Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

Background: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. Methods: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. Findings: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. Interpretation: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

2.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 2020 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955345

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first identified in China and has spread worldwide with a significant rate of infection. Considering the elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19, it is suggested that cytokine storms play a critical role in its pathogenesis, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is no specific drug for preventing the cytokine release syndrome (CRS) caused by COVID-19. Indeed, interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been highlighted for its many biological functions, such as immune regulation, inflammatory response, and metabolism. Therapeutic blockade of the IL-6 signaling pathway is expected to reduce the excessive immune reponse observed in COVID-19. Currently, the IL-6 receptor antagonists tocilizumab and sarilumab, have been adopted for preventing CRS during the progression of COVID-19, and remarkable beneficial effects were observed by using these humanized monoclonal antibodies. Based on the pathogenesis of COVID-19, we reviewed the biological mechanism of IL-6 blockade in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and evaluated its clinical applications.

3.
Trials ; 21(1): 794, 2020 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-768595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In some patients, acute, life-threatening respiratory injury produced by viruses such as SARS-CoV and other viral pneumonia are associated with an over-exuberant cytokine release. Elevated levels of blood IL-6 had been identified as a one of the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 disease. Anti-IL6 inhibitors are among the therapeutic armamentarium for preventing the fatal consequences of acute respiratory and multi organ failure in around 20% of the COVID-19 infected patients. At present, their use is prioritized to patients with severe interstitial pneumonia (Brescia-COVID Scale-COVID 2-3) with hyperinflammation as determined by the presence of elevated IL6 and/or d-dimer, or progressive d-dimer increase, in patients who otherwise are subsidiary to ICU admission. However, many uncertainties remain on the actual role of anti-IL6 inhibitors in this setting, and whether current use and timing is the right one. There is the hypothesis that the use of anti-IL6 inhibitors at an earlier state during the hyperinflammatory syndrome would be beneficial and may avoid progressing to ARDS. On the other hand, the standard of care has changed and nowadays the use of corticosteroids has become part of the SOC in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. Our limited experience suggests that better treatment outcomes can be achieved when combining IL6-inhibitors (e.g. sarilumab) with corticosteroids. The aim of the present study is to evaluate if an earlier therapeutic intervention with sarilumab plus SOC (including corticosteroids) may be more effective than current standard of care alone, in preventing progression to respiratory failure in COVID-19 infected patients with interstitial pneumonia. This study will also provide supportive evidence to that provided by currently ongoing studies on the efficacy and safety of sarilumab in this clinical context. TRIAL DESIGN: A phase two multi-center randomised controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: They will be hospitalized patients, of at least 18 years of age, with severe COVID-19 who have positive RT-PCR test and have radiographic evidence of pulmonary infiltrates by imaging or rales/crackles on exam and SpO2 ≤ 94% on room air that requires supplemental oxygen. Patients must present elevation of inflammatory parameters (IL-6 > 40 pg/mL or d-dimer >1.0 mcg/ml) or, alternatively, progressive worsening in at least two of these inflammatory parameters in the prior 24-48h: CRP, LDH, serum ferritin, lymphopenia, or d-dimer. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: high oxygen requirements (including face mask with reservoir, non-invasive mechanical ventilation or high flow nasal cannula, or mechanical ventilation), admission to ICU, pregnancy or lactation, allergy or hypersensitivity to sarilumab or corticoesteroids, immunosuppressive antibody therapy within the past 5 months, AST/ALT values > 10 x ULN, neutropenia (< 0.5 x 109/L), severe thrombocytopenia (< 50 x 109/L), sepsis caused by an alternative pathogen, diverticulitis with risk of perforation or ongoing infectious dermatitis. The study will be conducted in several hospitals in Spain. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomised to the experimental arm will receive sarilumab + methylprednisolone plus SOC for COVID-19. Patients included in the control arm will receive methylprednisolone plus SOC for COVID-19. Corticosteroids will be given to all patients at a 1mg/kg/d of methylprednisolone for at least 3 days. Clinical follow-up visits will be performed at 3, 5, and 15 days after treatment randomization. Patients in the control group (SOC group without sarilumab) progressing to Brescia- COVID 2-3 plus inflammatory markers, will be given the option to be rescued with sarilumab at the same doses and, in that case, be included in an open-label phase and be followed up for additional weeks (with visits at 3, 7 and 15 days after sarilumab rescue administration). Patients randomly assigned to sarilumab therapy at baseline progressing to Brescia-COVID 2-3 will be rescued according to local clinical practice protocols. A final follow-up visit will be conducted for all patients at day 29 from randomization, regardless of initial treatment assignment. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary end point is the proportion of patients progressing to either severe respiratory failure (Brescia-COVID ≥2), ICU admission, or death. RANDOMIZATION: Randomization codes were produced by means of the PROC PLAN of the SAS system, with a 1:1 assignment ratio, stratifying by centre and using blocks multiple of 2 elements. The randomization schedule will be managed through the eCRF in a concealed manner. BLINDING (MASKING): All study drugs will be administered as open label. No blinding methods will be used in this trial. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SIMPLE SIZE): The target sample size will be 200 COVID-19 patients, who will be allocated randomly to control arm (100) and treatment arm (100). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Code: SARTRE Protocol Date: May 05th 2020. Version: 2.0 The study has been approved by the Spanish Competent Authority (AEMPS) as a low intervention clinical trial. Start of recruitment: August, 2020 End of recruitment: May, 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: EudraCT Number: 2020-002037-15 ; Registration date: 26 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory pathology observed in severe COVID-19 disease caused by the 2019 novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by elevated serum levels of C reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines, including interferon gamma, interleukin 8 (IL-8), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Initial reports from the outbreak in Italy, China and the USA have provided anecdotal evidence of improved outcomes with the administration of anti-IL-6 agents, and large-scale trials evaluating these therapies are ongoing. STUDY DESCRIPTION: In this retrospective case series, clinical outcomes and correlates of response to treatment with the IL-6 receptor antagonist sarilumab are described for 15 patients with COVID-19 from a single institution in Southern Italy. Among 10 patients whose symptoms improved after sarilumab treatment, rapid decreases in CRP levels corresponded with clinical improvement. Lower levels of IL-6 at baseline as well as lower neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as compared with patients whose COVID-19 did not improve with treatment were associated with sarilumab-responsive disease. CONCLUSIONS: This observation may reflect a possible clinical benefit regarding early intervention with IL-6-modulatory therapies for COVID-19 and that CRP could be a potential biomarker of response to treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Biomarkers, Pharmacological/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Italy , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Infect Dis Ther ; 9(4): 707-713, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713844

ABSTRACT

The severe respiratory insufficiency observed during COVID-19 infection may not be directly related to a cytopathogenic effect induced by the virus itself, but to an exaggerated and inappropriate immune response. In an effort to reduce the severity of organ dysfunction, including respiratory insufficiency, monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) that block the interleukin-6 receptor, such as tocilizumab, sarilumab, and siltuximab, are under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19. However, blocking of just one of the many cytokines involved in the inflammatory reaction may not slow down the magnitude of the process. Since timing is important, the immune deficiency induced by IL6 blockade at the late immunodeficiency phase of sepsis that follows the initial inflammatory response may be detrimental. Finally, monitoring the degree and duration of IL6 blockade may be challenging because of the long half-life of Mabs (2-3 weeks). Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines act through a common JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which can be inhibited by JAK-STAT inhibitors. Ruxolitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor selective for JAK1, 2, blocks many pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL6. Ruxolitinib has favorable pharmacodynamics and an acceptable safety profile. The short half-life (4-6 h) of the drug offers the opportunity for ideal monitoring of the degree and duration of cytokine blocking, simply by the adjusting dose and duration of therapy. From a theoretical point of view, the balanced control of cytokine blockade throughout the course of the septic process should be the cornerstone of modern management. According to this hypothesis, maximization of blocking should be attempted at the phase of hyper-inflammation for preventing severe organ damage, while pro-inflammatory blockade should be minimized at the late phase of immunoparalysis for prevention of secondary infections. Based on the above considerations, we consider that the efficacy and safety of this drug deserves testing in the context of a controlled randomized trial.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(10): 1277-1285, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of interleukin (IL)-6 blockade with sarilumab in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: We conducted an open-label study of sarilumab in severe COVID-19 pneumonia (PaO2/FiO2 <300 mm Hg) with hyperinflammation (elevated inflammatory markers and serum IL-6 levels). Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously in addition to standard of care and results were compared with contemporary matched patients treated with standard of care alone. Clinical improvement, mortality, safety and predictors of response were assessed at 28 days. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were treated with sarilumab and 28 contemporary patients receiving standard of care alone were used as controls. At day 28 of follow-up, 61% of patients treated with sarilumab experienced clinical improvement and 7% died. These findings were not significantly different from the comparison group (clinical improvement 64%, mortality 18%; p=NS). Baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio >100 mm Hg and lung consolidation <17% at CT scan predicted clinical improvement in patients treated with sarilumab. Median time to clinical improvement in patients with lung consolidation <17% was shorter after sarilumab (10 days) than after standard treatment (24 days; p=0.01). The rate of infection and pulmonary thrombosis was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: At day 28, overall clinical improvement and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 were not significantly different between sarilumab and standard of care. Sarilumab was associated with faster recovery in a subset of patients showing minor lung consolidation at baseline.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Drug Combinations , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...