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1.
Acta Diabetol ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694548

RESUMEN

AIMS: To evaluate diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening with a portable handheld smartphone-based retinal camera and telemedicine in an urban primary healthcare setting and to evaluate the learning curve for image acquisition, performed by healthcare personnel without previous experience in retinal imaging. METHODS: This was a prospective study that enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) followed at a primary healthcare unit in São Paulo, Brazil. After a brief training in image acquisition, there was further continuous feedback given by a retina specialist during the remote image reading process. Each patient underwent two fundus and one anterior ocular segment images per eye, after mydriasis. Patients were classified according to the need of referral. RESULTS: A total of 627 adult individuals with T2DM underwent retinal evaluation. The population was composed by 63.2% female individuals, age median of 66 years, diabetes duration 10.7 ± 8.2 years and HbA1c 7.7 ± 1.9% (61 + 20.8 mmol/mol). The most prevalent associated comorbidities were arterial hypertension (80.3%) and dyslipidemia (50.2%). Referral decision was possible in 81.2% patients. Most patients had absent or non-referable DR; the main ocular media opacity detected was cataract. After the 7th day of image acquisition, the daily rate of patients whose images allowed clinical decision was maintained above 80%. A higher HbA1c was associated with referable DR. CONCLUSIONS: A low-cost DR screening strategy with a handheld device and telemedicine is feasible and has the potential to increase coverage of DR screening in underserved areas; the possibility of mobile units is relevant for DR screening in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Daily rate of patients whose examinations allowed clinical decision. X-axis: day of examination; Y-axis: rate (%) of patients whose examinations allowed a clinical decision.

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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 404: 115182, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694488

RESUMEN

Due to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, the use of disinfectants is rapidly increasing worldwide. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is an EPA-registered disinfectant, it was also a component in humidifier disinfectants that had caused idiopathic pulmonary diseases in Korea. In this study, we identified the possible pulmonary toxic response and mechanism using human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and mice. First, cell viability decreased sharply at a 4 µg/mL of concentration. The volume of intracellular organelles and the ROS level reduced, leading to the formation of apoptotic bodies and an increase of the LDH release. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 also significantly increased. More importantly, lamellar body-like structures were formed in both the cells and mice exposed to DDAC, and the expression of both the indicator proteins for lamellar body (ABCA3 and Rab11a) and surfactant proteins (A, B, and D) was clearly enhanced. In addition, chronic fibrotic pulmonary lesions were notably observed in mice instilled twice (weekly) with DDAC (500 µg), ultimately resulting in death. Taken together, we suggest that disruption of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis may contribute to DDAC-induced cell death and subsequent pathophysiology and that the formation of lamellar body-like structures may play a role as the trigger. In addition, we propose that the cause of sudden death of mice exposed to DDAC should be clearly elucidated for the safe application of DDAC.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/toxicidad , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/administración & dosificación
4.
Surg Endosc ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694404

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare systems and general surgeons are being challenged by the current pandemic. The European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) aimed to evaluate surgeons' experiences and perspectives, to identify gaps in knowledge, to record shortcomings in resources and to register research priorities. METHODS: An ad hoc web-based survey of EAES members and affiliates was developed by the EAES Research Committee. The questionnaire consisted of 69 items divided into the following sections: (Ι) demographics, (II) institutional burdens and management strategies, and (III) analysis of resource, knowledge, and evidence gaps. Descriptive statistics were summarized as frequencies, medians, ranges,, and interquartile ranges, as appropriate. RESULTS: The survey took place between March 25th and April 16th with a total of 550 surgeons from 79 countries. Eighty-one percent had to postpone elective cases or suspend their practice and 35% assumed roles not related to their primary expertise. One-fourth of respondents reported having encountered abdominal pathologies in COVID-19-positive patients, most frequently acute appendicitis (47% of respondents). The effect of protective measures in surgical or endoscopic procedures on infected patients, the effect of endoscopic surgery on infected patients, and the infectivity of positive patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery were prioritized as knowledge gaps and research priorities. CONCLUSIONS: Perspectives and priorities of EAES members in the era of the pandemic are hereto summarized. Research evidence is urgently needed to effectively respond to challenges arisen from the pandemic.

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J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(6): 1143-1144, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694385
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Policy Polit Nurs Pract ; : 1527154420947028, 2020 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694369

RESUMEN

The 21st Century Cures Act, passed in December 2016 by the United States Congress, is a public law aimed at accelerating the time it takes to get pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices into the market, in addition to shifting connected review processes from randomized controlled trials to real-world efficacy tests. As of December 2019, efforts are underway to introduce a "Cures Act 2.0" bill, with particular attention to the implementation of digital health within health systems. Research on the development of emergent health technologies is nascent; research examining health technology implications of 21st Century Cures Act for the health care workforce is nonexistent. This article fills a crucial gap in public awareness, discussing ethical implications of the 21st Century Cures Act and centering nursing. Nursing is a profession frequently acknowledged as practicing on "the front lines of care" and frequently responsible for the trialing of products in clinical settings. The article summarizes and evaluates key components of the 21st Century Cures Act related to health technology development. Discrete health technologies addressed are (a) breakthrough devices, (b) digital health software, and (c) combination products. It then connects these provisions to ethical considerations for nursing practice, research, and policy. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of emerging digital health technologies to the crafting of a "Cures 2.0" bill, with particular attention to this moment in light of digital care precedents set during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Biotechnol Adv ; 44: 107608, 2020 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694212

RESUMEN

The Vero cell line is considered the most used continuous cell line for the production of viral vectors and vaccines. Historically, it is the first cell line that was approved by the WHO for the production of human vaccines. Comprehensive experimental data on the production of many viruses using the Vero cell line can be found in the literature. However, the vast majority of these processes is relying on the microcarrier technology. While this system is established for the large-scale manufacturing of viral vaccine, it is still quite complex and labor intensive. Moreover, scale-up remains difficult and is limited by the surface area given by the carriers. To overcome these and other drawbacks and to establish more efficient manufacturing processes, it is a priority to further develop the Vero cell platform by applying novel bioprocess technologies. Especially in times like the current COVID-19 pandemic, advanced and scalable platform technologies could provide more efficient and cost-effective solutions to meet the global vaccine demand. Herein, we review the prevailing literature on Vero cell bioprocess development for the production of viral vectors and vaccines with the aim to assess the recent advances in bioprocess development. We critically underline the need for further research activities and describe bottlenecks to improve the Vero cell platform by taking advantage of recent developments in the cell culture engineering field.

10.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694186
11.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694167

RESUMEN

Myocardial dysfunction and coronary artery dilation have been reported in the acute setting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease-2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Through a longitudinal echocardiographic single-center study of 15 children, we report the short-term outcomes of cardiac dysfunction and coronary artery dilation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease-2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.

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Phys Med ; 77: 18-20, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694014
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Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693954

RESUMEN

Vector control methods that mobilize and impact rapidly during dengue, Zika, and chikungunya outbreaks are urgently needed in urban contexts. We investigated whether one person using a handheld aerosolized insecticide could achieve efficacy levels comparable to targeted indoor residual spraying (TIRS), using pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti in a semi-field setting with experimental houses in Mexico. The insecticide product (H24, a carbamate and pyrethroid mixture), available over-the-counter locally, was sprayed only on known Ae. aegypti-resting surfaces, for example, walls less than 1.5 m and dark hidden areas. In six identical houses with paired bedrooms, one bedroom was treated, and the other remained an untreated control. Each week for 8 weeks, 100 female pyrethroid-resistant Ae. aegypti were released in each bedroom and followed up daily. Mortality rates in treated bedrooms exceeded 90% for at least 2 weeks, and more than 80% (89.2; 95% CI: 79.98-98.35) for 3 weeks or more. Mortality rates in control houses were zero. Results demonstrate that the immediate impact of TIRS can be delivered by one person using existing products, at an estimated cost for the average household in Mexico of under US$3 per month. Triggered by early outbreak signs, dissemination via community hubs and mass/social media of instructions to treat the home immediately, with monthly re-treatment thereafter, provides a simple means to engage and empower householders. Compatible with integrated vector management strategies, it enables self-protection even if existing agencies falter, a situation exemplified by the potential impact on vector control of the restrictions imposed during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Int Wound J ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693683

RESUMEN

A tertiary public hospital in Saudi Arabia set out in 2015 to establish a team focused on reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs). The pressure ulcer prevention program (PUPP) had a multifaceted approach and data were collected for a period of 5 years. The results showed a definite reduction in the incidences of HAPUs. Many such programs show similar positive results and echo many of the same considerations of risk, prevention strategies, and the need for early intervention. However, none of the other studies either replicate the hospital's PUPP nor the extent of the positive and lasting effect of the program. Eager to determine the contributing factor(s) in order that the project success could be continued and possibly replicated in other quality improvement projects, it was decided that an examination and comparison of other similar programs and their results would be necessary in order to uncover the answer. It was determined that the in-person in-home discharge follow-up portion of the program most likely had the largest effect on the outcomes. Outcomes that were supported by the pre-work completed during the hospital portion of the PUPP towards reducing HAPUs and readmissions.

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