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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902683

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified in 2012 and causes severe and often fatal acute respiratory illness in humans. No approved prophylactic and therapeutic interventions are currently available. In this study, we have developed egg yolk antibodies (immunoglobulin Y (IgY)) specific for MERS-CoV spike protein (S1) in order to evaluate their neutralizing efficiency against MERS-CoV infection. S1-specific immunoglobulins were produced by injecting chickens with purified recombinant S1 protein of MERS-CoV at a high titer (5.7 mg/mL egg yolk) at week 7 post immunization. Western blotting and immune-dot blot assays demonstrated that the IgY antibody specifically bound to the MERS-CoV S1 protein. Anti-S1 antibodies were also able to recognize MERS-COV inside cells, as demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay. Plaque reduction and microneutralization assays showed the neutralization of MERS-COV in Vero cells by anti-S1 IgY antibodies and non-significantly reduced virus titers in the lungs of MERS-CoV-infected mice during early infection, with a nonsignificant decrease in weight loss. However, a statistically significant (p = 0.0196) quantitative reduction in viral antigen expression and marked reduction in inflammation were observed in lung tissue. Collectively, our data suggest that the anti-MERS-CoV S1 IgY could serve as a potential candidate for the passive treatment of MERS-CoV infection.

2.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 9465398, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-879699

ABSTRACT

This new decade has started with a global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), precipitating a worldwide health crisis and economic downturn. Scientists and clinicians have been racing against time to find therapies for COVID-19. Repurposing approved drugs, developing vaccines and employing passive immunization are three major therapeutic approaches to fighting COVID-19. Chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) has the potential to be used as neutralizing antibody against respiratory infections, and its advantages include high avidity, low risk of adverse immune responses, and easy local delivery by intranasal administration. In this study, we raised antibody against the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 in chickens and extracted IgY (called IgY-S) from egg yolk. IgY-S exhibited high immunoreactivity against SARS-CoV-2 S, and by epitope mapping, we found five linear epitopes of IgY-S in SARS-CoV-2 S, two of which are cross-reactive with SARS-CoV S. Notably, epitope SIIAYTMSL, one of the identified epitopes, partially overlaps the S1/S2 cleavage region in SARS-CoV-2 S and is located on the surface of S trimer in 3D structure, close to the S1/S2 cleavage site. Thus, antibody binding at this location could physically block the access of proteolytic enzymes to S1/S2 cleavage site and thereby impede S1/S2 proteolytic cleavage, which is crucial to subsequent virus-cell membrane fusion and viral cell entry. Therefore, the feasibility of using IgY-S or epitope SIIAYTMS-specific IgY as neutralizing antibody for preventing or treating SARS-CoV-2 infection is worth exploring.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epitope Mapping , Immunoglobulins/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740501

ABSTRACT

In the current worldwide pandemic situation caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the newest coronavirus disease (COVID-19), therapeutics and prophylactics are urgently needed for a large population. Some of the prophylaxis strategies are based on the development of antibodies targeting viral proteins. IgY antibodies are a type of immunoglobulin present in birds, amphibians, and reptiles. They are usually obtained from egg yolk of hyper-immunized hens and represent a relatively inexpensive source of antibodies. Specific IgY can be produced by immunizing chickens with the target antigen and then purifying from the egg yolk. Chicken IgY has been widely explored as a clinical anti-infective material for prophylaxis, preventive medicine, and therapy of infectious diseases. Administered non-systemically, IgY antibodies are safe and effective drugs. Moreover, passive immunization with avian antibodies could become an effective alternative therapy, as these can be obtained relatively simply, cost-efficiently, and produced on a large scale. Here, we highlight the potential use of polyclonal avian IgY antibodies as an oral prophylactic treatment for respiratory viral diseases, such as COVID-19, for which no vaccine is yet available.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 85: 106654, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505643

ABSTRACT

The present state of diagnostic and therapeutic developmental race for vaccines against the SARS CoV-2 (nCOVID-19) focuses on prevention and control of this global pandemic which also represents a critical challenge to the global health community. Although development of novel vaccines can prevent the SARS CoV-2 infections, it is still impeded by several other factors and therefore novel approaches towards treatment and management of this disease is the urgent need. Passive immunotherapy plays a vital role as a possible alternative to meet this challenge and among various antibody sources, chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) can be used as an alternative to mammalian antibodies which have been previously studied against SARS CoV outbreak in China. In this review, we discuss the strategies for the use of chicken egg yolk (IgY) antibodies in the development of rapid diagnosis and immunotherapy against SARS CoV-2. Also, IgY antibodies have previously been used against various respiratory bacterial and viral infections in humans and animals. Compared to mammalian antibodies (IgG), chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have greater binding affinity to specific antigens, ease of extraction and lower production costs, hence possessing remarkable pathogen-neutralizing activity of pathogens in respiratory and lungs. We provide an overall importance for the use of monoclonal chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) using phage display method describing their potential passive immunotherapeutic application for the treatment and prevention of SARS CoV-2 infection which is simple, fast and safe way of approach for treating patients effectively.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibody Affinity , Antibody Specificity , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Egg Yolk , Forecasting , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mammals/immunology , Models, Molecular , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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