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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1213-1221, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450185

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the "off-label" repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death. With the possibility that a considerable proportion of the world's population soon could receive COVID-19 pharmacotherapies with torsadogenic potential for therapy or postexposure prophylaxis, this document serves to help health care professionals mitigate the risk of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias while minimizing risk of COVID-19 exposure to personnel and conserving the limited supply of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Lopinavir , Risk Adjustment/methods , Ritonavir , Torsades de Pointes , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Repositioning/ethics , Drug Repositioning/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/mortality , Long QT Syndrome/therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/mortality , Torsades de Pointes/therapy
2.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175179

ABSTRACT

During Switzerland's first wave of COVID-19, clinical pharmacy activities during medical rounds in Geneva University Hospitals were replaced by targeted remote interventions. We describe using the electronic PharmaCheck system to screen high-risk situations of adverse drug events (ADEs), particularly targeting prescriptions of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPVr) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the presence of contraindications or prescriptions outside institutional guidelines. Of 416 patients receiving LPVr and/or HCQ, 182 alerts were triggered for 164 (39.4%) patients. The main associated risk factors of ADEs were drug-drug interactions, QTc interval prolongation, electrolyte disorder and inadequate LPVr dosage. Therapeutic optimisation recommended by a pharmacist or proposals for additional monitoring were accepted in 80% (n=36) of cases. Combined with pharmacist contextualisation to the clinical context, PharmaCheck made it possible to successfully adapt clinical pharmacist activities by switching from a global to a targeted analysis mode in an emergency context.

3.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(7): e14182, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are some data showing that repurposed drugs used for the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have potential to increase the risk of QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), and these arrhythmic side effects have not been adequately addressed in COVID-19 patients treated with these repurposed medications. METHODS: This is the prospective study of 2403 patients hospitalised at 13 hospitals within the COVID-19 epicentres of the Iran. These patients were treated with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, atazanavir/ritonavir, oseltamivir, favipiravir and remdesivir alone or in combination with azithromycin. The primary outcome of the study was incidence of critical QTc prolongation, and secondary outcomes were incidences of TdP and death. RESULTS: Of the 2403 patients, 2365 met inclusion criteria. The primary outcome of QTc ≥ 500 ms and ∆QTc ≥ 60 ms was observed in 11.2% and 17.6% of the patients, respectively. The secondary outcomes of TdP and death were reported in 0.38% and 9.8% of the patients, respectively. The risk of critical QT prolongation increased in the presence of female gender, history of heart failure, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin combination therapy, simultaneous furosemide or beta-blocker therapy and acute renal or hepatic dysfunction. However, the risk of TdP was predicted by treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir, simultaneous amiodarone or furosemide administration and hypokalaemia during treatment. CONCLUSION: This cohort showed significant QTc prolongation with all COVID-19 medications studied, however, life-threatening arrhythmia of TdP occurred rarely. Among the repurposed drugs studied, hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir alone or in combination with azithromycin clearly demonstrated to increase the risk of critical QT prolongation and/or TdP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Torsades de Pointes , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Iran , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/epidemiology
4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 893: 173813, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116627

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses an enormous challenge to the medical system, especially the lack of safe and effective COVID-19 treatment methods, forcing people to look for drugs that may have therapeutic effects as soon as possible. Some old drugs have shown clinical benefits after a few small clinical trials that attracted great attention. Clinically, however, many drugs, including those currently used in COVID-19, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir, may cause cardiotoxicity by acting on cardiac potassium channels, especially hERG channel through their off-target effects. The blocking of the hERG channel prolongs QT intervals on electrocardiograms; thus, it might induce severe ventricular arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death. Therefore, while focusing on the efficacy of COVID-19 drugs, the fact that they block hERG channels to cause arrhythmias cannot be ignored. To develop safer and more effective drugs, it is necessary to understand the interactions between drugs and the hERG channel and the molecular mechanism behind this high affinity. In this review, we focus on the biochemical and molecular mechanistic aspects of drug-related blockade of the hERG channel to provide insights into QT prolongation caused by off-label use of related drugs in COVID-19, and hope to weigh the risks and benefits when using these drugs.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , ERG1 Potassium Channel/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Off-Label Use
5.
Drug Saf ; 43(12): 1315-1322, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092872

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the stressful context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some reports have raised concerns regarding psychiatric disorders with the use of hydroxychloroquine. In this study, we reviewed all psychiatric adverse effects with hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients, as well as in other indications, reported in VigiBase, the World Health Organization's (WHO) global database of individual case safety reports. METHODS: First, we analyzed all psychiatric adverse effects, including suicide, of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients reported to 16 June 2020. We also performed disproportionality analysis to investigate the risk of reporting psychiatric disorders with hydroxychloroquine compared with remdesivir, tocilizumab, or lopinavir/ritonavir prescribed in COVID-19 patients. We used reporting odds ratios (RORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to calculate disproportionality. Second, we sought to examine the psychiatric safety profile of hydroxychloroquine in other indications (before 2020). RESULTS: Among the 1754 reports with hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients, we found 56 psychiatric adverse effects. Half of these adverse effects were serious, including four completed suicides, three cases of intentional self-injury, and 12 cases of psychotic disorders with hallucinations. Compared with remdesivir, tocilizumab, or lopinavir/ritonavir, the use of hydroxychloroquine was associated with an increased risk of reporting psychiatric disorders (ROR 6.27, 95% CI 2.74-14.35). Before 2020, suicide was the main cause of death among all adverse drug reactions reported with hydroxychloroquine, followed by cardiac adverse effects (cardiomyopathy) and respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: This pharmacovigilance analysis suggests that COVID-19 patients exposed to hydroxychloroquine experienced serious psychiatric disorders, and, among these patients, some committed suicide. Further real-world studies are needed to quantify the psychiatric risk associated with hydroxychloroquine during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hallucinations/chemically induced , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Psychoses, Substance-Induced/etiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/chemically induced , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Combinations , Female , Hallucinations/epidemiology , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Psychoses, Substance-Induced/epidemiology , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
6.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(2): 329-340, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012205

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Management of anxiety, delirium, and agitation cannot be neglected in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Antipsychotics are usually used for the pharmacological management of delirium, and confusion and behavioral disturbances. The concurrent use of treatments for COVID-19 and antipsychotics should consider eventual drug-drug interactions OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence-based available on drug-drug interactions between COVID-19 treatments and antipsychotics. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Three databases were consulted: Lexicomp® Drug Interactions, Micromedex® Solutions Drugs Interactions, and Liverpool© Drug Interaction Group for COVID-19 therapies. To acquire more information on QT prolongation and Torsade de Pointes (TdP), the CredibleMeds® QTDrugs List was searched. The authors made a recommendation agreed to by consensus. Additionally, a systematic review of drug-drug interactions between antipsychotics and COVID-19 treatment was conducted. RESULTS: The main interactions between COVID-19 drugs and antipsychotics are the risk of QT-prolongation and TdP, and cytochromes P450 interactions. Remdesivir, baricinitib, and anakinra can be used concomitantly with antipsychotics without risk of drug-drug interaction (except for hematological risk with clozapine and baricinitib). Favipiravir only needs caution with chlorpromazine and quetiapine. Tocilizumab is rather safe to use in combination with antipsychotics. The most demanding COVID-19 treatments for coadministration with antipsychotics are chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and lopinavir/ritonavir because of the risk of QT prolongation and TdP and cytochromes interactions. The systematic review provides highly probable drug interaction between lopinavir/ritonavir plus quetiapine and ritonavir/indinavir plus risperidone. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should be aware of the likely risk of drug-drug interaction with COVID-19 medication and may benefit from taking into account present recommendations of use to preserve patient safety.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Drug Interactions , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced
7.
Therapie ; 75(4): 371-379, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an unprecedented challenge for physicians and scientists. Several publicized drugs are being used with not much evidence of their efficacy such as hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or lopinavir-ritonavir. Yet, the cardiac safety of these drugs in COVID-19 deserves scrutiny as they are known to foster cardiac adverse ADRs, notably QTc interval prolongation on the electrocardiogram and its arrhythmogenic consequences. METHODS: Since March 27th, 2020, the French Pharmacovigilance Network directed all cardiac adverse drug reactions associated with "off-label" use of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 to the Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance. Each Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance first assessed causality of drugs. We performed a specific analysis of these cardiac adverse drug reactions amidst an array of risk factors, reassessed the electrocardiograms and estimated their incidence in coronavirus disease 2019. RESULTS: In one month, 120 reports of cardiac adverse drug reactions have been notified, 103 of which associated with hydroxychloroquine alone (86%), or associated with azithromycin (60%). Their estimated incidence is 0.77% to 1.54% of all patients, notwithstanding strong underreporting. Lopinavir-ritonavir came third with 17 reports (14%) and chloroquine fourth with 3 reports (2.5%). There were 8 sudden, unexplained or aborted deaths (7%), 8 ventricular arrhythmias (7%), 90 reports of prolonged QTc (75%) most of them "serious" (64%), 48 of which proved ≥ 500ms, 20 reports of severe conduction disorders (17%) and 5 reports of other cardiac causes (4%). Six reports derived from automedication. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: "Off-label" use of treatments in COVID-19 increases the risk of cardiac ADRs, some of them avoidable. Even if these drugs are perceived as familiar, they are used in patients with added risk factors caused by infection. Precautions should be taken to mitigate the risk, even if they will be proven efficacious.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/chemically induced , Off-Label Use , Pharmacovigilance , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Electrocardiography , Female , France/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(6): 3305-3311, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917094

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe liver injury and identify the risk factors of liver injury in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients without chronic liver diseases (CLD). The clinical data of 228 confirmed COVID-19 patients without CLD were retrospectively collected from ten hospitals in Jiangsu, China. Sixty-seven (29.4%) of 228 patients without CLD showed abnormal liver function on admission, including increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (25 [11.0%]) U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 30 [13.2%]) U/L, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) 28 [12.4%]) U/L, total bilirubin (Tbil) 16 [7.0%] µmol/L, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 10 [4.5%]) U/L. During hospitalization, 129 (56.3%) of 228 patients showed abnormal liver function, including elevated ALT (84 [36.8%]), AST (58 [25.4%]), GGT (67 [29.5%]), and Tbil (59 [25.9%]). Age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.086; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.030-4.225; p = .041), male sex (OR, 2.737; 95% CI, 1.418-5.284; p = .003), and lopinavir-ritonavir (OR, 2.504; 95% CI, 1.187-5.283; p = .016) were associated with higher risk of liver function abnormality, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR, 0.256; 95% CI 0.126-0.520; p < .001) was associated with reduced risk of liver function abnormality during hospitalization. Mild to moderate liver injury was common in COVID-19 patients in Jiangsu, China. Age over 50 years, male sex, and lopinavir-ritonavir were the independent risk factors of liver impairment in COVID-19 patients during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Liver Diseases/virology , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver Function Tests , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
9.
Drugs Aging ; 37(12): 925-933, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19)] infection are frequently older with co-morbidities and receiving polypharmacy, all of which are known risk factors for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The pharmacological burden may be further aggravated by the addition of treatments for COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of potential DDIs upon admission and during hospitalisation in patients with COVID-19 treated at our hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 502 patients with COVID-19 (mean age 61 ± 16 years, range 15-99) treated at our hospital with a proven diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalised between 21 February and 30 April 2020 and treated with at least two drugs. RESULTS: Overall, 68% of our patients with COVID-19 were exposed to at least one potential DDI, and 55% were exposed to at least one potentially severe DDI. The proportion of patients experiencing potentially severe DDIs increased from 22% upon admission to 80% during hospitalisation. Furosemide, amiodarone and quetiapine were the main drivers of potentially severe DDIs upon admission, and hydroxychloroquine and particularly lopinavir/ritonavir were the main drivers during hospitalisation. The majority of potentially severe DDIs carried an increased risk of cardiotoxicity. No potentially severe DDIs were identified in relation to tocilizumab and remdesivir. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised patients with COVID-19, concomitant treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine led to a dramatic increase in the number of potentially severe DDIs. Given the high risk of cardiotoxicity and the scant and conflicting data concerning their efficacy in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection, the use of lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19 with polypharmacy needs to be carefully considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Interactions , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polypharmacy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Young Adult
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 275-281, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the antiviral effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Nationwide retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare the effect of HCQ and LPV/r on viral shedding duration among patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 using the reimbursement data of National Health Insurance Service. After propensity score matching (PSM), multivariate analysis was conducted to determine statistically significant risk factors associated with prolonged viral shedding. RESULTS: Overall, 4197 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 were included. Patients were categorized into three groups: LPV/r (n = 1268), HCQ (n = 801), and standard care without HCQ or LPV/r (controls, n = 2128). The median viral shedding duration was 23 (IQR 17-32), 23 (IQR 16-32), and 18 (IQR 12-25) days in the LPV/r, HCQ, and control groups, respectively. Even after PSM, the viral shedding duration was not significantly different between LPV/r and HCQ groups: 23 (IQR, 17-32) days versus 23 (IQR, 16-32) days. On multivariate analysis, old age, malignancy, steroid use, and concomitant pneumonia were statistically significant risk factors for prolonged viral shedding. CONCLUSION: The viral shedding duration was similar between HCQ and LPV/r treatment groups. There was no benefit in improving viral clearance compared to the control group.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Propensity Score , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Young Adult
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(8)2020 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704239

ABSTRACT

Determination of the risk-benefit ratio associated with the use of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) repurposed drugs in older adults with polypharmacy is mandatory. Our objective was to develop and validate a strategy to assess risk for adverse drug events (ADE) associated with COVID-19 repurposed drugs using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ), alone or in combination with azithromycin (AZ), and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). These medications were virtually added, one at a time, to drug regimens of 12,383 participants of the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly. The MedWise Risk Score (MRSTM) was determined from 198,323 drug claims. Results demonstrated that the addition of each repurposed drug caused a rightward shift in the frequency distribution of MRSTM values (p < 0.05); the increase was due to an increase in the drug-induced Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) or CYP450 drug interaction burden risk scores. Increases in LQTS risk observed with HCQ + AZ and CQ + AZ were of the same magnitude as those estimated when terfenadine or terfenadine + AZ, used as positive controls for drug-induced LQTS, were added to drug regimens. The simulation-based strategy performed offers a way to assess risk of ADE for drugs to be used in people with underlying medical comorbidities and polypharmacy at risk of COVID-19 infection without exposing them to these drugs.

12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(12): 3417-3424, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694125

ABSTRACT

As global health services respond to the coronavirus pandemic, many prescribers are turning to experimental drugs. This review aims to assess the risk of drug-drug interactions in the severely ill COVID-19 patient. Experimental therapies were identified by searching ClinicalTrials.gov for 'COVID-19', '2019-nCoV', '2019 novel coronavirus' and 'SARS-CoV-2'. The last search was performed on 30 June 2020. Herbal medicines, blood-derived products and in vitro studies were excluded. We identified comorbidities by searching PubMed for the MeSH terms 'COVID-19', 'Comorbidity' and 'Epidemiological Factors'. Potential drug-drug interactions were evaluated according to known pharmacokinetics, overlapping toxicities and QT risk. Drug-drug interactions were graded GREEN and YELLOW: no clinically significant interaction; AMBER: caution; RED: serious risk. A total of 2378 records were retrieved from ClinicalTrials.gov, which yielded 249 drugs that met inclusion criteria. Thirteen primary compounds were screened against 512 comedications. A full database of these interactions is available at www.covid19-druginteractions.org. Experimental therapies for COVID-19 present a risk of drug-drug interactions, with lopinavir/ritonavir (10% RED, 41% AMBER; mainly a perpetrator of pharmacokinetic interactions but also risk of QT prolongation particularly when given with concomitant drugs that can prolong QT), chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine (both 7% RED and 27% AMBER, victims of some interactions due to metabolic profile but also perpetrators of QT prolongation) posing the greatest risk. With management, these risks can be mitigated. We have published a drug-drug interaction resource to facilitate medication review for the critically ill patient.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Therapies, Investigational/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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