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1.
European Heart Journal, Supplement ; 23(SUPPL G):G95-G96, 2021.
Artículo | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623499

RESUMEN

Aims: Several risk factors have been identified to predict worse outcomes in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Prediction models are needed to optimize clinical management and to early stratify patients at a higher mortality risk. Machine learning (ML) algorithms represent a novel approach to identify a prediction model with a good discriminatory capacity to be easily used in clinical practice. Methods and results: The Cardio-COVID is a multicentre observational study that involved a cohort of consecutive adult Caucasian patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 [by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)] who were hospitalized in 13 Italian cardiology units from 1 March to 9 April 2020. Patients were followed-up after the COVID-19 diagnosis and all causes in-hospital mortality or discharge were ascertained until 23 April 2020. Variables with more than 20% of missing values were excluded. The Lasso procedure was used with a λ=0.07 for reducing the covariates number. Mortality was estimated by means of a Random Forest (RF). The dataset was randomly divided in two subsamples with the same percentage of death/alive people of the entire sample: training set contained 80% of the data and test set the remaining 20%. The training set was used in the calibration procedure where a RF models in-hospital mortality with the covariates selected by Lasso. Its accuracy was measured by means of the ROC curve, obtaining AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and related 95% confidence interval (CI) computed with 10 000 stratified bootstrap replicates. From the RF the relative Variable Importance Measure (relVIM) was extracted to understand which of the selected variables had the greatest impact on outcome, providing a ranking from the most (relVIM=100) to the less important variable. The model obtained was compared with the Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) and with the logistic regression, where the predictions were cross validated. Finally, to understand if each model has the same performance in sample (training) and out of sample (test), the two AUCs were compared by means of the DeLong's test. Among 701 patients enrolled (mean age 67.2±13.2 years, 69.5% males), 165 (23.5%) died during a median hospitalization of 15 (IQR, 9-24) days. Variables selected by the Lasso were: age, Oxygen saturation, PaO2/FiO2, Creatinine Clearance and elevated Troponin. Compared with those who survived, deceased patients were older, had a lower blood oxygenation, a lower creatinine clearance levels and higher prevalence of elevated Troponin (all P<0.001). Training set included 561 patients and test set 140 patients. The best performance out of sample was provided by the RF with an AUC of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.68-0.88) and a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.58-1.00). Moreover, RF is the unique methodology that provided similar performance in sample and out of sample (DeLong test P=0.78). On the contrary, prediction model was less accurate by using GBM and logistic regression. The relVIM ranked the variables from the most to the less important in predicting the outcome as follows: clearance creatinine, PaO2/FiO2, age, oxygen saturation, and elevated Troponin. Conclusions: In a large COVID-19 population, we showed that a customizable MLbased score derived from clinical variables, is feasible and effective for the prediction of in-hospital mortality.

2.
European Heart Journal, Supplement ; 23(SUPPL G):G90, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623498

RESUMEN

Aims: Pulmonary involvement in Coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) may affect right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary pressures resulting in further deterioration of patient clinical status. However, the prognostic value of echocardiographic parameters including tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PASP), and TAPSE/PASP ratio has been poorly investigated in this clinical setting. Methods and results: This is a multicentre Italian study including patients admitted for severe COVID-19 in seven Italian Hospitals. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed within 48 h from admission in all cases. In-hospital mortality and pulmonary embolism (PE) were identified as the primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. Of 1401 patients with severe COVID-19, 227 (16.1%) subjects underwent TTE within 48 h from admission and were included in this study. The mean age was 68±13 years and 62.6% of patients were male. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission was reported in 73 patients (32.2%);ICU patients showed lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), lower TAPSE, and higher LV end systolic volume and PASP values than non-ICU patients. Also, ICU patients showed higher incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (82.2% vs. 30.5%;P<0.001), acute cardiac injury (46.6% vs. 22.7%;P<0.001), acute heart failure (34.2% vs. 9.1%;P<0.001), and death (63.9% vs. 14.3%;P<0.001) compared with non-ICU patients. By stratifying the study population into tertiles according to TAPSE, PASP, and TAPSE/PASP values, patients in the lower TAPSE and TAPSE/PASP ratio tertiles, and those in the higher PASP tertile, showed a significantly higher incidence of death during the hospitalization. At univariable logistic regression analysis, TAPSE, PASP, and TAPSE/PASP were significantly associated with a higher risk of death and PE, both in patients admitted or not to ICU. After propensity score weighting adjustment for multiple baseline potential confounders and further multivariable adjustment for LVEF value, the regression analysis showed that TAPSE, PASP and TAPSE/PASP were independently associated with risk of death (TAPSE: OR: 0.85, CI: 0.74-0.97, P=0.017;PASP: OR: 1.08, CI: 1.03-1.13, P=0.002;TAPSE/PASP: OR: 0.02, CI: 0.02 × 10-1-0.20, P<0.001) and with the risk of PE (TAPSE: OR: 0.70, CI: 0.60-0.82, P<0.001;PASP: OR: 1.10, CI: 1.05-1.14, P<0.001;TAPSE/PASP: OR: 0.02 × 10-1, CI: 0.01 × 10-2- 0.04, P<0.001) during the hospitalization. The risk death according to TAPSE, PASP, and TAPSE/PASP ratio tertiles was estimated considering discharge alive as competing risk (Figure). The lowest TAPSE and TAPSE/PASP tertiles, and the highest PASP tertile, were significantly associated with poorer survival during the hosptialization (P<0.001). Conclusions: Echocardiographic evidence of RV systolic dysfunction, increased PASP and a poor RV-arterial coupling assessed by TAPSE/PAPS ratio may help to identify COVID-19 patients at higher risk of mortality and PE during the hospitalization.

3.
European Heart Journal, Supplement ; 23(SUPPL G):G87-G88, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623497

RESUMEN

Aims: The SARS-CoV-2 infection is mostly characterized by acute lung injury. Yet, some COVID-19 patients showed also neurological signs, acute myocardial injury, heart failure, myocarditis, and hypercoagulability, such as pulmonary embolism. Cardiac biomarkers can play an essential role in the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of COVID-19. In fact, during hospitalization, these patients develop biochemical abnormalities, with increasing of all Troponins (TnT), B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) levels. This situation helps us to predict adverse outcomes, especially in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities or risk factors. Data emerged demonstrated a myocardial involvement which determines a high risk of adverse events and increasing of mortality. Methods and results: Lots of meta-analysis emphasize that a great number of hospitalized patients with moderate and severe forms of COVID-19 developed acute myocardial damage, defined as an increase of cardiac biomarkers, such NT-pro-BNP, CK-MB, and of all type of troponins. The highest mortality rate is related with progressively increasing biomarkers levels and with a history of cardiovascular disease. In fact, the biomarkers dosage should be considered as a prognostic marker in all patients with COVID-19 disease at admission, during hospitalization and in the case of clinical deterioration. Our purpose is to evaluate cardiovascular prognostic factors in COVID-19 disease throughout the analysis of cardiac biomarkers to early identify the most serious patients and to optimize their outcomes. Results of aforementioned studies underline how cardiac biomarkers are associated with severe form of COVID- 19 infection. Above all, higher levels of these biomarkers are significantly associated with an increased risk of the mortality in COVID-19 infected patients. Therefore, has been demonstrated COVID-19 infection is more severe in those patients with a previous history of arterial hypertension, cardiovascular diseases. In addition to classical laboratory parameters evaluated in COVID-19 infection, such as C Reactive Protein (CRP), D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which are currently used in clinical practice, others biomarkers could potentially be useful for screening, clinical management, and prevention of serious complications. Therefore, it is clinically significant that fluctuating levels of myocardial biomarkers are closely monitored and patients with high levels of myocardial biomarkers are treated promptly to improve prognosis. At the end, on basis of symptoms and cardiac biomarkers patients could be divided in mild, severe and critical. Conclusions: Biomarkers of acute myocardial injury play an important role in predicting worsening prognosis for COVID-19 patients with and without myocardial injury. They are not only predictive of disease severity, but are also helpful for therapeutic management, based on drugs preventing the activation of coagulation processes. It's important, above all, to identify a laboratory score, made by haematological, inflammatory, biochemical, and immunological parameters, may help to stratify COVID-19 positive patients into risk categories for deciding therapeutic management, thus avoiding cardiac compromise which, as we have previously analysed, is an indication of a poor prognosis.

4.
European Heart Journal, Supplement ; 23(SUPPL G):G87, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623496

RESUMEN

Aims: Venous thromboembolism represents frequent complication of patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Several reports about atypical thrombosis are described, rarely it has been described a right venticular thrombus during the course of infection. We report a case of right endoventricular thrombosis in a patient with SARSCov- 2 pneumonia. Methods and results: A 58-year-old man was admitted to our ward for severe respiratory failure in interstitial pneumonia. The nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 resulted positive. Steroids and prophylaxis with LMWHwere started, associated to CPAP to maintain good gas exchange. During hospitalization a venous ECD was performed with evidence of left popliteal thrombosis despite the therapy. D-Dimer was 44±3 ng/ml. A new onset AF was documented at the telemetry, without troponin elevation. A cardiac ultrasound was performed showing a right endoventricular lesion of 1.8 cm adhering to the free wall of the right ventricle. A CT-pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) resulted negative for pulmonary embolism and confirmed suspected right ventricular thrombus. Treatment with fondaparinux 7.5mg was started. After 10 days, cardiac ultrasound shown complete resolution of thrombosis, and CT confirmed the disappearing of the mass. Dabigatran 150 mg twice/day was started. Patient clinically improved and he was discharged after 20 days of hospitalization. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause inflammation with cytokine storm and hypercoagulability leading to venous thromboembolism. Atypical thrombus formation was reported, including right-ventricle free wall. Early caridac ultrasound was critical to make diagnosis and starting prompt treatment, therefore routine cardiac ultrasound is mandatory in severe COVID-19 patients.

5.
Cogent Engineering ; 9(1):18, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1623485

RESUMEN

Covid-19 has forced most educational institutions around the world to migrate to online learning in an emergency mode to protect students from the pandemic. This sudden migration to online learning has created multi-dimensional demands on students. Therefore, student workload needs to be measured during online learning. The purpose of this study is to measure the student workload from student perception by evaluating online learning in terms of Mental demand (MD), Physical demand (PD), Temporal demand (TD), Effort (EF), Performance (PE) and Frustration (FR). This study through a cross-sectional survey analysed 223 student's workloads on six dimensions using a NASA -TLX scale. The study finds all six components of workload significant for student assessment during online learning. Besides, the NASA-TLX scale was tested using confirmatory factor analysis for its ability to assess student workload for online learning. This is the first study to assess the student workload for online learning and hence contributes to the theory of measurement of workload assessment for online learning. The educational institutions can use this study to measure the student workload assessment for various courses offered by them using this simple tool.

6.
European Journal of Finance ; : 7, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1623467

RESUMEN

A decade after the 2007-2009 financial crisis, the covid-19 pandemic causes disruptive economic conditions and its uncertain nature makes the formulation of macroeconomic policy response challenging. Meanwhile, extreme weather and natural disasters linked to climate change become more frequent and adversely affect the economy. These challenges highlight the importance of better understanding the effects of macroeconomic conditions on corporate decisions. This article reviews the related macro-finance literature and introduces articles included in this special issue on this theme. In the end, we suggest possible future research directions.

7.
PPmP Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie ; 71(12):485, 2021.
Artículo en Alemán | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623458
8.
Acs Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering ; 10(2):13, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1623442

RESUMEN

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed an extraordinary threat to global public health, wealth, and well-being. As the carriers of human life and production, infrastructures need to be upgraded to mitigate and prevent the spread of viral diseases. Developing multifunctional/smart civil engineering materials to fight viruses is a promising approach to achieving this goal. In this Perspective, a basic introduction on viruses and their structure is provided. Then, the current design principles of antiviral materials and structures are examined. Subsequently, the possibility of developing active/passive antiviral civil engineering materials (including cementitious composites, ceramics, polymers, and coatings) is proposed and envisioned. Finally, future research needs and potential challenges to develop antiviral civil engineering materials are put forward. The proposed strategies to develop multifunctional/smart antiviral civil engineering materials will aid in the construction of smart infrastructures to prevent the spread of viruses, thus improving human life and health as well as the sustainability of human society.

9.
Acs Nano ; : 13, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1623441

RESUMEN

Mass spectrometry of intact nanoparticles and viruses can serve as a potent characterization tool for material science and biophysics. Inaccessible by widespread commercial techniques, the mass of single nanoparticles and viruses (>10MDa) can be readily measured by nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS)-based mass spectrometry, where charged and isolated analyte particles are generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) in air and transported onto the NEMS resonator for capture and detection. However, the applicability of NEMS as a practical solution is hindered by their miniscule surface area, which results in poor limit-of-detection and low capture efficiency values. Another hindrance is the necessity to house the NEMS inside complex vacuum systems, which is required in part to focus analytes toward the miniscule detection surface of the NEMS. Here, we overcome both limitations by integrating an ion lens onto the NEMS chip. The ion lens is composed of a polymer layer, which charges up by receiving part of the ions incoming from the ESI tip and consequently starts to focus the analytes toward an open window aligned with the active area of the NEMS electrostatically. With this integrated system, we have detected the mass of gold and polystyrene nanoparticles under ambient conditions and with two orders-of-magnitude improvement in capture efficiency compared to the state-of-the-art. We then applied this technology to obtain the mass spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 and BoHV-1 virions. With the increase in analytical throughput, the simplicity of the overall setup, and the operation capability under ambient conditions, the technique demonstrates that NEMS mass spectrometry can be deployed for mass detection of engineered nanoparticles and biological samples efficiently.

10.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters ; : 8, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1623439

RESUMEN

Many places on earth still suffer from a high level of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. Formation of a particulate pollution event or haze episode (HE) involves many factors, including meteorology, emissions, and chemistry. Understanding the direct causes of and key drivers behind the HE is thus essential. Traditionally, this is done via chemical transport models. However, substantial uncertainties are introduced into the model estimation when there are significant changes in the emissions inventory due to interventions (e.g., the COVID-19 lockdown). Here we applied a Random Forest model coupled with a Shapley additive explanation algorithm, a post hoc explanation technique, to investigate the roles of major meteorological factors, primary emissions, and chemistry in five severe HEs that occurred before or during the COVID-19 lockdown in China. We discovered that, in addition to the high level of primary emissions, PM2.5 in these haze episodes was largely driven by meteorological effects (with average contributions of 30-65 mu g m(-3) for the five HEs), followed by chemistry (similar to 15-30 mu g m(-3)). Photochemistry was likely the major pathway of formation of nitrate, while air humidity was the predominant factor in forming sulfate. Our results highlight that the machine learning driven by data has the potential to be a complementary tool in predicting and interpreting air pollution.

11.
Journal of Radiotherapy in Practice ; : 5, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1623435

RESUMEN

Introduction: The impact of COVID-19 social restrictions on mental wellbeing of health professional students during placement is largely unknown. Conventional survey methods do not capture emotional fluctuations. Increasing use of smartphones suggests short message service (SMS) functionality could provide easy, rapid data. This project tested the feasibility and validity of gathering data on Therapeutic Radiography student mental wellbeing during clinical placement via emoji and SMS. Methods: Participants provided anonymous daily emoji responses via WhatsApp to a dedicated mobile phone. Additional weekly prompts sought textual responses indicating factors impacting on wellbeing. A short anonymous online survey validated responses and provided feedback on the method. Results: Participants (n = 15) provided 254 daily responses using 108 different emoji;these triangulated with weekly textual responses. Feedback concerning the method was positive. 'Happy' emoji were used most frequently;social interaction and fatigue were important wellbeing factors. Anonymity and opportunity to feedback via SMS were received positively;ease and rapidity of response engendered engagement throughout the 3-week study. Conclusions: The use of emoji for rapid assessment of cohort mental wellbeing is valid and potentially useful alongside more formal evaluation and support strategies. Capturing simple wellbeing responses from a cohort may facilitate the organisation of timely support interventions.

12.
Financial History Review ; : 19, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1623434

RESUMEN

The Latin American debt crisis consumed the 1980s and was not restricted to Latin America. Starting from the August 1982 Mexican weekend, the crisis had three phases: Concerted Lending (1982-5), Baker Plan (1985-9) and Brady Plan (1989 to mid 1990s). This article describes the evolution of the debt strategy and the road to embracing debt write-downs at the end of the decade. In the absence of an external coordinating mechanism, four groups of parties had to reach agreement on any change in the strategy: the borrowing countries, their commercial bank lenders, the home-country authorities of those lenders, and the International Monetary Fund as the principal international institution. Each group could effectively veto any change in the strategy. This need for consensus is lesson number one from the 1980s for today. Lesson number two is that political economy aspects dictated that the strategy be implemented on a case-by-case basis. The article concludes with an application of these lessons to a similar, but even more global, potential debt crisis in the wake of the COVID pandemic.

13.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine ; 177:S132-S133, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623350

RESUMEN

Introduction: Disturbed redox homeostasis plays multiple roles in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Still, data on the level of oxidative stress by-products in COVID-19 patients are scarce. Aim: To assess the profile of oxidative stress by-products during the course of acute COVID-19 and get more insight into the origin of the systemic oxidative stress in these patients. Material and methods: Malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), as well as clinical inflammatory and biochemical parameters were determined in plasma of 58 COVID-19 patients, on admission, as well as 7 and 14 days upon admission. Results: The highest levels of MDA and AOPP were observed at the time of diagnosis. Based on correlations between 8-OHdG and ALT activity (p = 0.028) or creatinine concentration (p = 0.003) subclinical liver and kidney damage contribute to systemic oxidative stress in the early phase of disease. Seven days upon admission, a significant drop in MDA and AOPP levels was observed, while plasma concentration of 8-OHdG increased (p < 0.005). At this point, a significant correlation of AOPP with inflammatory biomarkers such as CRP (p = 0.016) and absolute number of neutrophils (p = 0.041) was found. 14 days upon admission, a noticeable increase was observed in AOPP (p = 0.004) and MDA levels (p = 0.038), compared to the second point, but without reaching initial values. Moreover, significant correlation was observed between AOPP (p = 0.046) or MDA (p = 0.029) levels with IL-6, as one of the key inflammatory players. Regarding the biochemical parameters, significant correlation of AOPP levels was found with the activity of plasma non-functional enzymes AST (p = 0.001) and LDH (p = 0.030). Conclusions: Significant changes in MDA, 8-OHdG and AOPP levels exist during the course of COVID-19. Correlation between by-products of oxidative damage and clinical immunological or biochemical parameters confirms the suggested involvement of neutrophils networks, IL-6 production, as well as liver and kidney damage involvement in systemic oxidative stress. Keywords: COVID-19;oxidative stress;MDA;AOPP;8-OHdG.

14.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine ; 177:S130, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623349

RESUMEN

Background: According to preliminary sequences from 2010, 99.7% of the nucleotide sequences of the modern human and Neanderthal genomes are identical, compared to humans sharing around 98.8% of sequences with the chimpanzee. In contrast, the difference between chimpanzees and modern humans is approximately 1,462 mtDNA base pairs. Materials and Methods: Neanderthal-inherited genetic material is found in all non-African populations and was initially reported to comprise 1 to 4% of the genome. This fraction was later refined to 1.5 to 2.1%. We had gone through many researches of Neanderthals affected gene flow in humans. Results: It is estimated that 20% of Neanderthal DNA currently survives in modern humans. Modern human genes involved in making keratin, a protein constituent of skin, hair, and nails, have especially high levels of introgression. For example, approximately 66% of East Asians contain a POUF23L variant introgressed from Neanderthals, while 70% of Europeans possess an introgressed allele of BNC2. Our finding shines a light on an enzyme called dipeptidyl peptidase4 (DPP4). Scientists already know the protein allows another coronavirus, which causes Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), to bind to and enter human cells. The new analysis, of DPP4 gene variants among COVID-19 patients, suggests the enzyme also provides SARS-CoV-2 with a second door into our cells, along with its usual infection route via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on cell surfaces. Conclusion: Most Europeans, Asians, and Native Americans harbor a handful of genes from Neanderthals, up 1.8% to 2.6% of their DNA. Studies of ancient DNA in Neanderthal fossils have shown the hominin's DPP4 gene subtly differs from the typical human one. Conclusion: The hominin's DPP4 gene inherited from Neanderthals plays a major role in Immune System Disorders and Lower Immune response in many diseases. This gene plays a major role in affecting humans with COVID-19 and spreading it through the world. All humans contain this gene from 1 to 4%. East Asians, Europeans, Middle and south Americans conveys more, hence, native Africans contain less amounts of hominin's DPP4 gene. Therefore, East Asians, Europeans, Middle and south Americans are prone to severe COVID-19.

15.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine ; 177:S120, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623348

RESUMEN

Background: In most serious COVID-19 forms which required prolonged stay in intensive care unit, pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, neurological and psychological sequelae have been reported after the infection. All these complications can be sustained by chronic inflammatory problems and/ or increased oxidative stress. Material and Methods: Biomarkers of the systemic oxidative stress status (OSS) including enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, total antioxidant capacity of plasma (PAOT®-Sore), trace elements, oxidative damage to lipids and inflammation markers, were investigated in 12 patients admitted to a revalidation center for post-19 COVID pneumonia. Results: From blood samples collected two months after hospital discharge and one month after admission to the revalidation center, vitamin C, thiol proteins, reduced glutathione, gamma-tocopherol and beta carotene were significantly decreased compared to reference values. By contrast, lipid peroxides and markers of inflammation (neutrophils, myeloperoxidase) were significantly higher than the norms. Lipid peroxides was strongly correlated with Cu (r = 0.95, P < 0.005) and Cu/Zn ratio (0.66, P = 0.020). Using an electrochemical method (PAOT®), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) evaluated in saliva and urine negatively correlated with copper and lipid peroxides. Similar findings were obtained for PAOT®-skin score. Conclusions: Systemic OSS was strongly altered in patients admitted in revalidation after C0VID-19 infection. This suggests the need for supplementing these patients with antioxidants.

16.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine ; 177:S119-S120, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623347

RESUMEN

Background: A key role of oxidative stress has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, little has been said about oxidative stress status (OSS) of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU). Material and Methods: Biomarkers of the systemic OSS included antioxidants (9 assays), trace elements (3 assays), inflammation markers (4 assays) and oxidative damage to lipids (3 assays). Results: Blood samples were drawn after 9 (7–11) and 41 (39–43) days of ICU stay, respectively in 3 and 6 patients. Vitamin C, thiol proteins, reduced glutathione, γ-tocopherol, β-carotene and PAOT® score were significantly decreased compared to laboratory reference values. Selenium concentration was at the limit of the lower reference value. By contrast, the copper/zinc ratio (as a source of oxidative stress) was higher than reference values in 55% of patients while copper was significantly correlated with lipid peroxides (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). Inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein and myeloperoxidase) were significantly increased when compared to normals. Conclusions: The systemic OSS was strongly altered in critically ill COVID-19 patients as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation but also by deficits in some antioxidants (vitamin C, glutathione, thiol proteins) and trace elements (selenium).

17.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine ; 177:S119, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623346

RESUMEN

Post COVID-19 sequelae include several complications including cognitive impairment, a situation associated with increased oxidative stress. In a pilot study, we intend to recruit 20 patients having a MOCA (MOntreal Cognitive Assessment questionnaire) score ≤ 25 after their discharge from hospital for COVID-19 infection requiring a long stay (> 30 days) in Intensive Care Unit. The goal of our study was to check how a blend of polyphenols (French Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and North-American Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium A) extracts)) at 800 mg enriched with vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses (Memophenol™l) and given each day during 6 months could potentially decrease oxidative stress and improve cognitive status when compared to a placebo. For that, we propose to investigate a large battery of tests including the determination of antioxidants (vitamins C and E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol), beta-carotene, glutathione, thiol proteins, total polyphenols, paraoxonase, glutathione peroxidase), trace elements (copper, zinc, selenium), oxidative damages to lipids (lipid peroxides, oxidized LDL) and inflammatory biomarkers (myeloperoxidase), respectively before supplementation, 3 and 6 months after. In parallel, the evolution of the MOCA score will be followed. Actually 8 patients have been included in the study.

18.
Anales de Pediatria ; 96(1):59.e1-59.e10, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623299

RESUMEN

After reviewing the best available scientific information, CAV-AEP publishes their new recommendations to protect pregnant women, children and adolescents living in Spain through vaccination. The same recommendations as the previous year regarding hexavalent vaccines, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of 13 serotypes, booster with tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis (Tdpa-IPV) at 6 years and with tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (Tdpa) at 12–14 years and pregnant women from week 27 (from week 20 if there is a high risk of preterm delivery). Also with rotavirus, tetraantigenic meningococcal B (2 + 1), meningococcal quadrivalent (MenACWY), MMR, varicella and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, for both genders. As novelties this year the CAV-AEP recommends:. Influenza vaccination from 6 to 59 months of age whenever feasible and does not harm the vaccination program aimed at people at higher risk. According to official national recommendations, the CAV-AEP recommends the systematic use of COVID mRNA vaccines since 5 years old.

19.
Analytica Chimica Acta ; 1193, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623286

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected the economy and health security on a global scale, causing a drastic change on lifestyle, calling a need to mitigate further transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has shown great potential in the sensitive and rapid detection of various molecules including viruses, through the identification of characteristic peaks of their outer membrane proteins. Accurate detection can be developed through the synergistic integration effect among SERS-active substrate, the appropriate laser wavelength, and the target analyte. In this study, gold nanocavities (Au NC) and Au nanoparticles upon ZrO2 nano-bowls (Au NPs/pZrO2) were tested and used as SERS-active substrates in detecting SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus containing S protein as a surface capsid glycoprotein (SARS-CoV-2 S pseudovirus) and vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G) pseudo-type lentivirus (VSV-G pseudovirus) to demonstrate their virus detection capability. The optimized Au NCs and Au NPs/pZrO2 substrates were then verified by examining the repetition of measurement, reproducibility, and detection limit. Due to the difference in geometry and composition of the substrates, the characteristic peak-positions of live SARS-CoV-2 S and VSV-G pseudoviruses in the obtained Raman spectra vary, which were also compared with those of inactivated ones. Based on the experimental results, SERS mechanism of each substrate to detect virus is proposed. The formation of hot spots brought by the synergistic integration effect among substrate, analyte, and laser induction may result differences in the obtained SERS spectra.

20.
SpringerBriefs Public Health ; : 39-58, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1623258

RESUMEN

The unprecedented global health crisis caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic since the first quarter of 2020 has reopened the now-urgent discussion about the role of local pharmaceutical production in addressing the health needs in developing countries. The COVID-19 crisis has highlighted the interdependencies in the global production of pharmaceuticals – no country is self-sufficient. Many industrialised countries are making the decision to repatriate or initiate the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and medicines. Governments are beginning to talk about ‘pharmaceutical sovereignty’ or ‘health security’. If this becomes a reality and the production of pharmaceuticals is led by nationalistic policies, developing countries that still lack manufacturing capacity will have to start or expand the local production of pharmaceuticals, whether at the national or regional level. The war to get access to the future vaccine for COVID-19 does not look easy with these new developments.

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