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1.
Pneumologe (Berl) ; : 1-5, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the SARS-CoV­2 pandemic the focus of attention was on children and adolescents with chronic lung diseases. Due to a lack of epidemiological data and clinical experience, it was feared that children with respiratory diseases were a risk group for particularly severe courses of COVID-19, as has been reported for adults. OBJECTIVE: The currently available (epidemiological) data on this patient group are presented as well as a description of our own experiences based on three selected cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review of the literature was carried out and three selected case reports and a discussion of current recommendations are presented. RESULTS: The incidence of COVID-19 is significantly lower in children than in adults. Furthermore, the known risk factors in adults cannot be simply transferred to pediatric patients. In the majority of cases, children and adolescents with chronic lung diseases show a milder course of SARS-CoV­2 infections. CONCLUSION: Although the hitherto available data show that children and adolescents have a lower risk for COVID-19 courses than adults, it should not be ignored that fatal outcomes have also been reported in pediatric patients. Moreover, late effects, such as the pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) can sometimes lead to a fatal outcome. Nevertheless, care must be taken that this vulnerable patient group does not suffer from avoidable negative side effects of restriction and isolation measures. As an example, the no-show behavior in outpatient departments during the lockdown might have led to a relevant undertreatment of underlying chronic health conditions.

2.
J Complement Integr Med ; 19(1): 145-154, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular diseases have a multifaceted, it causes modern epidemic; Recognizing in the risk factor stage, is crucial, given the risk of progression to cardiovascular disease. Ibn Sina, described CVDs as a resultant of gradual derangement of Quwwat ghadhiya (Nutritive faculty); in which management with ghidha' (diet), tadabir (regimens), dawa' (drug) has been received. To evaluate the effect of Arjun Chal (Terminalia arjuna) in CVD risk factors. And to evaluate the drug safety. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Total 120 patients were screened at OPD of NIUM hospital, Bangalore during 2018-19, only 48 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and signed written informed consent and their detailed medical history was recorded. Arjun Chal powder (5 gm BD) for eight weeks administered in test group (n=24), Amlodipine (5 mg) and Atorvastatin (10 mg) once a day for same duration administered in control group (n=24). Efficacy of the drug assessed by the Lipid profile, BP and BMI; lipid profile were performed at baseline and at 8 weeks, while BP and BMI performed at baseline, 15, 30, 45, and 60th day intervals. Study was completed by 40 patients. The results of both the therapies were then compared and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Totally, both groups reduces assessment parameters i.e. statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Test group showed greater reduction in terms of all assessment parmeters. But, the difference between both the groups was statistically non-significant p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Both test and control drugs were effective, but Arjun Chal had a slight edge over amlodipne and atorvastatin, and was found to be safe and well tolerated. It has a cardio protective potential and hence effective to delay/prevent CVD in patient with cardiovascular risk factor.Keywords: Unani System of Medicine; T. arjuna; Arjun Chal; Efficacy; Safety; Cardiovascular risk factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , India , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The preventive role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HCQ and other immunosuppressive drugs on the incidence of COVID-19. METHODS: The data were collected from the South Korea National Health Insurance Sharing-COVID-19 database. All individuals who underwent nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests for COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2020 are included. The association between COVID-19 risk and HCQ use was examined in a propensity score-matched population. Factors associated with COVID-19 were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Total 8,070 patients with COVID-19 and 121,050 negative controls were included from the database. Among all participants, 381 were HCQ users. In a propensity score-matched population, the incidence of COVID-19 was 7.1% in HCQ users and 6.8% in non-users. The odds ratio (OR) for HCQ use was 1.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.58 to 1.89. Among the subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 33 were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 478 were not. Use of HCQ, glucocorticoids, or other immunosuppressive drugs was not associated with COVID-19 risk, whereas abatacept use was. Chronic lung disease was an independent risk factor for COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with RA (adjusted OR, 6.07; 95% CI, 1.10 to 33.59). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of COVID-19 did not differ between HCQ users and non-users. Glucocorticoids, conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biological DMARDs other than abatacept did not increase the risk of COVID-19.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 802-811, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented healthcare challenges, and COVID-19 has been linked to secondary infections. Candidemia, a fungal healthcare-associated infection, has been described in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. However, studies of candidemia and COVID-19 coinfection have been limited in sample size and geographic scope. We assessed differences in patients with candidemia with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-level analysis using population-based candidemia surveillance data collected through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program during April-August 2020 to compare characteristics of candidemia patients with and without a positive test for COVID-19 in the 30 days before their Candida culture using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Of the 251 candidemia patients included, 64 (25.5%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Liver disease, solid-organ malignancies, and prior surgeries were each >3 times more common in patients without COVID-19 coinfection, whereas intensive care unit-level care, mechanical ventilation, having a central venous catheter, and receipt of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants were each >1.3 times more common in patients with COVID-19. All-cause in-hospital fatality was 2 times higher among those with COVID-19 (62.5%) than without (32.1%). CONCLUSIONS: One-quarter of candidemia patients had COVID-19. These patients were less likely to have certain underlying conditions and recent surgery commonly associated with candidemia and more likely to have acute risk factors linked to COVID-19 care, including immunosuppressive medications. Given the high mortality, it is important for clinicians to remain vigilant and take proactive measures to prevent candidemia in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Candidemia/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Bras Nefrol ; 43(4): 551-571, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575271

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with higher mortality and a worse prognosis. Nevertheless, most patients with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, and about 5% can develop more severe symptoms and involve hypovolemia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. In a pathophysiological perspective, severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by numerous dependent pathways triggered by hypercytokinemia, especially IL-6 and TNF-alpha, leading to systemic inflammation, hypercoagulability, and multiple organ dysfunction. Systemic endotheliitis and direct viral tropism to proximal renal tubular cells and podocytes are important pathophysiological mechanisms leading to kidney injury in patients with more critical infection, with a clinical presentation ranging from proteinuria and/or glomerular hematuria to fulminant AKI requiring renal replacement therapies. Glomerulonephritis, rhabdomyolysis, and nephrotoxic drugs are also associated with kidney damage in patients with COVID-19. Thus, AKI and proteinuria are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We provide a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the impact of acute kidney involvement in the evolutive prognosis and mortality of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Humans , Proteinuria , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4005-e4011, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities are central in the national conversation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) , with Black/African Americans being disproportionately affected. We assessed risk factors for death from COVID-19 among Black inpatients at an urban hospital in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (the COVID-19 virus) on qualitative polymerase chain reaction assay who were admitted between 8 March 2020 and 6 May 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The case fatality rate was 29.1% (122/419). The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization was 5.3 (3.9) days. The incidence of altered mental status on presentation was higher among patients who died than those who survived, 43% vs 20.0%, respectively (P < .0001). From multivariable analysis, the odds of death increased with age (≥60 years), admission from a nursing facility, Charlson score, altered mental status, higher C-reactive protein on admission, need for mechanical ventilation, presence of shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: These demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors may help healthcare providers identify Black patients at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated outcomes. Early and aggressive interventions among this at-risk population may help mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4090-e4099, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant reductions in transplantation, motivated in part by concerns of disproportionately more severe disease among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, clinical features, outcomes, and predictors of mortality in SOT recipients are not well described. METHODS: We performed a multicenter cohort study of SOT recipients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Data were collected using standardized intake and 28-day follow-up electronic case report forms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for the primary endpoint, 28-day mortality, among hospitalized patients. RESULTS: Four hundred eighty-two SOT recipients from >50 transplant centers were included: 318 (66%) kidney or kidney/pancreas, 73 (15.1%) liver, 57 (11.8%) heart, and 30 (6.2%) lung. Median age was 58 (interquartile range [IQR] 46-57), median time post-transplant was 5 years (IQR 2-10), 61% were male, and 92% had ≥1 underlying comorbidity. Among those hospitalized (376 [78%]), 117 (31%) required mechanical ventilation, and 77 (20.5%) died by 28 days after diagnosis. Specific underlying comorbidities (age >65 [adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-5.5, P < .001], congestive heart failure [aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.0, P = .004], chronic lung disease [aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.2, P = .018], obesity [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.4, P = .039]) and presenting findings (lymphopenia [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5, P = .033], abnormal chest imaging [aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.5, P = .027]) were independently associated with mortality. Multiple measures of immunosuppression intensity were not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 20.5%. Age and underlying comorbidities rather than immunosuppression intensity-related measures were major drivers of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
8.
Clin Endosc ; 54(6): 851-856, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The recovery room used after endoscopy has limited capacity, and an efficient flow of the endoscopy unit is desired. We investigated the duration of hospital stay after endoscopy and the risk factors for prolonged hospital stay among outpatients. METHODS: We retrospectively studied consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy at the Toyoshima Endoscopy Clinic. We collected data on age, sex, body weight, midazolam and pethidine dosage, respiratory depression during endoscopy, and duration of hospital stay after endoscopy (scope out to check out). Risk factors for prolonged hospital stay (>100 minutes) were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We enrolled 3,898 patients, including 3,517 (90.2%) patients tested under sedation and 381 (9.8%) patients tested without sedation. Overall, 442 (11.3%) patients had prolonged stay (>100 min). The mean time difference between sedation group and non-sedation group was 44.2 minutes for esophagogastroduodenoscopy and 39.1 minutes for colonoscopy. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.025; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.014-1.036), female sex (OR, 1.657; 95% CI, 1.220-2.249), and midazolam dose (OR, 1.019; 95% CI, 1.013-1.026) were independently associated with prolonged hospital stay after esophagogastroduodenoscopy, with similar results for colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: Old age, female sex, and midazolam dose were independent risk factors for prolonged hospital stay after endoscopy.

9.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 22, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557646

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented an unprecedented global challenge for the healthcare community. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to get transmitted during the asymptomatic phase, and its high infectivity have led to the rapid transmission of COVID-19 beyond geographic regions facilitated by international travel, leading to a pandemic. To guide effective control and interventions, primary data is required urgently, globally, including from low- and middle-income countries where documentation of cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 is limited. Objectives: This study aims to describe the cardiovascular manifestations and cardiovascular risk factors in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: We propose to conduct an observational cohort study involving 5000 patients recruited from hospitals in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Eligible adult COVID-19 patients will be recruited from the participating hospitals and followed-up until 30 days post admission. The outcomes will be reported at discharge and includes the need of ICU admission, need of ventilator, death (with cause), major adverse cardiovascular events, neurological outcomes, acute renal failure, and pulmonary outcomes. Conclusion: Given the enormous burden posed by COVID-19 and the associated severe prognostic implication of CVD involvement, this study will provide useful insights on the risk factors for severe disease, clinical presentation, and outcomes of various cardiovascular manifestations in COVID-19 patients particularly from low and middle income countries from where the data remain scant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Global Health , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors
10.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
11.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1665-1674, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526879

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease with a high rate of progression to critical illness. However, the predictors of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are not yet well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with ICU mortality in our hospital. Materials and methods: In this single-centered retrospective study, we enrolled 86 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU of Dokuz Eylül University Hospital (Izmir, Turkey) between 18 March 2020 and 31 October 2020. Data on demographic information, preexisting comorbidities, treatments, the laboratory findings at ICU admission, and clinical outcomes were collected. The chest computerized tomography (CT) of the patients were evaluated specifically for COVID-19 and CT score was calculated. Data of the survivors and nonsurvivors were compared with survival analysis to identify risk factors of mortality in the ICU. Results: The mean age of the patients was 71.1 ± 14.1 years. The patients were predominantly male. The most common comorbidity in patients was hypertension. ICU mortality was 62.8%. Being over 60 years old, CT score > 15, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score ≥ 15, having dementia, treatment without favipiravir, base excess in blood gas analysis ≤ ­2.0, WBC > 10,000/mm3, D-dimer > 1.6 µg/mL, troponin > 24 ng/L, Na ≥ 145 mmol/L were considered to link with ICU mortality according to Kaplan­Meier curves (log-rank test, p < 0.05). The APACHE II score (HR: 1.055, 95% CI: 1.021­1.090) and chest CT score (HR: 2.411, 95% CI:1.193­4.875) were associated with ICU mortality in the cox proportional-hazard regression model adjusted for age, dementia, favipiravir treatment and troponin. Howewer, no difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors in terms of intubation timing. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients have a high ICU admission and mortality rate. Studies in the ICU are also crucial in this respect. In our study, we investigated the ICU mortality risk factors of COVID-19 patients. We determined a predictive mortality model consisting of APACHE II score and chest CT score. It was thought that this feasible and practical model would assist in making clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/methods , Hospital Mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526842

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to characterize COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2-infected) patients who develop bloodstream infection (BSI) and to assess risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients admitted for ≥48 h to a large Central Italy hospital for COVID-19 (1 March to 31 May 2020) who had or had not survived at discharge. We included only patients having blood cultures drawn or other inclusion criteria satisfied. Kaplan-Meier survival or Cox regression analyses were performed of 293 COVID-19 patients studied, 46 patients (15.7%) had a hospital-acquired clinically relevant BSI secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection, accounting for 58 episodes (49 monomicrobial and 9 polymicrobial) in total. Twelve episodes (20.7%) occurred at day 3 of hospital admission. Sixty-nine species were isolated, including Staphylococcus aureus (32.8%), Enterobacterales (20.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.2%), Candida (13.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3%). Of 69 isolates, 27 (39.1%) were multidrug-resistant organisms. Twelve (54.5%) of 22 patients for whom empirical antimicrobial therapy was inappropriate were infected by a multidrug-resistant organism. Of 46 patients, 26 (56.5%) survived and 20 (43.5%) died. Exploring variables for association with in-hospital mortality identified > 75-year age (HR 2.97, 95% CI 1.15-7.68, p = 0.02), septic shock (HR 6.55, 95% CI 2.36-18.23, p < 0.001) and BSI onset ≤ 3 days (HR 4.68, 95% CI 1.40-15.63, p = 0.01) as risk factors independently associated with death. In our hospital, mortality among COVID-19 patients with BSI was high. While continued vigilance against these infections is essential, identification of risk factors for mortality may help to reduce fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

13.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 666067, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526796

ABSTRACT

As the global burden of mortality from COVID-19 continues to rise, an understanding of who is most at risk of adverse outcomes is of paramount importance. Pre-existing cardiometabolic, renal and respiratory diseases as well as old age are well-established risk factors associated with disease severity and mortality among patients with COVID-19. However, mounting evidence also indicates an increased susceptibility to, and risk of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 in people with schizophrenia, independent of age and comorbidity. Therefore, elucidating the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms which may increase the risk of poor outcomes in people with schizophrenia is of crucial importance. Here, we provide a narrative on the current understanding of COVID-19 in patients with schizophrenia and propose potential mechanisms which may link schizophrenia with an increased susceptibility to, and greater risk of adverse outcomes from COVID-19. Given the existing knowledge gaps, robust clinical and biological studies are required to further our understanding of some of these underlying mechanisms, so that effective prevention and treatment strategies for COVID-19 in patients with schizophrenia can be developed.

14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common, familial genitourinary disorder, and a major cause of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) and kidney failure. The genetic basis of VUR is not well understood. METHODS: A diagnostic analysis sought rare, pathogenic copy number variant (CNV) disorders among 1737 patients with VUR. A GWAS was performed in 1395 patients and 5366 controls, of European ancestry. RESULTS: Altogether, 3% of VUR patients harbored an undiagnosed rare CNV disorder, such as the 1q21.1, 16p11.2, 22q11.21, and triple X syndromes ((OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.54; P=6.35×10-8) The GWAS identified three study-wide significant and five suggestive loci with large effects (ORs, 1.41-6.9), containing canonical developmental genes expressed in the developing urinary tract (WDPCP, OTX1, BMP5, VANGL1, and WNT5A). In particular, 3.3% of VUR patients were homozygous for an intronic variant in WDPCP (rs13013890; OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.39 to 5.56; P=1.86×10-9). This locus was associated with multiple genitourinary phenotypes in the UK Biobank and eMERGE studies. Analysis of Wnt5a mutant mice confirmed the role of Wnt5a signaling in bladder and ureteric morphogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity of VUR. Altogether, 6% of patients with VUR harbored a rare CNV or a common variant genotype conferring an OR >3. Identification of these genetic risk factors has multiple implications for clinical care and for analysis of outcomes in VUR.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1634-e1644, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fungal coinfection is a recognized complication of respiratory virus infections, increasing morbidity and mortality, but can be readily treated if diagnosed early. An increasing number of small studies describing aspergillosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe respiratory distress are being reported, but comprehensive data are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and impact of invasive fungal disease in adult COVID-19 patients with severe respiratory distress. METHODS: An evaluation of a national, multicenter, prospective cohort evaluation of an enhanced testing strategy to diagnose invasive fungal disease in COVID-19 intensive care patients. Results were used to generate a mechanism to define aspergillosis in future COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: One-hundred and thirty-five adults (median age: 57, M/F: 2.2/1) were screened. The incidence was 26.7% (14.1% aspergillosis, 12.6% yeast infections). The overall mortality rate was 38%; 53% and 31% in patients with and without fungal disease, respectively (P = .0387). The mortality rate was reduced by the use of antifungal therapy (mortality: 38.5% in patients receiving therapy vs 90% in patients not receiving therapy (P = .008). The use of corticosteroids (P = .007) and history of chronic respiratory disease (P = .05) increased the likelihood of aspergillosis. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal disease occurs frequently in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. The survival benefit observed in patients receiving antifungal therapy implies that the proposed diagnostic and defining criteria are appropriate. Screening using a strategic diagnostic approach and antifungal prophylaxis of patients with risk factors will likely enhance the management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Mycoses , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1964-e1972, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have numerous risk factors for acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and developing severe outcomes, but current data are conflicting. METHODS: Health-care providers enrolled consecutively, by nonrandom sampling, people living with HIV (PWH) with lab-confirmed COVID-19, diagnosed at their facilities between 1 April and 1 July 2020. Deidentified data were entered into an electronic Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) system. The primary endpoint was a severe outcome, defined as a composite endpoint of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, or death. The secondary outcome was the need for hospitalization. RESULTS: There were 286 patients included; the mean age was 51.4 years (standard deviation, 14.4), 25.9% were female, and 75.4% were African American or Hispanic. Most patients (94.3%) were on antiretroviral therapy, 88.7% had HIV virologic suppression, and 80.8% had comorbidities. Within 30 days of testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 164 (57.3%) patients were hospitalized, and 47 (16.5%) required ICU admission. Mortality rates were 9.4% (27/286) overall, 16.5% (27/164) among those hospitalized, and 51.5% (24/47) among those admitted to an ICU. The primary composite endpoint occurred in 17.5% (50/286) of all patients and 30.5% (50/164) of hospitalized patients. Older age, chronic lung disease, and hypertension were associated with severe outcomes. A lower CD4 count (<200 cells/mm3) was associated with the primary and secondary endpoints. There were no associations between the ART regimen or lack of viral suppression and the predefined outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Severe clinical outcomes occurred commonly in PWH with COVID-19. The risks for poor outcomes were higher in those with comorbidities and lower CD4 cell counts, despite HIV viral suppression. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04333953.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , Female , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was likely to result in liver injury. However, few studies investigated liver injury in COVID-19 patients with chronic liver diseases. We described the clinical features in COVID-19 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients from hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China were retrospectively included between January 18, 2020, and February 26, 2020. Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) was used to defined NAFLD. RESULTS: A total of 280 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Eighty-six (30.7%) of 280 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed as NAFLD by HSI. 100 (35.7%) patients presented abnormal liver function on admission. The median ALT levels (34.5 U/L vs. 23.0 U/L, P<0.001) and the proportion of elevated ALT (>40 U/L) (40.7% vs. 10.8%, P<0.001) were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD on admission. The proportion of elevated ALT in patients with NAFLD was also significantly higher than patients without NAFLD (65.1% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001) during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.077, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.183-3.648, P=0.011), and concurrent NAFLD (OR 2.956, 95% CI 1.526-5.726, P=0.001) were independent risk factors of ALT elevation in COVID-19 patients, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR 0.402, 95%CI 0.236-0.683, P=0.001) was associated with the reduced risk of ALT elevation during hospitalization. No patient developed liver failure or death during hospitalization. The complications and clinical outcomes were comparable between COVID-19 patients with and without NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD patients are more likely to develop liver injury when infected by COVID-19. However, no patient developed severe liver-related complications during hospitalization.

18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389438

ABSTRACT

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a serious public health threat. Infections due to these organisms are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Among them, metallo-ß-lactamases (MBLs)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae are of global concern today. The ceftazidime/avibactam combination and the ceftazidime/avibactam + aztreonam combination currently represent the most promising antibiotic strategies to stave off these kinds of infections. We describe the case of a patient affected by thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) admitted in our ICU after developing a hospital-acquired SarsCoV2 interstitial pneumonia during his stay in the hematology department. His medical conditions during his ICU stay were further complicated by a K. Pneumoniae NDM sepsis. To our knowledge, the patient had no risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria exposure or contamination during his stay in the hematology department. During his stay in the ICU, we treated the sepsis with a combination therapy of ceftazidime/avibactam + aztreonam. The therapy solved his septic state, allowing for a progressive improvement in his general condition. Moreover, we noticed that the negativization of the hemocultures was also associated to a decontamination of his known rectal colonization. The ceftazidime/avibactam + aztreonam treatment could not only be a valid therapeutic option for these kinds of infections, but it could also be considered as a useful tool in selected patients' intestinal decolonizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azabicyclo Compounds/therapeutic use , Aztreonam/therapeutic use , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/drug therapy , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/drug therapy , beta-Lactamases
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 89: 65-67, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386091

ABSTRACT

The neuro-ophthalmological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are emerging but the spectrum of presentations and pathophysiological mechanism underpinning the association remains to be fully determined. We describe the case of a 44-year-old female who presented with a 12-hour history of diplopia preceded by a mild headache and found to have an isolated right abducens nerve palsy. Initial vital signs were normal but she developed a fever and nasopharyngeal swab confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR. All other investigations returned normal including blood tests, chest X-ray, MRI brain and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. She remained systemically well, and there was complete resolution of the abducens palsy and diplopia at two week follow up. In the absence of an alternative underlying cause or risk factors identified, the aetiology was presumed to be microvascular and potentially related to the viral infection. We add to the evolving literature of neuro-ophthalmological associations of SARS-CoV-2, discuss possible causal mechanisms and suggest considering asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in cases of isolated abducens palsy without clear risk factors.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Abducens Nerve Diseases/etiology , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Diplopia/diagnostic imaging , Diplopia/etiology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
20.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(2): 188-198, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have several risk factors for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI), the reported incidence of hospital-acquired infections is low. We aimed to determine the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia or no viral infection, and the incidence of VA-LRTI. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective European cohort performed in 36 ICUs. All adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation > 48 h were eligible if they had: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection at ICU admission. VA-LRTI, including ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), were diagnosed using clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological criteria. All VA-LRTI were prospectively identified, and chest-X rays were analyzed by at least two physicians. Cumulative incidence of first episodes of VA-LRTI was estimated using the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method, and compared using Fine-and Gray models. RESULTS: 1576 patients were included (568 in SARS-CoV-2, 482 in influenza, and 526 in no viral infection groups). VA-LRTI incidence was significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2 patients (287, 50.5%), as compared to influenza patients (146, 30.3%, adjusted sub hazard ratio (sHR) 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 2.04)) or patients with no viral infection (133, 25.3%, adjusted sHR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.39)). Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for a large proportion (82% to 89.7%) of VA-LRTI, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VA-LRTI is significantly higher in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as compared to patients with influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection after statistical adjustment, but residual confounding may still play a role in the effect estimates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Female , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical
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