Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
1.
Cancer Metab ; 9(1): 24, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma accounts for 7% of paediatric malignancies but is responsible for 15% of all childhood cancer deaths. Despite rigorous treatment involving chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and immunotherapy, the 5-year overall survival rate of high-risk disease remains < 40%, highlighting the need for improved therapy. Since neuroblastoma cells exhibit aberrant metabolism, we determined whether their sensitivity to radiotherapy could be enhanced by drugs affecting cancer cell metabolism. METHODS: Using a panel of neuroblastoma and glioma cells, we determined the radiosensitising effects of inhibitors of glycolysis (2-DG) and mitochondrial function (metformin). Mechanisms underlying radiosensitisation were determined by metabolomic and bioenergetic profiling, flow cytometry and live cell imaging and by evaluating different treatment schedules. RESULTS: The radiosensitising effects of 2-DG were greatly enhanced by combination with the antidiabetic biguanide, metformin. Metabolomic analysis and cellular bioenergetic profiling revealed this combination to elicit severe disruption of key glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolites, causing significant reductions in ATP generation and enhancing radiosensitivity. Combination treatment induced G2/M arrest that persisted for at least 24 h post-irradiation, promoting apoptotic cell death in a large proportion of cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that the radiosensitising effect of 2-DG was significantly enhanced by its combination with metformin. This clearly demonstrates that dual metabolic targeting has potential to improve clinical outcomes in children with high-risk neuroblastoma by overcoming radioresistance.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 645194, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170080

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common comorbidities among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which may exacerbate complications of this new viral infection. Metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with host-directed immune-modulatory effects, which relieve exaggerated inflammation and reduce lung tissue damage. The current systematic review aimed to summarize the available evidence on the potential mechanism of action and the efficacy of metformin in COVID-19 patients with DM. Methods: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), and Web of Science up to July 30, 2020. The following keywords were used: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "2019-nCoV", "metformin", and "antidiabetic drug". Results: Fourteen studies were included in our systematic review. Three of them were observational with 6,659 participants. Decreasing insulin resistance, reduction of some inflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and TNF-α, modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, and improving neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio are some of the potential mechanisms of metformin in COVID-19 patients with DM. Nine out of fourteen articles revealed the positive effect of metformin on the prognosis of COVID-19 in diabetic or even non-diabetic patients. Moreover, different studies have shown that metformin is more effective in women than men. Conclusions: The use of metformin may lead to improve the clinical outcomes of patients with mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2, especially in diabetic women. Further observational studies should be conducted to clarify the effects of metformin as a part of the treatment strategy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Humans
3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 777-782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aims to synthesize evidence on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in COVID-19 patients and factors affecting it. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases from inception of databases up until 7 March 2021. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included: 1) observational studies or randomized controlled trials that report COVID-19 patients, 2) reporting DPP-4 inhibitor use, 3) mortality, and 4) mortality based on DPP-4 inhibitor use. The exposure was DPP-4 inhibitor, defined as DPP-4 inhibitor use that started prior to COVID-19 hospitalization. The control group was patients with no exposure to DPP-4 inhibitor. The outcome was mortality. The pooled effect estimate was reported as risk ratio (RR). RESULTS: There were 4,477 patients from 9 studies in this systematic review and meta-analysis. 31% of (15%, 46%) the patients use DPP-4 inhibitor. Mortality occurs in 23% (15%, 31%) of the patients. DPP-4 inhibitor was associated with lower mortality in patients with COVID-19 (RR 0.76 [0.60, 0.97], p = 0.030, I2: 44.5%, p = 0.072). Meta-regression analysis showed that the association between DPP-4 inhibitor and mortality was significantly affected by metformin (RR 1.02 [1.00, 1.04], p = 0.048) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) use (RR 1.04 [1.01, 1.07], p = 0.006), but not age (p = 0.759), sex (reference: male, p = 0.148), and hypertension (p = 0.218). CONCLUSION: DPP-4 inhibitor use was associated with lower mortality in COVID-19 patients, and the association was weaker in patients who were also taking metformin and/or ACE inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Mortality , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Life Sci ; 275: 119371, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142119

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is considered to be one of the essential risks of adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).1 Metformin and insulin were suggested to affect the outcomes. However, divergent views are still expressed. We aim to gain further insight into metformin and insulin in both pre-admission and in-hospital usage in COVID-19 patients with pre-existed type 2 diabetes. MAIN METHODS: This is a multicentral retrospective study of the hospital confirmed COVID-19 patients between January 19 to April 09, 2020, who admitted to 3 main hospitals in Xiangyang city, China. The effect of type 2 diabetes, metformin, and insulin on COVID-19 were analyzed, respectively. Clinical characteristics, blood laboratory indices, clinical observational indices, and outcomes of these cases were collected. KEY FINDINGS: A total of 407 confirmed COVID-19 patients (including 50 pre-existed type 2 diabetes) were eligible in our study. COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes had more adverse outcomes than non-diabetes (OR2: mortality: 1.46 [95% CI3 1.11, 1.93]; P < 0.001). Pre-admission metformin usage showed a declined intensive care unit admission rate in a dose-dependent fashion (OR 0.04 [95% CI 0.00, 0.99]; adjust P = 0.049). While in-hospital insulin usage attempted to increase the invasive ventilation (8 [34.8%] vs. 1 [3.7%], adjust P = 0.043), independent of age and blood glucose. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicated that pre-admitted metformin usage may have beneficial effects on COVID-19 with pre-existed type 2 diabetes, insulin should be used sparingly in the hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Metformin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129733

ABSTRACT

While there are various kinds of drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus at present, in this review article, we focus on metformin which is an insulin sensitizer and is often used as a first-choice drug worldwide. Metformin mainly activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver which leads to suppression of fatty acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis. Metformin activates AMPK in skeletal muscle as well, which increases translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the cell membrane and thereby increases glucose uptake. Further, metformin suppresses glucagon signaling in the liver by suppressing adenylate cyclase which leads to suppression of gluconeogenesis. In addition, metformin reduces autophagy failure observed in pancreatic ß-cells under diabetic conditions. Furthermore, it is known that metformin alters the gut microbiome and facilitates the transport of glucose from the circulation into excrement. It is also known that metformin reduces food intake and lowers body weight by increasing circulating levels of the peptide hormone growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). Furthermore, much attention has been drawn to the fact that the frequency of various cancers is lower in subjects taking metformin. Metformin suppresses the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) by activating AMPK in pre-neoplastic cells, which leads to suppression of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis in pre-neoplastic cells. It has been shown recently that metformin consumption potentially influences the mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19). Taken together, metformin is an old drug, but multifaceted mechanisms of action of metformin have been unraveled one after another in its long history.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Metformin/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Humans , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/drug effects , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism
6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 898: 173934, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086916

ABSTRACT

Metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic medication. Direct/indirect activation of Adenosine Monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and non-AMPK pathways, amongst others, are deemed to explain the molecular mechanisms of action of metformin. Metformin is an established insulin receptor sensitising antihyperglycemic agent, is highly affordable, and has superior safety and efficacy profiles. Emerging experimental and clinical evidence suggests that metformin has pleiotropic non-glycemic effects. Metformin appears to have weight stabilising, renoprotective, neuroprotective, cardio-vascular protective, and antineoplastic effects and mitigates polycystic ovarian syndrome. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of metformin seem to qualify it as an adjunct therapy in treating infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, and the current novel Covid-19 infections. So far, metformin is the only prescription medicine relevant to the emerging field of senotherapeutics. Non-glycemic effects of metformin favourable to its repurposing in therapeutic use are hereby discussed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Metformin/adverse effects , Obesity/drug therapy , Pandemics , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/drug therapy , Protective Agents/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Endocr Pract ; 26(10): 1186-1195, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review data implicating microbiota influences on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with diabetes. METHODS: Primary literature review included topics: "COVID-19," "SARS," "MERS," "gut micro-biota," "probiotics," "immune system," "ACE2," and "metformin." RESULTS: Diabetes was prevalent (~11%) among COVID-19 patients and associated with increased mortality (about 3-fold) compared to patients without diabetes. COVID-19 could be associated with worsening diabetes control and new diabetes diagnosis that could be linked to high expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors (coronavirus point of entry into the host) in the endocrine pancreas. A pre-existing gut microbiota imbalance (dysbiosis) could contribute to COVID-19-related complications in patients with diabetes. The COVID-19 virus was found in fecal samples (~55%), persisted for about 5 weeks, and could be associated with diarrhea, suggesting a role for gut dysbiosis. ACE2 expressed on enterocytes and colonocytes could serve as an alternative route for acquiring COVID-19. Experimental models proposed some probiotics, including Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum, and L. salivarius, as vectors for delivering or enhancing efficacy of anti-coronavirus vaccines. These Lactobacillus probiotics were also beneficial for diabetes. The potential mechanisms for interconnections between coronavirus, diabetes, and gut microbiota could be related to the immune system, ACE2 pathway, and metformin treatment. There were suggestions but no proof supporting probiotics benefits for COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: The data suggested that the host environment including the gut microbiota could play a role for COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. It is a challenge to the scientific community to investigate the beneficial potential of the gut microbiota for strengthening host defense against coronavirus in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Probiotics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892446

ABSTRACT

Understanding of the pathogenesis of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) remains incomplete, particularly in respect to the multi-organ dysfunction it may cause. We were the first to report the analogous biological and physiological features of COVID-19 pathogenesis and the harmful amplification loop between inflammation and tissue damage induced by the dysregulation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation. Given the rapid evolution of this disease, the nature of its symptoms, and its potential lethality, we hypothesize that COVID-19 progresses under just such an amplifier loop, leading to a massive, uncontrolled inflammation process. Here, we describe in-depth the correlations of COVID-19 symptoms and biological features with those where uncontrolled NET formation is implicated in various sterile or infectious diseases. General clinical conditions, as well as numerous pathological and biological features, are analogous with NETs deleterious effects. Among NETs by-products implicated in COVID-19 pathogenesis, one of the most significant appears to be elastase, in accelerating virus entry and inducing hypertension, thrombosis and vasculitis. We postulate that severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) may evade innate immune response, causing uncontrolled NETs formation and multi-organ failure. In addition, we point to indicators that NETS-associated diseases are COVID-19 risk factors. Acknowledging that neutrophils are the principal origin of extracellular and circulating DNA release, we nonetheless, explain why targeting NETs rather than neutrophils themselves may in practice be a better strategy. This paper also offers an in-depth review of NET formation, function and pathogenic dysregulation, as well as of current and prospective future therapies to control NETopathies. As such, it enables us also to suggest new therapeutic strategies to fight COVID-19. In combination with or independent of the latest tested approaches, we propose the evaluation, in the short term, of treatments with DNase-1, with the anti-diabetic Metformin, or with drugs targeting elastase (i.e., Silvelestat). With a longer perspective, we also advocate a significant increase in research on the development of toll-like receptors (TLR) and C-type lectin-like receptors (CLEC) inhibitors, NET-inhibitory peptides, and on anti-IL-26 therapies.

9.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(1): 155, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detailed description of hyperglycemia management in diabetic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 remain limited, although patients with diabetes show higher complication and mortality rate than patients without diabetes. Transient non-severe increased insulin requirement in patients hospitalized for medical conditions such as sepsis or myocardial infarction is a well-known phenomenon. However, extremely high-dose insulin requirement remains a very rarely reported entity. Here, we report the case of an extreme and transitory insulin requirement episode in a type 2 diabetic patient presenting an acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man resident in Geneva, Switzerland, previously known for type 2 diabetes for 3 years was admitted for an aggravation of his dyspnea. His type 2 diabetes was treated only with metformin and his latest Hb1Ac was 6.1%. Chest CT SCAN showed a bilateral multilobar ground-glass opacification. Twenty-four hours after his admission he presented a worsening of dyspnea and severe hypoxemia requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit rapidly followed by oro-tracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation support. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and test of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR assay was positive. At day 3, he presented a rapidly progressive insulin requirement at a rate of up to 50 units/hour intravenous insulin aspart. Despite the high insulin doses, he maintained an elevated plasma glucose level at 270 mg/dL on average. His extremely high-dose insulin requirement "resolved" at day 9, and the insulin infusion rate was rapidly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: This case may reflect a specific and profound impact of SARS-CoV-2 on metabolic homeostasis, in particular in diabetic patients that appear more prone to complications of COVID-19 infection. Yet, the mechanisms behind this remain to be elucidated. The optimal management of hyperglycemia of diabetic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 has yet not be defined, however insulin remain the mainstay of treatment approach. Report of extreme dysregulation of chronic conditions such as diabetes in patients with COVID-19 may help clinicians to better take care of patients during the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of extremely high-dose insulin requirement in patient with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cell Metab ; 32(4): 537-547.e3, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741151

ABSTRACT

The safety and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs are critical for maximizing the beneficial impacts of well-controlled blood glucose on the prognosis of individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first-line medication for T2D, but its impact on the outcomes of individuals with COVID-19 and T2D remains to be clarified. Our current retrospective study in a cohort of 1,213 hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D indicated that metformin use was significantly associated with a higher incidence of acidosis, particularly in cases with severe COVID-19, but not with 28-day COVID-19-related mortality. Furthermore, metformin use was significantly associated with reduced heart failure and inflammation. Our findings provide clinical evidence in support of continuing metformin treatment in individuals with COVID-19 and pre-existing T2D, but acidosis and kidney function should be carefully monitored in individuals with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Metformin/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acidosis, Lactic/chemically induced , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
11.
iScience ; 23(9): 101425, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708530

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is becoming a leading cause of mortality throughout the world, and few effective therapies are currently available. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is essential to COVID-19 pathogenesis, as the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S protein) is required for viral entry and development of COVID-19. ACE2 regulates the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) that endows anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. Preclinical data suggest ACE2 might be downregulated after SARS-CoV-2 binding, and treatments that increase ACE2 may prevent cardiopulmonary injury. Development, testing, and mass production of novel ACE2 therapies may take years, whereas more effective treatments for COVID-19 are needed urgently. Metformin is a widely available anti-diabetic agent that has an excellent safety profile, and clinical and preclinical data suggest metformin may offer cardiopulmonary protection in COVID-19 via enhanced ACE2 expression.

12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108282, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614186

ABSTRACT

The whole world is facing a tough time these days struggling against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is not any specific effective drug for this viral infection. Thus, we are trying to treat patients with non-specific drug cocktails. Metformin, as a strong base, a potential regulator of Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and endosomal Na+/H+ exchangers (eNHEs), additionally a regenerative agent for lung fibrosis, seems to be beneficial for patients in acute, chronic and recovery phases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Metformin , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL