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1.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1001-1016, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Immune System/immunology , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Minerals/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Humans , Immune System/drug effects
2.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14466, 2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236941

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-C0V-2), has affected many lives globally. In Singapore, majority of the infected individuals are foreign workers residing in dormitories. A retrospective review conducted over two weeks (April 13 to April 26, 2020) of migrant workers admitted to a public hospital in Singapore revealed that a significant number of them developed hypokalemia. The purpose of this study was to examine any association that might exist between COVID-19 and hypokalemia. Fifty patients in this study had hypokalemia, translating to a prevalence of 28.4% (95% CI: 21.9-35.7). Gastrointestinal (GI) loss was a significant cause of hypokalemia with a prevalence of GI symptoms in the study group (diarrhea, vomiting, poor oral intake) of 5.7% (95% CI: 2.8-10.2). Clinicians should consider screening for hypokalemia in COVID-19 patients and initiate potassium replacement to mitigate any potential arrhythmias.

3.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14466, 2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231587

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-C0V-2), has affected many lives globally. In Singapore, majority of the infected individuals are foreign workers residing in dormitories. A retrospective review conducted over two weeks (April 13 to April 26, 2020) of migrant workers admitted to a public hospital in Singapore revealed that a significant number of them developed hypokalemia. The purpose of this study was to examine any association that might exist between COVID-19 and hypokalemia. Fifty patients in this study had hypokalemia, translating to a prevalence of 28.4% (95% CI: 21.9-35.7). Gastrointestinal (GI) loss was a significant cause of hypokalemia with a prevalence of GI symptoms in the study group (diarrhea, vomiting, poor oral intake) of 5.7% (95% CI: 2.8-10.2). Clinicians should consider screening for hypokalemia in COVID-19 patients and initiate potassium replacement to mitigate any potential arrhythmias.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133680

ABSTRACT

AIM: To identify laboratory biomarkers that predict disease severity and outcome among COVID-19 patients admitted to the Millennium COVID-19 Care Center in Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 429 COVID-19 patients who were on follow up from July to October 2020. Data was described using frequency tables. Robust Poisson regression model was used to identify predictors of COVID-19 severity where adjusted relative risk (ARR), P-value and 95 CI for ARR were used to test significance. Binary Logistic regression model was used to assess the presence of statistically significant association between the explanatory variables and COVID-19 outcome where adjusted odds ratio (AOR), P-value and 95%CI for AOR were used for testing significance. RESULTS: Among the 429 patients studied, 182 (42.4%) had Severe disease at admission and the rest 247 (57.6%) had Non-severe disease. Regarding disease outcome, 45 (10.5%) died and 384 (89.5%) were discharged alive. Age group (ARR = 1.779, 95%CI = 1.405-2.252, p-value <0.0001), Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (ARR = 4.769, 95%CI = 2.419-9.402 p-value <0.0001), Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (ARR = 1.358, 95%CI = 1.109-1.662 p-value = 0.003), Sodium (ARR = 1.321, 95%CI = 1.091-1.600 p-value = 0.004) and Potassium (ARR = 1.269, 95%CI = 1.059-1.521 p-value = 0.010) were found to be significant predictors of COVID-19 severity. The following factors were significantly associated with COVID-19 outcome; age group (AOR = 2.767, 95%CI = 1.099-6.067, p-value = 0.031), white blood cell count (WBC) (AOR = 4.253, 95%CI = 1.918-9.429, p-value = 0.0001) and sodium level (AOR = 3.435, 95%CI = 1.439-8.198, p-value = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Assessing and monitoring the laboratory markers of WBC, NLR, SGOT, sodium and potassium levels at the earliest stage of the disease could have a considerable role in halting disease progression and death.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 449-454, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Serum levels of potassium (K+) appear to be significantly lower in severe cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the clinical significance of this is unknown. The objective was to investigate whether hypokalemia acts as a biomarker of severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and is associated with major clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia (March 3 to May 2, 2020) was performed. Patients were categorized according to nadir levels of K+ in the first 72 h of admission: hypokalemia (K+ ≤3.5 mmol/l) and normokalemia (K+ >3.5 mmol/l). The main outcomes were all-cause mortality and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV); these were analyzed by multiple logistic regression (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI)). RESULTS: Three hundred and six patients were enrolled. Ninety-four patients (30.7%) had hypokalemia and these patients showed significantly higher comorbidity (Charlson comorbidity index ≥3, 30.0% vs 16.3%; p =  0.02) and CURB65 scores (median (interquartile range): 1.5 (0.0-3.0) vs 1.0 (0.0-2.0); p =  0.04), as well as higher levels of some inflammatory parameters at baseline. After adjustment for confounders, hypokalemia was independently associated with requiring IMV during the admission (OR 8.98, 95% CI 2.54-31.74). Mortality was 15.0% (n = 46) and was not influenced by low K+. Hypokalemia was associated with longer hospital and ICU stays. CONCLUSIONS: Hypokalemia is prevalent in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Hypokalemia is an independent predictor of IMV requirement and seems to be a sensitive biomarker of severe progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hypokalemia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(2): 109-119, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836021

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with various symptoms and changes in hematological and biochemical variables. However, clinical features, which can differentiate COVID-19 from non-COVID-19, are not clear. We therefore examined the key clinical features of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. This study included 60 COVID-19 patients and 100 non-COVID-19 patients, diagnosed by PCR, and no significant differences in the age and sex were seen between the two groups. The frequencies of fatigue, loose stool, diarrhea, nasal obstruction, olfactory dysfunction, taste dysfunction, underlying hyperlipidemia, and the prescription of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than those in non-COVID-19 patients. The counts of leucocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, and basophils and the levels of chloride and calcium in blood of COVID-19 patients were significantly lower than those of non-COVID-19 patients. The frequencies of atypical lymphocytes and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and potassium were significantly higher in COVID-19 than those in non-COVID-19. The C-reactive protein (CRP) level in COVID-19 patients was significantly lower than that in non-COVID-19 patients, when we compared CRP levels among patients with elevated CRP. This study is the first to indicate that electrolyte levels and the frequency of atypical lymphocytes in COVID-19 are significantly different from those in non-COVID-19. Fatigue, loose stool, diarrhea, nasal obstruction, olfactory dysfunction, and taste dysfunction were the key symptoms of COVID-19. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia and ARB may be risk factors of COVID-19. In conclusion, leucocytes, leucocyte fractions, CRP, LDH, and electrolytes are useful indicators for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Electrolytes/blood , Lymphocytes/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Taste Disorders/virology , Young Adult
8.
Cell Death Discov ; 6(1): 96, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834872

ABSTRACT

The hand of molecular mimicry in shaping SARS-CoV-2 evolution and immune evasion remains to be deciphered. Here, we report 33 distinct 8-mer/9-mer peptides that are identical between SARS-CoV-2 and the human reference proteome. We benchmark this observation against other viral-human 8-mer/9-mer peptide identity, which suggests generally similar extents of molecular mimicry for SARS-CoV-2 and many other human viruses. Interestingly, 20 novel human peptides mimicked by SARS-CoV-2 have not been observed in any previous coronavirus strains (HCoV, SARS-CoV, and MERS). Furthermore, four of the human 8-mer/9-mer peptides mimicked by SARS-CoV-2 map onto HLA-B*40:01, HLA-B*40:02, and HLA-B*35:01 binding peptides from human PAM, ANXA7, PGD, and ALOX5AP proteins. This mimicry of multiple human proteins by SARS-CoV-2 is made salient by single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) analysis that shows the targeted genes significantly expressed in human lungs and arteries; tissues implicated in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Finally, HLA-A*03 restricted 8-mer peptides are found to be shared broadly by human and coronaviridae helicases in functional hotspots, with potential implications for nucleic acid unwinding upon initial infection. This study presents the first scan of human peptide mimicry by SARS-CoV-2, and via its benchmarking against human-viral mimicry more broadly, presents a computational framework for follow-up studies to assay how evolutionary tinkering may relate to zoonosis and herd immunity.

9.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 57(3): 262-265, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-215069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early studies have reported various electrolyte abnormalities at admission in patients who progress to the severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As electrolyte imbalance may not only impact patient care, but provide insight into the pathophysiology of COVID-19, we aimed to analyse all early data reported on electrolytes in COVID-19 patients with and without severe form. METHODS: An electronic search of Medline (PubMed interface), Scopus and Web of Science was performed for articles comparing electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium) between COVID-19 patients with and without severe disease. A pooled analysis was performed to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Five studies with a total sample size of 1415 COVID-19 patients. Sodium was significantly lower in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.91 mmol/L [95% CI: -1.33 to -0.50 mmol/L]). Similarly, potassium was also significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with severe disease (WMD: -0.12 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07 mmol/L], I2=33%). For chloride, no statistical differences were observed between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 (WMD: 0.30 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.41 to 1.01 mmol/L]). For calcium, a statistically significant lower concentration was noted in patients with severe COVID-19 (WMD: -0.20 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.25 to -0.20 mmol/L]). CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis confirms that COVID-19 severity is associated with lower serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium. We recommend electrolytes be measured at initial presentation and serially monitored during hospitalization in order to establish timely and appropriate corrective actions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Electrolytes/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Calcium/blood , Chlorides/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Potassium/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium/blood , Water-Electrolyte Balance
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