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1.
Curr Psychol ; 41(2): 1057-1064, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748411

ABSTRACT

As in the whole world, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses many threats to healthcare workers in our country too, which leads to anxiety in healthcare workers. This study was conducted to explore the anxiety levels of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a cross-sectional study. The population consisted of health care workers employed in hospitals in seven regions in Turkey. All volunteer healthcare workers were included in the study, and 356 healthcare workers responded to the questionnaire. The data were collected using the State Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire created by the researchers using an online questionnaire between 10 May 2020 and 15 May 2020. In the evaluation of the data, mean, standard deviation, percentages, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used. 33% of healthcare workers did not have anxiety, 50% had mild, and 17% had severe anxiety. The anxiety scores of those who were nurses (p < 0.001), who were working in the emergency room (p < 0.001), who were involved in treatment for COVID-19 patients (p = 0.040), who left their homes to prevent transmission to their families and relatives during the pandemic (p = 0.038), and whose working hours had changed (p = 0.036) were found to be significantly higher. It was observed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the fear of death and disease transmission, uncertainty, loneliness, anger, and hopelessness, and anxiety levels in healthcare workers. The main factors that significantly affected the anxiety levels of healthcare workers were male gender, weekly working hours, the presence of chronic diseases, and feelings of anger and uncertainty. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers experienced some negative emotions, their anxiety levels increased, and they were psychologically affected. Planning psychosocial interventions for healthcare workers in the high-risk group will make significant contributions to the health system.

2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e28346, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has affected individuals with lived experience of eating disorders (EDs), with many reporting higher psychological distress, higher prevalence of ED symptoms, and compensatory behaviors. The COVID-19 pandemic and the health and safety measures taken to contain its spread also disrupted routines and reduced access to familiar coping mechanisms, social support networks, and health care services. Social media and the ED communities on social media platforms have been an important source of support for individuals with EDs in the past. So far, it is unknown how discussions in online ED communities changed as offline support networks were disrupted and people spent more time at home in the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify changes in language content and style in an online ED community during the initial onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We extracted posts and their comments from the ED community on the social media website Reddit and concatenated them to comment threads. To analyze these threads, we applied top-down and bottom-up language analysis methods based on topic modeling with latent Dirichlet allocation and 13 indicators from the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program, respectively. Threads were split into prepandemic (before March 11, 2020) and midpandemic (after March 11, 2020) groups. Standardized mean differences were calculated to estimate change between pre- and midpandemic threads. RESULTS: A total of 17,715 threads (n=8772, 49.5% prepandemic threads; n=8943, 50.5% midpandemic threads) were extracted from the ED community and analyzed. The final topic model contained 21 topics. CIs excluding zero were found for standardized mean differences of 15 topics and 9 Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count categories covering themes such as ED symptoms, mental health, treatment for EDs, cognitive processing, social life, and emotions. CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed a reduction in discussions about ED symptoms, an increase in mental health and treatment-related topics was observed at the same time. This points to a change in the focus of the ED community from promoting potentially harmful weight loss methods to bringing attention to mental health and treatments for EDs. These results together with heightened cognitive processing, increased social references, and reduced inhibition of negative emotions detected in discussions indicate a shift in the ED community toward a pro-recovery orientation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Language , Pandemics , Social Media , Social Support , Emotions , Feeding and Eating Disorders/physiopathology , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Linguistics , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 648112, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247910

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on mental health; people around the world are experiencing high levels of stress and deteriorated wellbeing. The past research shows that positive emotions can help people cultivate a resilient mindset; however, the reality created by the global crisis itself limits the opportunities for experiencing positive emotions. Thus, it is unclear to what extent their effect is strong enough to counter the psychological impact of the current pandemic. Here, the author reports the findings of a survey conducted across two large representative samples in the United Kingdom and the United States (N total = 2000) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (in Spring 2020). A linear regression model revealed that the presence of positive emotions is strongly linked with resilience, in particular for individuals experiencing more negative emotions. These results show that positive emotions are particularly important to mental health in the context of high stress, reflected by increased levels of negative emotional experiences. These results are also consistent with the existential positive psychology perspective, which posits that even negative emotions can contribute to wellbeing once they are transformed. The author discusses the potential of positive emotions to transform suffering and thereby ameliorate the negative impact of the present collective crisis.

5.
Educ Inf Technol (Dordr) ; 26(6): 7145-7161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216233

ABSTRACT

The disruption of 'normal' academic studies in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak was embodied mainly in a rapid transition from in-class teaching to online synchronous instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the lecturer's emotions towards the change they experienced with the sudden shift to online instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic and the effect of those emotions on their willingness to teach online in the future. In the present study, 239 academic lecturers answered an online questionnaire. Four groups of emotions were examined: Success, opportunity, failure, and threat. The findings indicated that the emotions lecturers experienced most strongly was that of success, followed by opportunity. The predictors of lecturer's willingness to teach online in the future were emotions related to 'opportunity' and 'failure'. Surprisingly, the dramatic event of COVID-19 lockdown evoked more positive than negative emotions among lecturers during the first semester of the crisis. The emotions of threat that might characterize this period did not affect the willingness to teach online in the future as may be expected. This study demonstrates how tracing the emotional response toward adopting technology may contribute to understanding technology acceptance. It also contributes to understanding the differences in experiencing change in the normal process of technology adoption as opposed to emergency times.

6.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous pandemics around the world have shown that negative emotions are intensified in individuals when restrictions are imposed on human daily life activities. This study aims to draw attention to the pandemic-specific factors that might be associated with the severity of depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 phobia of high school students. METHODS: A total of 1,431 high school students aged 14 to 18 years were invited to participate in thisstudy using online survey forms. They were asked to fill out a questionnaire about themselves and the changes in their lives during the pandemic. They completed the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S) and the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS). RESULTS: Findings showed that being a girl is an increased risk factor for anxiety, depression, and COVID-19 phobia. In addition, following the official daily COVID-19 data and having a healthcare professional in the building of residence are significant risk factors for COVID-19 phobia. Having a psychiatric disorder, having a chronic disease, losing anyone due to COVID-19 infection, undergoing a COVID-19 diagnostic test, and meeting friends in person are increased risk factors for anxiety or depression during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in adolescents' lives caused by the COVID-19 pandemic are negatively affecting their mental health. Studies are needed to maintain the mental well-being of adolescents under the conditions of this pandemic.

7.
Omega (Westport) ; : 302228211000952, 2021 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166731

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has put a hold on the Silent Mentor Programme (SMP); this pause has not only caused unprecedented challenges for the delivery of medical education but has forced changes in the programme ceremony sessions. We aimed to describe the psychological impact and experiences of family members of silent mentors during the COVID-19 pandemic using qualitative interviews. Many expressed feelings of remorse and unrest about the unprecedented delay of the SMP. The delay increased negative emotions particularly among some elderly family members; however, there was no prominent negative effect on their functional health and well-being. Several participants relayed the belief that the soul cannot rest until the body receives a proper burial while some worried about the deterioration of the physical condition of the mentors. In conclusion, findings provide insights into the importance of not overlooking the mental health implications of delaying the SMP in future outbreaks or crises.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 300: 113918, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164351

ABSTRACT

Identifying the susceptibility factors of the emotional response to COVID-19 is highly significant for the psychological epidemic-crisis intervention, and autistic-related traits (ATs) is likely to be one of the candidate factors. The current study explored the relationships between ATs, emotional response to COVID-19, and the behavioural immune system (BIS) measured by trait pathogen avoidance and COVID-19 risk perception in the general population. The results showed that ATs predicted increased negative emotions directly and indirectly by enhancing the activation tendency of BIS and COVID-19 risk perception. The findings provide a candidate hypothesis for the reaction characteristics to pathogen threats in individuals with ASD and expand the understanding of individual differences in response to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Perception , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Immune System , Individuality , Male , Young Adult
9.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(3): 793-801, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146580

ABSTRACT

Fear of COVID-19 is associated with public health compliance but also with negative well-being; however, no articles have reported associations of such fear with perceived benefits and harms. We assessed the level of fear of COVID-19 in Hong Kong adults and its associations with sociodemographic factors and perceived benefits and harms of COVID-19. In a 6-day population-based cross-sectional online survey in May 2020, 4,890 adults provided data on fear and perceived benefits and harms, personal happiness and family well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics. Linear regression was used to analyze associations. The level of fear was moderate (mean score 6.3/10). Fewer respondents reported perceived benefits (10.6%-21.7%) than harms (13.4%-43.5%). Females, younger age groups, and respondents with lower education or more cohabitants had greater fear. Fear was associated with perceived personal (increased knowledge of personal epidemic prevention) and family benefits (improved family hygiene), both with a very small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.03). Fear was also associated with lower personal happiness and perceived personal (increased negative emotions, feeling depressed and anxious, decreased income, and decreased work efficiency) and family harms (increased conflicts and negative emotions among family members), with small effect sizes (0.08-0.37). We have first shown sociodemographic differences in the fear of COVID-19 and such fear was associated with both perceived personal and family benefits and harms of COVID-19. Our findings may guide the management of fear to reduce sociodemographic differences, and maximize benefits and minimize harms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family/psychology , Fear/psychology , Happiness , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Personal Satisfaction , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 567483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145580

ABSTRACT

In February 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared and spread rapidly in Italy. With the health emergency and social isolation, parents started spending more time with their children, and they might have experienced greater distress. Attachment style is considered as an effective emotion regulation strategy in the parent-child relationship. However, few empirical studies have addressed this issue. Based on attachment theory, this study aimed to find parental attachment style as a candidate to moderate the relation between parents' negative emotions and their perceptions of their children's negative emotions related to COVID-19. Parents (Mage = 42.55 ± 6.56, 88.2% female) of 838 Italian children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years participated in an online survey. Results showed that parents with a fearful attachment style had significantly higher negative emotions when facing COVID-19 than those with other attachment styles. Moreover, parents with a dismissing attachment style perceived fewer negative emotions in their children than parents with fearful and preoccupied styles. At last, higher parents' negative emotions were associated with greater perception of children's negative emotions only in parents classified as secure and fearful. These findings suggest that parents with dismissing and fearful attachment styles and their children may be at higher risk during the COVID-19 pandemic and they should be given long-term attention.

11.
Phys Ther ; 101(4)2021 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this cross-sectional qualitative study were to explore the perspectives of students enrolled in one physical therapist undergraduate education program in Australia about their experience with transitioning to full eLearning and student recommendations to improve the learning experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Seven focus groups with 28 undergraduate physical therapist students were conducted following the transitioning to full eLearning as a result of strict physical distancing measures. Focus group questions explored the students' experiences of the transition from face-to-face to full eLearning approach and the students' recommendations for improving future eLearning experiences. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The 3 themes identified were: (1) students presenting heightened negative feelings such as anxiety, stress, and reduced motivation to study; (2) students continuing to value the face-to-face learning, as it provided social support and facilitated feedback from peers and tutors; (3) student recommendations for eLearning included having online lectures and supplementary videos but face-to-face practical classes and developing healthy learning habits such as scheduled times for studying, exercise, and other activities that regulate stress. CONCLUSIONS: The transition to a full eLearning approach in an undergraduate physical therapist education program during the COVID-19 pandemic revealed that students had heightened negative emotions due to the pandemic. Students valued face-to-face practical classes to learn and receive social support from peers and tutors. Student recommendations to future eLearning suggested changes to curriculum development geared toward a greater blended approach to learning. Blended learning may include using online lectures instead of face-to-face lectures and online resources to supplement student learning of practical skills. IMPACT: As higher education moves toward a more blended approach, lessons learned from this study can help educators design future physical therapist education programs. The findings can also assist programs in delivering a full eLearning approach as the COVID-19 pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Education, Distance , Education, Professional/trends , Physical Therapy Modalities/education , Students, Health Occupations , Adult , Australia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Curriculum , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Male , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125818

ABSTRACT

The uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated negative emotions, especially among adolescents, who feel unable to tolerate the uncertainty of the epidemic. However, the mechanism by which the intolerance of COVID-19-related uncertainty (COVID-19 IU) affects negative emotions in adolescents remains unclear. This study explored the underlying mechanism from COVID-19 IU to negative emotions using a moderated mediation model in adolescents. In total, 3037 teenagers completed a cross-sectional survey including measures of COVID-19 IU, risk perception, social exclusion, perceived efficacy, and negative emotions. The results showed that COVID-19 IU positively predicted negative emotions and that risk perception and social exclusion mediated this relationship. In addition, both the direct effect of COVID-19 IU on negative emotions and the mediating effect of risk perception on this relationship were moderated by perceived efficacy; in particular, COVID-19 IU had a greater impact on negative emotions among adolescents with lower levels of perceived efficacy. These findings suggest that COVID-19 IU is closely associated with negative emotions among adolescents and that effective measures should be taken to enable adolescents to improve their perceived efficacy and develop a reasonable perception of risk, help them eliminate the stigma of the disease, and strengthen their connections with society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Social Perception , Uncertainty
13.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(3): 759-771, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084129

ABSTRACT

Nurses exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are psychologically stressed. This study examines the characteristics and distribution of negative emotions among Chinese nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic and explores regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE) as the underlying mechanism in the relationship between nurses' personalities and negative emotions. A cross-sectional design with convenience sampling was utilized. Three comprehensive tertiary hospitals located in China were selected. Nurses (n = 339) who cared for COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Recruitment was conducted between 14 February 2020 and 1 March 2020. Self-reported questionnaires about personality, RESE, and epidemic-related negative emotions were completed online. A correlation analysis, structural equation modelling, and the bootstrapping method were used to analyse the data. This study identified a 24.9% incidence of negative emotions in nurses. RESE was a significant mediator explaining the effect of personality on epidemic-related negative emotions. RESE mediated the effect of introversion-extroversion on depression (ß = -0.151, P = 0.015), neuroticism (ß = -0.182, P = 0.007), fear (ß = -0.142, P = 0.006), anxiety (ß = -0.189, P = 0.015), and hypochondria (ß = -0.118, P = 0.010); it also mediated the effect of neuroticism on depression (ß = 0.313, P = 0.002), neuroticism (ß = 0.394, P = 0.003), fear (ß = 0.345, P = 0.005), anxiety (ß = 0.384, P = 0.003), and hypochondria (ß = 0.259, P = 0.004). Nurses caring for COVID-19 patients displayed negative emotions, particularly emotionally unstable and introverted nurses with a low RESE level. RESE is often essential for interventions because it significantly influences the relationship between personality and negative emotions. In the event of a major outbreak, tailored psychological well-being education, which includes emotional self-efficacy strategies, should be provided by organizations to help nurses manage stress related to the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emotions , Personality , Self Efficacy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 46(1): 15-26, 2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Physical distancing behavior (PDB) is a key disease prevention strategy for limiting the spread of COVID-19. In order to effectively encourage it among adolescents, it is necessary to understand the associated mental mechanisms. Health behavior theories suggest that emotions, personality, motivation, and moral disengagement could all play a role. On the basis of a longitudinal study, we investigated the importance of these factors in predicting PDB. METHODS: The participants were 347 adolescents residing in Italy. Data were collected in four waves starting from 1 year before the pandemic. A structural equation model based on health behavior theory was tested. RESULTS: After the COVID-19 national lockdown, adolescents experienced fewer positive emotions and more negative emotions compared with 1 year earlier. Nevertheless, these emotional changes, and adolescents' personality (except for openness to experiences), were not related to the adoption of PDB. Instead, the autonomous motivation of adolescents significantly predicted a higher likelihood to adopt PDB by increasing the intention to engage in this behavior and, more indirectly, by substantially decreasing moral disengagement, which was negatively related to PDB. In contrast, controlled motivation corresponded to significantly higher levels of moral disengagement and predicted less likelihood of adopting PDB. CONCLUSIONS: Messages and interventions targeted at adolescents should be oriented towards supporting autonomy, emphasizing the personal and social value of PDB. Communications should avoid the use of coercive strategies based on eliciting emotions such as shame and guilt in adolescents who do not adopt PDB, which appear to trigger off mechanisms of moral disengagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emotions , Motivation , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Decision Making , Female , Health Promotion , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Morals
15.
J Sleep Res ; 30(4): e13259, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015552

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess changes in sleep pattern and their influence on people's daily life and emotion during the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-developed questionnaires were used to measure changes in nocturnal sleep, daytime napping, lifestyles and negative emotions in individuals before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Nine hundred and thirty effective questionnaires were collected in this study. Repeated measures analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were applied. We found that individuals' sleep rhythms were delayed, and sleep duration and sleep latency were increased during the stay-at-home orders. Meanwhile, their exercise levels and learning/working efficiency were decreased, and electronic device use time, annoyance levels and anxiety levels were increased. Delayed sleep patterns affected lifestyles and emotions. Moreover, sleep quality positively predicted learning/working efficiency and exercise levels, and negatively predicted use of electronic devices and negative emotions. Sleep patterns became delayed on weekdays during stay-at-home orders in all four daytime napping groups (no daytime napping, daytime napping as before, more daytime napping and less daytime napping), and the group taking daytime naps as before had a minimal variation, and their lifestyles and emotions were significantly better than those of the other groups. This study demonstrated that under the influence of stress caused by the pandemic, maintaining regular daytime napping was an effective way to stabilize sleep patterns and biological rhythms, keep good lifestyles and alleviate the effect of acute psychological stress, and to prevent and control mental disorders during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotions , Life Style , Pandemics , Sleep/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Young Adult
16.
Front Psychol ; 11: 588701, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013344

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of COVID-19, information on the epidemic inundated people's lives and led to negative emotions (e.g., tension, anxiety, and fear) in many people. This study aims to explore the effect of various emotions on prosocial tendencies during the COVID-19 outbreak and the moderating effect of the severity of the epidemic. We explore these effects by conducting a text analysis of the content of posts by 387,730 Weibo users. The results show that the severity of the epidemic promotes prosocial tendencies; anger motivates prosocial tendencies significantly; and the severity of the epidemic moderates the effects of three emotions-anger, sadness, and surprise-on prosocial tendencies. These findings provide a reference for exploring the positive significance of major disasters.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(47): e23185, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006268

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the effect of progressive muscle relaxation training on negative mood and sleep quality in Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19) patients.COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease, and there is still uncertainty about when the outbreak will be contained and the effectiveness of treatments. Considering that this disease is highly contagious, patients need to be treated in isolation. This may lead to psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression, and even sleep problems.This study is a clinical observation study.Participants included 79 COVID-19 patients admitted to a designated hospital for COVID-19 patients in Wuhan from February to March, 2020. Patients were selected and assigned to the control group and the observation group according to their wishes, with 40 and 39 cases in each group, respectively. The control group received routine treatment and nursing, and the observation group received progressive muscle relaxation training, in addition to the routine treatment and nursing. We compared scores of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) before and after the intervention.There was no significant difference in PSQI, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 scores between the control group and the observation group before the intervention (P > .05). After the intervention, the difference in scores of PSQI, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 in the 2 groups were statistically significant (P < .05).Progressive muscle relaxation training can significantly reduce anxiety and depression and improve sleep quality in COVID-19 patients during isolation treatment.Progressive muscle relaxation training was shown to improve the treatment effect of patients and is worthy of clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Autogenic Training/methods , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy , Sleep/physiology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/therapy , Depression/virology , Emotions/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
18.
Child Youth Serv Rev ; 120: 105781, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959676

ABSTRACT

University life has changed profoundly due to social distancing measures to control the spread of COVID-19. Over the longer term, the coronavirus crisis may affect the mental health of undergraduate students who are required to cope with remote options and forgo the usual campus life. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on undergraduate students' mental health and daily life in order to assist policymakers improve pandemic control plans and help educators and healthcare experts provide support to affected undergraduates. Results are based on quantitative data collected via online questionnaires which were completed by 181 Greek undergraduate forestry students. The analysis indicated that the students were highly affected by the closure of universities and the transition to distance learning. Moreover, they experienced negative emotions, mostly concern and anger, during the lockdown. T-test showed that female respondents experienced strong negative emotions like fear, panic and despair to a higher degree than male students who were more optimistic about the pandemic. Surprisingly, the students did not exercise outdoors every day even though it was allowed during the 42-day quarantine. In addition, they used mostly television and scientific articles to obtain information about COVID-19. The results presented in this study offer insights into university students' experience with the pandemic and reveal their reaction to remote education. It is recommended to monitor university students' mental health frequently and to provide them with psychological counselling and practical advice on how to manage anxiety and fear. Finally, education and training on remote learning could help reduce students' anxiety over online classes and exams.

19.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(12): 1299-1307, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Family visits with residents at long-term care (LTC) facilities have been restricted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective was to examine what communication methods, other than in-person visits, during the pandemic were associated with greater positive and lower negative emotional experiences for LTC residents and their family members and friends. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Nationally targeted online survey. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred sixty-one community-dwelling adults who had a family member or friend in a LTC facility. MEASUREMENTS: The Positive and Negative Affect Scale was used to assess participant's own emotions and perceived resident emotions during the pandemic. Questions were asked about nine communication methods other than physical visits (e.g., phone, video-conference, e-mail, and letters) in terms of frequency of use during the pandemic. Sociodemographics, resident health, and facility factors were assessed and used as covariates where indicated. RESULTS: During the pandemic, greater phone frequency was associated with less participant negative emotions (ß = -0.17). Greater e-mail frequency was associated with more perceived resident positive emotions (ß = 0.28). Greater frequency of letters delivered by staff was associated with more participant negative emotions (ß = 0.23). Greater frequency of letters delivered by staff and the postal service were associated with more perceived resident negative emotions (ß = 0.28; ß = 0.34, respectively). CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of synchronous, familiar methods of communication like the phone and email between families and LTC residents to maintain their emotional well-being when in-person visits are restricted.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Communication , Coronavirus Infections , Family/psychology , Long-Term Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , Attitude to Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Emotional Intelligence , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Interpersonal Relations , Long-Term Care/organization & administration , Long-Term Care/psychology , Long-Term Care/trends , Male , Organizational Innovation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires , Visitors to Patients/psychology
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(12): 7155-7163, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635546

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Social distancing is crucial in order to flatten the curve of COVID-19 virus spreading. Isolation, scarcity of resources and the lack of social contacts may have produced a negative impact on people's emotions and psychological well-being. This study aims to explore the reasons and the ways through which social distancing generates negative emotions in individuals who experienced the lockdown. To a larger extent, the objective is to check the existence of relations between negative emotions and the satisfaction of basic needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In Italy 140,656 online interviews were collected from March 22 to April 2, 2020. Data analysis was carried out using mono and bivariate statistical analysis, K-means clustering and the Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The parameters for the identification of six clusters were: the intensity of the respondent's basic emotions and the layers of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. RESULTS: The majority of people involved in an emergency situation, implying a collapse of social contacts, experience some kind of emotional reactions. In our study, we found a correlation between basic emotions and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In times of crisis, the most basic needs are the physiological ones. Fear, anger and sadness are predominant in all population groups; anger and disgust mainly appear when people are exposed to the risk of not being able to meet subsistence needs, thus perceiving a lack of economic security. CONCLUSIONS: The well-known Maslow's theory of human needs seems to fit well with the outbreak of negative emotions in the context of COVID-19. This study demonstrates the existence of links between negative emotions and primary needs that mainly refer to the first three levels of Maslow's pyramid. As a result of COVID-19 worldwide pandemic, many people have been sucked into the bottom layers of the pyramid. This change in individual basic needs has triggered a relevant transformation in individual emotional status and a shift towards negative emotions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Emotions , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Behavior , Social Isolation/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Internet , Italy , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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