, fibrinogen, D-dimer, von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity/antigen (biomarkers of coagulopathy/endotheliopathy) were significantly elevated in patients with COVID-19 and liver injury (elevated ALT). IL-6 positively correlated with vWF antigen (p = 0.02), factor VIII activity (p = 0.02), and D-dimer (p <0.0001). On liver histology, patients with COVID-19 and elevated ALT had significantly increased vWF and platelet staining, supporting a link between liver injury, coagulopathy, and endotheliopathy. Intralobular neutrophils positively correlated with platelet (p <0.0001) and vWF (p <0.01) staining, and IL-6 levels positively correlated with vWF staining (p <0.01). IL-6 trans-signaling leads to increased expression of procoagulant (factor VIII, vWF) and proinflammatory factors, increased cell surface vWF (p <0.01), and increased platelet attachment in LSECs. These effects were blocked by soluble glycoprotein 130 (IL-6 trans-signaling inhibitor), the JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib, and STAT1/3 small-interfering RNA knockdown. Hepatocyte fibrinogen expression was increased by the supernatant of LSECs subjected to IL-6 trans-signaling. CONCLUSION: IL-6 trans-signaling drives the coagulopathy and hepatic endotheliopathy associated with COVID-19 and could be a possible mechanism behind liver injury in these patients. LAY SUMMARY: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection often have liver injury, but why this occurs remains unknown. High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its circulating receptor, which form a complex to induce inflammatory signals, have been observed in patients with COVID-19. This paper demonstrates that the IL-6 signaling complex causes harmful changes to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and may promote blood clotting and contribute to liver injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Interleukin-6/physiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Nitriles , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines , Retrospective Studies , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2090-2098, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many laboratory parameters have been associated with morbidity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), which emerged in an animal market in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has infected over 20 million people. This study investigated the relationship between serum interleukin (IL)-18, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and alpha defensin levels and the clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 100 patients who were admitted to the chest diseases department and intensive care unit of our hospital and diagnosed with COVID-19 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyngeal swab samples between March 24 and May 31, 2020. The control group consisted of 50 nonsymptomatic health workers with negative real-time PCR results in routine COVID-19 screening in our hospital. RESULTS: Serum alpha defensin, IL-1Ra, and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in patients who developed macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) compared to patients who did not (p < .001 for all). Alpha defensin, IL-1Ra, and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with and without MAS or ARDS when compared to the control group (p < .001 for all). When the 9 patients who died were compared with the 91 surviving patients, IL-1Ra and IL-18 levels were found to be significantly higher in the nonsurvivors (p < .001). CONCLUSION: Our findings of correlations between alpha defensin and levels of IL-1Ra and IL-18, which were previously shown to be useful in COVID-19 treatment and follow-up, indicates that it may also be promising in treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/blood , Interleukin-18/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , alpha-Defensins/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Turkey
10.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153583, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A key clinical feature of COVID-19 is a deep inflammatory state known as "cytokine storm" and characterized by high expression of several cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, including IL-6 and IL-8. A direct consequence of this inflammatory state in the lungs is the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), frequently observed in severe COVID-19 patients. The "cytokine storm" is associated with severe forms of COVID-19 and poor prognosis for COVID-19 patients. Sulforaphane (SFN), one of the main components of Brassica oleraceae L. (Brassicaceae or Cruciferae), is known to possess anti-inflammatory effects in tissues from several organs, among which joints, kidneys and lungs. PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to determine whether SFN is able to inhibit IL-6 and IL-8, two key molecules involved in the COVID-19 "cytokine storm". METHODS: The effects of SFN were studied in vitro on bronchial epithelial IB3-1 cells exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (S-protein). The anti-inflammatory activity of SFN on IL-6 and IL-8 expression has been evaluated by RT-qPCR and Bio-Plex analysis. RESULTS: In our study SFN inhibits, in cultured IB3-1 bronchial cells, the gene expression of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. This represents the proof-of-principle that SFN may modulate the release of some key proteins of the COVID-19 "cytokine storm". CONCLUSION: The control of the cytokine storm is one of the major issues in the management of COVID-19 patients. Our study suggests that SFN can be employed in protocols useful to control hyperinflammatory state associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/virology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Isothiocyanates/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/toxicity , Sulfoxides/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/drug effects , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cell Line , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Up-Regulation/drug effects
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107685, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses a huge threat internationally; however, the role of the host immune system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not well understood. METHODS: Cytokine and chemokine levels and characterisation of immune cell subsets from 20 COVID-19 cases after hospital admission (17 critically ill and 3 severe patients) and 16 convalescent patients were determined using a multiplex immunoassay and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in acute severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, whereas were normal in patients who had reached convalescence. CD8 T cells in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients expressed high levels of cytotoxic granules (granzyme B and perforin)and was hyperactivated as evidenced by the high proportions of CD38. Furthermore, the cytotoxic potential of natural killer (NK) cells, and the frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells was reduced in patients with severe and critical COVID-19; however, these dysregulations were found to be restored in convalescent phases. CONCLUSION: Thus, elicitation of the hyperactive cytokine-mediated inflammatory response, dysregulation of CD8 T and NK cells, and deficiency of host myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs, may contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis and provide insights into potential therapeutic targets and strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Inflammation/etiology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/blood , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/enzymology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Chemokine CXCL9/blood , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Granzymes/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/enzymology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/blood , Middle Aged , Perforin/metabolism
12.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 77-90, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188012

ABSTRACT

B cells play a central role in antiviral and antiparasitic immunity, not only as producers of antibodies, but also as APCs and mediators of inflammation. In this study, we used 16-color flow cytometry analysis to investigate the frequency, differentiation, and activation status of peripheral B cells of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection or acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria compared with the healthy individuals. As a main result, we observed an increase of the frequency of (CD27-, CD21-) atypical memory B cells and (CD19+, CD27+, CD38+) plasmablasts in malaria and COVID-19 patients. Additionally, CD86, PD-1, CXCR3, and CD39 expression was up-regulated, whereas CD73 was down-regulated on plasmablasts of COVID-19 and malaria patients compared with the bulk B cell population. In particular, there was a more pronounced loss of CD73+ B cells in malaria. The frequency of plasmablasts positively correlated with serum levels of CRP, IL-6, and LDH of COVID-19 patients. In the longitudinal course of COVID-19, a rapid normalization of the frequency of atypical memory B cells was observed. The role and function of plasmablasts and atypical memory B cells in COVID-19 and other acute infections remain to be further investigated. The role of B cells as either "driver or passenger" of hyperinflammation during COVID-19 needs to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Plasma Cells/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Cells/pathology
13.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 139, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low T3 syndrome is frequent in patients admitted to intensive care units for critical illness and pneumonia. It has been reported also in patients with COVID-19, Hodgkin disease and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We analyzed the clinical relevance of Low T3 syndrome in COVID-19 patients and, in particular, in those with associated hematological malignancies. METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients, hospitalized during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Sant'Andrea University Hospital in Rome, were subdivided in 38 patients (Group A), showing low levels of FT3, and in 24 patients (Group B), with normal FT3 serum values. During the acute phase of the disease, we measured serum, radiologic and clinical disease severity markers and scores, in search of possible correlations with FT3 serum values. In addition, in 6 COVID-19 patients, 4 with Low T3 syndrome, including 2 with a hematological malignancy, and 2 with normal FT3 values, we performed, high-dimensional single-cell analysis by mass cytometry, multiplex cytokine assay and gene expression profiling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). RESULTS: Low FT3 serum values were correlated with increased Absolute Neutrophil Count, NLR and dNLR ratios and with reduced total count of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Low FT3 values correlated also with increased levels of inflammation, tissue damage and coagulation serum markers as well as with SOFA, LIPI and TSS scores. The CyTOF analysis demonstrated reduction of the effector memory and terminal effector subtypes of the CD4+ T lymphocytes. Multiplex cytokine assay indicates that mainly IL-6, IP-10 and MCAF changes are associated with FT3 serum levels, particularly in patients with coexistent hematological malignancies. Gene expression analysis using Nanostring identified four genes differently expressed involved in host immune response, namely CD38, CD79B, IFIT3 and NLRP3. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that low FT3 serum levels are associated with severe COVID-19. Our multi-omics approach suggests that T3 is involved in the immune response in COVID-19 and coexistent hematological malignancy and new possible T3 target genes in these patients have been identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Humans , Italy , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Male , Middle Aged , Single-Cell Analysis , Triiodothyronine/blood
14.
Kidney Dis (Basel) ; 7(2): 111-119, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major global health threat with a great number of deaths worldwide. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. We aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors and in-hospital outcomes of AKI in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study in the intensive care unit of Tongji Hospital, which was assigned responsibility for the treatments of severe COVID-19 patients by the Wuhan government. AKI was defined and staged based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Mild AKI was defined as stage 1, and severe AKI was defined as stage 2 or stage 3. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate AKI risk factors, and Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between AKI and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 119 patients with COVID-19 were included in our study. The median patient age was 70 years (interquartile range, 59-77) and 61.3% were male. Fifty-one (42.8%) patients developed AKI during hospitalization, corresponding to 14.3% in stage 1, 28.6% in stage 2 and 18.5% in stage 3, respectively. Compared to patients without AKI, patients with AKI had a higher proportion of mechanical ventilation mortality and higher in-hospital mortality. A total of 97.1% of patients with severe AKI received mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality was up to 79.4%. Severe AKI was independently associated with high in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.06-3.13). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that high serum interleukin-8 (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 1.23-14.38), interleukin-10 (OR: 3.32; 95% CI: 1.04-10.59) and interleukin-2 receptor (OR: 4.50; 95% CI: 0.73-6.78) were risk factors for severe AKI development. CONCLUSIONS: Severe AKI was associated with high in-hospital mortality, and inflammatory response may play a role in AKI development in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

15.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 54-64, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is recognized for the first time in Wuhan, China. The cytokine storm is a known factor causing major clinical symptoms leading to death in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the serum levels of different cytokines in COVID-19 patients with different clinical severity. METHODS: Concentrations of serum cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF, were measured in 61 COVID-19 patients and 31 normal controls with ELISA. We investigated the correlation between the levels of these cytokines and clinical severity, CRP level, neutrophil and lymphocyte count in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Our data indicated that the levels of IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF, but not IL-10 were significantly increased in COVID-19 patients compared to normal controls. Statistical analysis showed that the level of IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF were higher in severe COVID-19 than those of mild cases. The concentrations of all mentioned cytokines were negatively associated with the absolute count of lymphocytes, and positively correlated with the CRP level and the absolute count of neutrophils. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that high levels of various cytokines correlate with the disease severity and immunopathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Iran , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Neutrophils/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 795-801, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 infection predisposes to diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA); whether glucocorticoids enhances this risk is unknown.We aimed to study the occurrence of DKA after initiating glucocorticoids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) and moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and identify predictors for it. METHODS: Patients with T2DM and moderate or severe COVID-19 infection were prospectively observed for development of new-onset DKA for one week following initiation of parenteral dexamethasone. Clinical and biochemical parameters were compared between those who developed DKA (Group A) and those who didnot (Group B). Logistic regression was done to identify independent risk-factors predicting DKA; ROC-curve analysis to determine cut-offs for the parameters in predicting DKA. RESULTS: Amongst 302 patients screened, n = 196 were finally included, of whom 13.2% (n = 26,Group A) developed DKA. Patients in Group A were younger, had lower BMI, increased severity of COVID-19 infection, higher HbA1c%, CRP, IL-6, D-dimer and procalcitonin at admission (pall < 0.02). Further, admission BMI (OR: 0.43, CI: 0.27-0.69), HbA1c % (OR: 1.68, CI: 1.16-2.43) and serum IL-6 (OR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03) emerged as independent predictors for DKA. Out of these, IL-6 levels had the highest AUROC (0.93, CI: 0.89-0.98) with a cut-off of 50.95 pg/ml yielding a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 85.2% in predicting DKA. CONCLUSION: There is significant incidence of new-onset DKA following parenteral glucocorticoids in T2DM patients with COVID-19, especially in those with BMI <25.56 kg/m2, HbA1c% >8.35% and IL-6 levels >50.95 pg/ml at admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Infusions, Parenteral , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 596518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156116

ABSTRACT

Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04365634. Context: Diabetes mellitus was associated with increased severity and mortality of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia. So far the effect of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) or hyperglycemia on the immune system among COVID-19 disease has remained unclear. Objective: We aim to explore the clinical and immunological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among COVID-19 patients. Design and Methods: In this retrospective study, the clinical and immunological characteristics of 306 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients (including 129 diabetic and 177 non-diabetic patients) were analyzed. The serum concentrations of laboratory parameters including cytokines and numbers of immune cells were measured and compared between diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Results: Compared with non-diabetic group, diabetic cases more frequently had lymphopenia and hyperglycemia, with higher levels of urea nitrogen, myoglobin, D-dimer and ferritin. Diabetic cases indicated the obviously elevated mortality and the higher levels of cytokines IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, as well as the distinctly reduced Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios compared with non-diabetic cases. The longitudinal assays showed that compared to that at week 1, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly elevated at week 2 after admission in non-survivors of diabetic cases, whereas there were greatly reductions from week 1 to week 2 in survivors of diabetic cases. Compared with survival diabetic patients, non-survival diabetic cases displayed distinct higher serum concentrations of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and lower Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios at week 2. Samples from a subset of participants were evaluated by flow cytometry for the immune cells. The counts of peripheral total T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells were markedly lower in diabetic cases than in non-diabetic cases. The non-survivors showed the markedly declined counts of CD8+ T cells and NK cells than survivors. Conclusion: The elevated cytokines, imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines ratios and reduced of peripheral numbers of CD8+ T cells and NK cells might contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms of high mortality of COVID-19 patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Th1 Cells/pathology , Th2 Cells/pathology
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 640644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133916

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 can lead to Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and result in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent reports indicate an increased rate of fungal coinfections during COVID-19. With incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and without any causative therapy available, secondary infections may be detrimental to the prognosis. We monitored 11 COVID-19 patients with ARDS for their immune phenotype, plasma cytokines, and clinical parameters on the day of ICU admission and on day 4 and day 7 of their ICU stay. Whole blood stimulation assays with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM), Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida albicans were used to mimic secondary infections, and changes in immune phenotype and cytokine release were assessed. COVID-19 patients displayed an immune phenotype characterized by increased HLA-DR+CD38+ and PD-1+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and elevated CD8+CD244+ lymphocytes, compared to healthy controls. Monocyte activation markers and cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF, IL-10, and sIL2Rα were elevated, corresponding to monocyte activation syndrome, while IL-1ß levels were low. LPS, HKLM and Aspergillus fumigatus antigen stimulation provoked an immune response that did not differ between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, while COVID-19 patients showed an attenuated monocyte CD80 upregulation and abrogated release of IL-6, TNF, IL-1α, and IL-1ß toward Candida albicans. This study adds further detail to the characterization of the immune response in critically ill COVID-19 patients and hints at an increased susceptibility for Candida albicans infection.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Candida albicans/immunology , Listeria monocytogenes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Male , Middle Aged , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome
19.
Elife ; 102021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128149

ABSTRACT

End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are at high risk of severe COVID-19. We measured 436 circulating proteins in serial blood samples from hospitalised and non-hospitalised ESKD patients with COVID-19 (n = 256 samples from 55 patients). Comparison to 51 non-infected patients revealed 221 differentially expressed proteins, with consistent results in a separate subcohort of 46 COVID-19 patients. Two hundred and three proteins were associated with clinical severity, including IL6, markers of monocyte recruitment (e.g. CCL2, CCL7), neutrophil activation (e.g. proteinase-3), and epithelial injury (e.g. KRT19). Machine-learning identified predictors of severity including IL18BP, CTSD, GDF15, and KRT19. Survival analysis with joint models revealed 69 predictors of death. Longitudinal modelling with linear mixed models uncovered 32 proteins displaying different temporal profiles in severe versus non-severe disease, including integrins and adhesion molecules. These data implicate epithelial damage, innate immune activation, and leucocyte-endothelial interactions in the pathology of severe COVID-19 and provide a resource for identifying drug targets.


COVID-19 varies from a mild illness in some people to fatal disease in others. Patients with severe disease tend to be older and have underlying medical problems. People with kidney failure have a particularly high risk of developing severe or fatal COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 have high levels of inflammation, causing damage to tissues around the body. Many drugs that target inflammation have already been developed for other diseases. Therefore, to repurpose existing drugs or design new treatments, it is important to determine which proteins drive inflammation in COVID-19. Here, Gisby, Clarke, Medjeral-Thomas et al. measured 436 proteins in the blood of patients with kidney failure and compared the levels between patients who had COVID-19 to those who did not. This revealed that patients with COVID-19 had increased levels of hundreds of proteins involved in inflammation and tissue injury. Using a combination of statistical and machine learning analyses, Gisby et al. probed the data for proteins that might predict a more severe disease progression. In total, over 200 proteins were linked to disease severity, and 69 with increased risk of death. Tracking how levels of blood proteins changed over time revealed further differences between mild and severe disease. Comparing this data with a similar study of COVID-19 in people without kidney failure showed many similarities. This suggests that the findings may apply to COVID-19 patients more generally. Identifying the proteins that are a cause of severe COVID-19 ­ rather than just correlated with it ­ is an important next step that could help to select new drugs for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Forecasting , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proteomics/methods , Renal Dialysis/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
20.
J Immunol ; 206(7): 1597-1608, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082059

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with immune dysregulation and cytokine storm. Exploring the immune-inflammatory characteristics of COVID-19 patients is essential to reveal pathogenesis and predict progression. In this study, COVID-19 patients showed decreased CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells but increased neutrophils in circulation, exhibiting upregulated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and neutrophil-to-CD8+ T cell ratio. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-18, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-10, Tim-3, IL-8, neutrophil extracellular trap-related proteinase 3, and S100A8/A9 were elevated, whereas IFN-γ and C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (clec9A) were decreased in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls. When compared with influenza patients, the expressions of TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-8, S100A8/A9 and Tim-3 were significantly increased in critical COVID-19 patients, and carcinoembryonic Ag, IL-8, and S100A8/A9 could serve as clinically available hematologic indexes for identifying COVID-19 from influenza. Moreover, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, TNF-α, proteinase 3, and S100A8/A9 were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of severe/critical patients compared with moderate patients, despite decreased CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. Interestingly, bronchoalveolar IL-6, carcinoembryonic Ag, IL-8, S100A8/A9, and proteinase 3 were found to be predictive of COVID-19 severity and may serve as potential biomarkers for predicting COVID-19 progression and potential targets in therapeutic intervention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation Mediators , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Calgranulin A/blood , Calgranulin A/immunology , Calgranulin B/blood , Calgranulin B/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/blood , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloblastin/blood , Myeloblastin/immunology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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