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1.
Virusdisease ; 32(3): 589-594, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252263

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease by SARS-CoV-2 virus (also known as COVID-19) has emerged as major health concern worldwide. While, there is no specific drugs for treating this infection till date, SARS-CoV-2 had spread to most countries around the globe. Nitric oxide (NO) gas serves as an important signaling molecule having vasodilatory effects as well as anti-microbial properties. Previous studies from the 2004 SARS-CoV infection demonstrated that NO may also help to reduce respiratory tract infection by inactivating viruses and inhibiting their replication cycle and is an effective supportive measure for treating infection in patients with pulmonary complications. NO gas inhalation is being suggested as potential therapy for managing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 patients. In view of COVID-19 pandemic, several clinical trials are underway to examine the effects of NO inhalation on infected patients. Previously published reports on beneficial effects of endogenous NO and NO inhalation therapy were thoroughly searched to assess the potential of NO therapy for treating COVID-19 patients. Present report summarized the therapeutic importance of NO to reverse pulmonary hypertension, restore normal endothelial activity and produce anti-thrombotic effects. In addition to this, NO also reduces viral infection by inhibiting its replication and entry into the host cell. In absence of vaccine and effective treatment strategies, we suggest that NO inhalation therapy and NO releasing foods/compounds could be considered as an alternative measure to combat COVID-19 infection.

2.
Redox Biol ; 43: 101982, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is involved in a global outbreak affecting millions of people who manifest a variety of symptoms. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is increasingly associated with cardiovascular complications requiring hospitalizations; however, the mechanisms underlying these complications remain unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are gasotransmitters that regulate key cardiovascular functions. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 68 COVID-19 patients and 33 controls and NO and H2S metabolites were assessed. H2S and NO levels were compared between cases and controls in the entire study population and subgroups based on race. The availability of gasotransmitters was examined based on severity and outcome of COVID-19 infection. The performance of H2S and NO levels in predicting COVID-19 infection was also analyzed. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify the effects of traditional determinants of gasotransmitters on NO and H2S levels in the patients with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Significantly reduced NO and H2S levels were observed in both Caucasian and African American COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. COVID-19 patients who died had significantly higher NO and H2S levels compared to COVID-19 patients who survived. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis of NO and H2S metabolites in the study population showed free sulfide levels to be highly predictive of COVID-19 infection based on reduced availability. Traditional determinants of gasotransmitters, namely age, race, sex, diabetes, and hypertension had no effect on NO and H2S levels in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: These observations provide the first insight into the role of NO and H2S in COVID-19 infection, where their low availability may be a result of reduced synthesis secondary to endotheliitis, or increased consumption from scavenging of reactive oxygen species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gasotransmitters , Hydrogen Sulfide , Humans , Nitric Oxide , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Obes Sci Pract ; 7(3): 339-345, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137057

ABSTRACT

Obesity is considered as a risk factor for COVID-19 with insulin resistance and increased production of inflammatory cytokines as likely mechanisms. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and inhaled nitric oxide are proposed therapeutic approaches to treat COVID-19 because of their broad anti-inflammatory effects. One approach that might augment GLP-1 levels would be dietary supplementation with L-arginine. Beyond cytokines, multiple studies have started to investigate the relationship between new-onset diabetes and COVID-19. In a posthoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled human clinical trial of L-arginine supplementation in people with asthma and predominantly with obesity, the results showed that 12 weeks of continuous L-arginine supplementation significantly decreased the level of IL-21 (p = 0.02) and increased the level of insulin (p = 0.02). A high arginine level and arginine/ADMA ratio were significantly associated with lower CCL-20 and TNF-α levels. The study also showed that L-arginine supplementation reduces cytokine levels and improves insulin deficiency or resistance, both are two big risk factors for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Given its safety profile and ease of accessibility, L-arginine is an attractive potential therapeutic option that allows for a cost-effective way to improve outcomes in patients. An expedition of further investigation or clinical trials to test these hypotheses is needed.

4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 151, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the relatively preserved respiratory system compliance despite severe hypoxemia, with specific pulmonary vascular dysfunction, suggests a possible hemodynamic mechanism for VA/Q mismatch, as hypoxic vasoconstriction alteration. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-almitrine combination to restore oxygenation in severe COVID-19 ARDS (C-ARDS) patients. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric preliminary pilot study in intubated patients with severe C-ARDS. Respiratory mechanics was assessed after a prone session. Then, patients received iNO (10 ppm) alone and in association with almitrine (10 µg/kg/min) during 30 min in each step. Echocardiographic and blood gases measurements were performed at baseline, during iNO alone, and iNO-almitrine combination. The primary endpoint was the variation of oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 ratio). RESULTS: Ten severe C-ARDS patients were assessed (7 males and 3 females), with a median age of 60 [52-72] years. Combination of iNO and almitrine outperformed iNO alone for oxygenation improvement. The median of PaO2/FiO2 ratio varied from 102 [89-134] mmHg at baseline, to 124 [108-146] mmHg after iNO (p = 0.13) and 180 [132-206] mmHg after iNO and almitrine (p < 0.01). We found no correlation between the increase in oxygenation caused by iNO-almitrine combination and that caused by proning. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study of severe C-ARDS patients, iNO-almitrine combination was associated with rapid and significant improvement of oxygenation. These findings highlight the role of pulmonary vascular function in COVID-19 pathophysiology.

5.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 665, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992529

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

6.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(5): 629-632, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Changes in pulmonary hemodynamics and ventilation/perfusion were proposed as hallmarks of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) may overcome these issues and improve arterial oxygenation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed arterial oxygenation and pulmonary vasoreactivity in seven COVID-19 ARDS patients receiving 20 ppm iNO for 15-30 minutes. RESULTS: The inhalation of NO significantly improved oxygenation. All patients with severe ARDS had higher partial pressures of oxygen and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance. Significant changes in pulmonary shunting were not observed. CONCLUSION: Overall, iNO could provide immediate help and delay respiratory deterioration in COVID-19-induced moderate to severe ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Inhalation , COVID-19/complications , Hemodynamics , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
7.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(11): e0277, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939581

ABSTRACT

Treatment options are limited for patients with respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 2019. Conventional oxygen therapy and awake proning are options, but the use of high-flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure are controversial. There is an urgent need for effective rescue therapies. Our aim is to evaluate the role of inhaled nitric oxide 160 ppm as a possible rescue therapy in nonintubated coronavirus disease 2019 patients. DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of coronavirus disease 2019 patients in respiratory distress receiving nitric oxide gas as rescue therapy. SETTING: Massachusetts General Hospital, between March 18, 2020, and May 20, 2020, during the local coronavirus disease 2019 surge. PATIENTS: Coronavirus disease 2019 patients at high risk for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with worsening symptoms despite use of supplemental oxygen and/or awake proning. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received nitric oxide at concentrations of 160 ppm for 30 minutes twice per day via a face mask until resolution of symptoms, discharge, intubation, or the transition to comfort measures only. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Between March 18, 2020, and May 20, 2020, five patients received nitric oxide inhalation as a rescue therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 at Massachusetts General Hospital. All received at least one dosage. The three patients that received multiple treatments (ranging from five to nine) survived and were discharged home. Maximum methemoglobin concentration after 30 minutes of breathing nitric oxide was 2.0% (1.7-2.3%). Nitrogen dioxide was below 2 ppm. No changes in mean arterial pressure or heart rate were observed during or after nitric oxide treatment. Oxygenation and the respiratory rate remained stable during and after nitric oxide treatments. For two patients, inflammatory marker data were available and demonstrate a reduction or a cessation of escalation after nitric oxide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Nitric oxide at 160 ppm may be an effective adjuvant rescue therapy for patients with coronavirus disease 2019.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 714-718, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932426

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aims to analyse whether inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) was beneficial in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with pulmonary hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five critically ill COVID-19 patients with pulmonary hypertension designated Cases 1-5 were retrospectively included. Clinical data before and after iNO treatment were serially collected and compared between patients with or without iNO treatment. The five cases experienced pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) elevation (≥50 mmHg) at 30, 24, 33, 23, and 24 days after illness onset (d.a.o), respectively. Cases 1-3 received iNO treatment on the 24th, 13th, and 1st day after the first elevation of PASP, with concentrations varied from 10 to 20 ppm based on the changes of PASP and blood pressure for 10, 9, and 5 days, respectively. Upon iNO treatment, PASP of Cases 1 and 2 returned to normal on the 10th day and 1st day, and maintained between 50 and 58 mmHg in Case 3. Pa02 /Fi02 increased from 88 to 124, 51 to 118, and 146 to 244, respectively. SPO2 increased from 91% to 97% for Case 1 and maintained a high level above 97% for Case 2. Cardiac function remained normal in the three patients after treatment. Moreover, Cases 1 and 3 survived from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, while Case 2 finally died on the 36th day after the first elevation of PASP due to severe complications. Both cases who did not receive iNO treatment experienced a sudden decrease of PASP and Pa02 /Fi02 due to right heart failure and then died. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled nitric oxide treatment was beneficial in reducing and stabilizing the PASP and might also reduce the risk of right heart failure in COVID-19 with pulmonary hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies
10.
Ageing Res Rev ; 64: 101201, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907102

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses an imminent threat to humanity, especially to the elderly. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the age-dependent disparity for disease progression is not clear. COVID-19 is both a respiratory and a vascular disease in severe patients. The damage endothelial system provides a good explanation for the various complications seen in COVID-19 patients. These observations lead us to suspect that endothelial cells are a barrier that must be breached before progression to severe disease. Endothelial intracellular defences are largely dependent of the activation of the interferon (IFN) system. Nevertheless, low type I and III IFNs are generally observed in COVID-19 patients suggesting that other intracellular viral defence systems are also activated to protect the young. Intriguingly, Nitric oxide (NO), which is the main intracellular antiviral defence, has been shown to inhibit a wide array of viruses, including SARS-CoV-1. Additionally, the increased risk of death with diseases that have underlying endothelial dysfunction suggest that endothelial NOS-derived nitric oxide could be the main defence mechanism. NO decreases dramatically in the elderly, the hyperglycaemic and the patients with low levels of vitamin D. However, eNOS derived NO occurs at low levels, unless it is during inflammation and co-stimulated by bradykinin. Regrettably, the bradykinin-induced vasodilation also progressively declines with age, thereby decreasing anti-viral NO production as well. Intriguingly, the inverse correlation between the percentage of WT eNOS haplotype and death per 100K population could potentially explain the disparity of COVID-19 mortality between Asian and non-Asian countries. These changes with age, low bradykinin and NO, may be the fundamental reasons that intracellular innate immunity declines with age leading to more severe COVID-19 complications.


Subject(s)
Aging/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Age Factors , Bradykinin , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/cytology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Haplotypes , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-905680

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by massive inflammation of the arterial endothelium accompanied by vasoconstriction and widespread pulmonary micro thrombi. As a result, due to the destruction of nitric oxide (•NO) by inflammatory superoxide (O2•-), pulmonary •NO concentration ceases, resulting in uncontrolled platelet aggregation and massive thrombosis, which kills the patients. Introducing •NO by inhalation (INO) may replace the loss of endothelium-derived •NO. The first results from clinical trials with INO in SARS-CoV-2 patients show a rapid and sustained improvement in cardiopulmonary function and decreased inflammation. An ongoing phase III study is expected to confirm the method's efficacy. INO may hence become a first line treatment in SARS-CoV-2 patients. However, due to the rapid inactivation of •NO by deoxyhemoglobin to nitrate, pulmonary administration of •NO will not protect remote organs. Another INO-related pharmacological approach to protect SARS-CoV-2 patients from developing life-threatening disease is to inhibit the O2•--driven destruction of •NO by neutralizing inflammatory O2•-. By making use of low molecular weight compounds that mimic the action of the enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). The MnSOD mimetics of the so-called porphyrin type (e.g., AEOL 10150), salen type (e.g., EUK-8) and cyclic polyamine type (e.g., M40419, today known as GC4419 and avasopasem manganese) have all been shown to positively affect the inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells in preclinical models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Manganese diPyridoxyL EthylDiamine (MnPLED)-type mangafodipir (manganese dipyridoxyl diphosphate-MnDPDP), a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent that possesses MnSOD mimetic activity, has shown promising results in various forms of inflammation, in preclinical as well as clinical settings. Intravenously administration of mangafodipir will, in contrast to INO, reach remote organs and may hence become an important supplement to INO. From the authors' viewpoint, it appears logical to test mangafodipr in COVID-19 patients at risk of developing life-threatening SARS-CoV-2. Five days after submission of the current manuscript, Galera Pharmaceuticals Inc. announced the dosing of the first patient in a randomized, double-blind pilot phase II clinical trial with GC4419 for COVID-19. The study was first posted on ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04555096) 18 September 2020.

12.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0259, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of inhaled epoprostenol and inhaled nitric oxide in patients with refractory hypoxemia secondary to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Retrospective single-center study. SETTING: ICUs at a large academic medical center in the United States. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight adult critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and refractory hypoxemia treated with either inhaled epoprostenol or inhaled nitric oxide for at least 1 hour between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Electronic chart review. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 93 patients screened, 38 were included in the analysis, with mild (4, 10.5%), moderate (24, 63.2%), or severe (10, 26.3%), with acute respiratory distress syndrome. All patients were initiated on inhaled epoprostenol as the initial pulmonary vasodilator and the median time from intubation to initiation was 137 hours (68-228 h). The median change in Pao2/Fio2 was 0 (-12.8 to 31.6) immediately following administration of inhaled epoprostenol. Sixteen patients were classified as responders (increase Pao2/Fio2 > 10%) to inhaled epoprostenol, with a median increase in Pao2/Fio2 of 34.1 (24.3-53.9). The mean change in Pao2 and Spo2 was -0.55 ± 41.8 and -0.6 ± 4.7, respectively. Eleven patients transitioned to inhaled nitric oxide with a median change of 11 (3.6-24.8) in Pao2/Fio2. A logistic regression analysis did not identify any differences in outcomes or characteristics between the responders and the nonresponders. Minimal adverse events were seen in patients who received either inhaled epoprostenol or inhaled nitric oxide. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the initiation of inhaled epoprostenol and inhaled nitric oxide in patients with refractory hypoxemia secondary to coronavirus disease 2019, on average, did not produce significant increases in oxygenation metrics. However, a group of patients had significant improvement with inhaled epoprostenol and inhaled nitric oxide. Administration of inhaled epoprostenol or inhaled nitric oxide may be considered in patients with severe respiratory failure secondary to coronavirus disease 2019.

13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 269, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to almost 100 countries, infected over 31 M patients and resulted in 961 K deaths worldwide as of 21st September 2020. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with multi-functional failure as a result of a cytokine storm with increased serum levels of cytokines. The pathogenesis of the respiratory failure in COVID-19 is yet unknown, but diffuse alveolar damage with interstitial thickening leading to compromised gas exchange is a plausible mechanism. Hypoxia is seen in the COVID-19 patients, however, patients present with a distinct phenotype. Intracellular levels of nitric oxide (NO) play an important role in the vasodilation of small vessels. To elucidate the intracellular levels of NO inside of RBCs in COVID-19 patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. METHODS: We recruited 14 COVID-19 infected cases who had pulmonary involvement of their disease, 4 non-COVID-19 healthy controls (without pulmonary involvement and were not hypoxic) and 2 hypoxic non-COVID-19 patients subjects who presented at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital of Tehran, Iran between March-May 2020. Whole blood samples were harvested from patients and intracellular NO levels in 1 × 106 red blood cells (RBC) was measured by DAF staining using flow cytometry (FACS Calibour, BD, CA, USA). RESULTS: The Mean florescent of intensity for NO was significantly enhanced in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy control subjects (P ≤ 0.05). As a further control for whether hypoxia induced this higher intracellular NO, we evaluated the levels of NO inside RBC of hypoxic patients. No significant differences in NO levels were seen between the hypoxic and non-hypoxic control group. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates increased levels of intracellular NO in RBCs from COVID-19 patients. Future multi-centre studies should examine whether this is seen in a larger number of COVID-19 patients and whether NO therapy may be of use in these severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Partial Pressure , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasodilation , Young Adult
14.
Virus Res ; 291: 198202, 2021 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867170

ABSTRACT

The endogenous free radical nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in the immunological system. NO has already been reported as a potential candidate for use in the treatment of human coronavirus infections, including COVID-19. In fact, inhaled NO has been used in clinical settings for its antiviral respiratory action, and in the regulation of blood pressure to avoid clot formation. In this mini-review, we discuss recent progress concerning the antivirus activity of NO in clinical, pre-clinical and research settings, and its beneficial effects in the treatment of clinical complications in patients infected with coronaviruses and other respiratory viral diseases, including COVID-19. We also highlight promising therapeutic effects of NO donors allied to nanomaterials to combat COVID-19 and other human coronavirus infections. Nanomaterials can be designed to deliver sustained, localized NO release directly at the desired application site, enhancing the beneficial effects of NO and minimizing the side effects. Challenges and perspectives are presented to open new fields of research.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage
15.
Redox Biol ; 37: 101734, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779587

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a global public health emergency posing a high burden on nations' health care systems and economies. Despite the great effort put in the development of vaccines and specific treatments, no prophylaxis or effective therapeutics are currently available. Nitric oxide (NO) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial and a potent vasodilator that has proved to be effective in reducing SARS-CoV replication and hypoxia in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Given the potential of NO as treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection, we have evaluated the in vitro antiviral effect of NO on SARS-CoV-2 replication. The NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) had a dose dependent inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2 replication, while the non S-nitrosated NAP was not active, as expected. Although the viral replication was not completely abolished (at 200 µM and 400 µM), SNAP delayed or completely prevented the development of viral cytopathic effect in treated cells, and the observed protective effect correlated with the level of inhibition of the viral replication. The capacity of the NO released from SNAP to covalently bind and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CL recombinant protease in vitro was also tested. The observed reduction in SARS-CoV-2 protease activity was consistent with S-nitrosation of the enzyme active site cysteine.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Donors/pharmacology , S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(6): 1109-1113, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rescue therapies to treat or prevent progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hypoxic respiratory failure in pregnant patients are lacking. METHOD: To treat pregnant patients meeting criteria for severe or critical COVID-19 with high-dose (160-200 ppm) nitric oxide by mask twice daily and report on their clinical response. EXPERIENCE: Six pregnant patients were admitted with severe or critical COVID-19 at Massachusetts General Hospital from April to June 2020 and received inhalational nitric oxide therapy. All patients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A total of 39 treatments was administered. An improvement in cardiopulmonary function was observed after commencing nitric oxide gas, as evidenced by an increase in systemic oxygenation in each administration session among those with evidence of baseline hypoxemia and reduction of tachypnea in all patients in each session. Three patients delivered a total of four neonates during hospitalization. At 28-day follow-up, all three patients were home and their newborns were in good condition. Three of the six patients remain pregnant after hospital discharge. Five patients had two negative test results on nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 within 28 days from admission. CONCLUSION: Nitric oxide at 160-200 ppm is easy to use, appears to be well tolerated, and might be of benefit in pregnant patients with COVID-19 with hypoxic respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Massachusetts , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 3516-3526, 2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726012

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease with few successful treatments, and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking (CS). Since the novel coronavirus has spread worldwide seriously, there is growing concern that patients who have chronic respiratory conditions like COPD can easily be infected and are more prone to having severe illness and even mortality because of lung dysfunction. Loquat leaves have long been used as an important material for both pharmaceutical and functional applications in the treatment of lung disease in Asia, especially in China and Japan. Total flavonoids (TF), the main active components derived from loquat leaves, showed remarkable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, their protective activity against CS-induced COPD airway inflammation and oxidative stress and its underlying mechanism still remain not well-understood. The present study uses a CS-induced mouse model to estimate the morphological changes in lung tissue. The results demonstrated that TF suppressed the histological changes in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and diminished the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Moreover, TF also inhibited phosphorylation of IKK, IκB and NFκB and increased p-Akt. Interestingly, TF could inhibit CS-induced oxidative stress in the lungs of COPD mice. TF treatment significantly inhibited the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, TF markedly downregulated TRPV1 and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and upregulated the expression of SOD-2, while the p-JNK level was observed to be inhibited in COPD mice. Taken together, our findings showed that the protective effect and putative mechanism of the action of TF resulted in the inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress through the regulation of TRPV1 and the related signal pathway in lung tissues. It suggested that TF derived from loquat leaves could be considered to be an alternative or a new functional material and used for the treatment of CS-induced COPD.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Eriobotrya/chemistry , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , TRPV Cation Channels/immunology , Animals , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Superoxide Dismutase/immunology , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110142, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is a significant complication for some patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially those requiring intensive care. Tachyphylaxis to the current therapy, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), is also common. In vitro, folic acid directly increases nitric oxide (NO) production and extends its duration of action; effects which could be of benefit in reversing pulmonary hypertension and severe hypoxaemia. Our work has shown that, in the systemic circulation, folic acid in high dose rapidly improves nitric oxide mediated vasodilation, by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). HYPOTHESIS: A similar effect of high dose folic acid on pulmonary endothelial function would be expected from the same mechanism and would lead to improvement in pulmonary perfusion. We therefore hypothesise that folic acid, 5 mg or greater, is a useful therapeutic option for pulmonary hypertension and/or refractory severe hypoxaemia, in patients with severe COVID-19 associated pneumonia in whom NO therapy is considered, with a very low risk of adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Folic Acid/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , COVID-19 , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Folic Acid/administration & dosage , Folic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , Mice , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachyphylaxis
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