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Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(1): 20-28, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744715


The risk-benefit ratio associated with the use of repurposed drugs to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is complicated because benefits are awaited, not proven. A thorough literature search was conducted to source information on the pharmacological properties of 5 drugs and 1 combination (azithromycin, chloroquine, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, and lopinavir/ritonavir) repurposed to treat COVID-19. A risk assessment of drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS) associated with COVID-19 repurposed drugs was performed and compared with 23 well-known torsadogenic and 10 low torsadogenic risk compounds. Computer calculations were performed using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data, including affinity to block the rapid component of the delayed rectifier cardiac potassium current (IKr ) encoded by the human ether-a-go-go gene (hERG), propensity to prolong cardiac repolarization (QT interval) and cause torsade de pointes (TdP). Seven different LQTS indices were calculated and compared. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database was queried with specific key words relating to arrhythmogenic events. Estimators of LQTS risk levels indicated a very high or moderate risk for all COVID-19 repurposed drugs with the exception for azithromycin, although cases of TdP have been reported with this drug. There was excellent agreement among the various indices used to assess risk of drug-induced LQTS for the 6 repurposed medications and 23 torsadogenic compounds. Based on our results, monitoring of the QT interval shall be performed when some COVID-19 repurposed drugs are used, as such monitoring is possible for hospitalized patients or with the use of biodevices for outpatients.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Risk Assessment