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1.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 71-75, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969007

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound, due to recent advances in portability and versatility, has become a valuable clinical adjunct in austere, resource-limited settings and is well demonstrated to be an accurate/efficient means to detect pneumothorax. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of hands-on ultrasound training on ultrasound-naive US Army combat medics' ability to detect sonographic findings of pneumothorax with portable ultrasound in a cadaver model. METHODS: Ultrasound-naive US Army combat medics assigned to conventional military units were recruited from a single US Army installation and randomized to receive either didactic training only, or "blended" (didactic and hands-on) training on ultrasound detection of pneumothorax. Blinded participants were asked to perform a thoracic ultrasound exam on ventilated human cadaver models. Primary outcome measured was sensitivity and specificity of detecting sonographic findings of pneumothorax between cohorts. RESULTS: Forty-three participants examined a total of 258 hemithoraces. The didactic-only cohort (n = 24) detected sonographic findings of pneumothorax with a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 57%. The blended cohort (n = 19) detected sonographic findings of pneumothorax with an overall sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 80%. Detection sensitivities were similar between B-mode versus M-mode use. CONCLUSION: US Army combat medics can use portable U/S to detect sonographic findings of pneumothorax in a human cadaver model with high sensitivity after a brief, blended (didactic and hands-on) training intervention.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar , Neumotórax , Cadáver , Humanos , Neumotórax/diagnóstico por imagen , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Ultrasonografía
2.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(8): 1040-1047, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600742

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an extraordinary strain on healthcare systems across North America. Defining the optimal approach for managing a critically ill COVID-19 patient is rapidly changing. Goal-directed transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is frequently used by physicians caring for intubated critically ill patients as a reliable imaging modality that is well suited to answer questions at bedside. METHODS: A multidisciplinary (intensive care, critical care cardiology, and emergency medicine) group of experts in point-of-care echocardiography and TEE from the United States and Canada convened to review the available evidence, share experiences, and produce a consensus statement aiming to provide clinicians with a framework to maximize the safety of patients and healthcare providers when considering focused point-of-care TEE in critically ill patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Although transthoracic echocardiography can provide the information needed in most patients, there are specific scenarios in which TEE represents the modality of choice. TEE provides acute care clinicians with a goal-directed framework to guide clinical care and represents an ideal modality to evaluate hemodynamic instability during prone ventilation, perform serial evaluations of the lungs, support cardiac arrest resuscitation, and guide veno-venous ECMO cannulation. To aid other clinicians in performing TEE during the COVID-19 pandemic, we describe a set of principles and practical aspects for performing examinations with a focus on the logistics, personnel, and equipment required before, during, and after an examination. CONCLUSIONS: In the right clinical scenario, TEE is a tool that can provide the information needed to deliver the best and safest possible care for the critically ill patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Cuidados Críticos/organización & administración , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Ecocardiografía Transesofágica/métodos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Consenso , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Masculino , América del Norte/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Posicionamiento del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Medición de Riesgo , Administración de la Seguridad
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 36(9): 1666-1673, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887195

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Acute heart failure (AHF) accounts for a significant number of emergency department (ED) visits, and the disease may present along a spectrum with a variety of syndromes. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluates several misconceptions concerning heart failure evaluation and management in the ED, followed by several pearls. DISCUSSION: AHF is a heterogeneous syndrome with a variety of presentations. Physicians often rely on natriuretic peptides, but the evidence behind their use is controversial, and these should not be used in isolation. Chest radiograph is often considered the most reliable imaging test, but bedside ultrasound (US) provides a more sensitive and specific evaluation for AHF. Diuretics are a foundation of AHF management, but in pulmonary edema, these medications should only be provided after vasodilator administration, such as nitroglycerin. Nitroglycerin administered in high doses for pulmonary edema is safe and effective in reducing the need for intensive care unit admission. Though classically dopamine is the first vasopressor utilized in patients with hypotensive cardiogenic shock, norepinephrine is associated with improved outcomes and lower mortality. Disposition is complex in patients with AHF, and risk stratification tools in conjunction with other assessments allow physicians to discharge patients safely with follow up. CONCLUSION: A variety of misconceptions surround the evaluation and management of heart failure including clinical assessment, natriuretic peptide use, chest radiograph and US use, nitroglycerin and diuretics, vasopressor choice, and disposition. This review evaluates these misconceptions while providing physicians with updates in evaluation and management of AHF.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Aguda , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos
4.
J Spec Oper Med ; 17(4): 72-75, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256199

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue occult foreign bodies are a concerning cause of morbidity in the emergency department. The identification of wooden foreign bodies is a unique challenge because they are often not detectable by plain radiography. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of emergency physician-performed ultrasonography to detect wooden foreign bodies of varying sizes. We hypothesized that sonographic sensitivity would improve with increasing foreign body size. METHODS: We conducted a blinded, prospective evaluation using a previously validated, chicken, soft-tissue model to simulate human tissue. We inserted wooden toothpicks of varying lengths (1mm, 2.5mm, 5mm, 7.5mm, 10mm) to a depth of 1cm in five tissue models. Five additional models were left without a foreign body to serve as controls. Fifty emergency physicians with prior ultrasonography training performed sonographic examinations of all 10 models and reported on the presence or absence of wooden foreign bodies. RESULTS: Subjects performed 10 ultrasonography examinations each for a total of 500 examinations. For the detection of wooden foreign bodies, overall test characteristics for sonography included sensitivity 48.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.1%-54.8%) and specificity 67.6% (95% CI, 61.3%- 73.2%). Sensitivity did not change as object size increased (ρ = s.709). CONCLUSION: Emergency physician bedside ultrasonography demonstrated poor diagnostic accuracy for the detection of wooden foreign bodies. Accuracy did not improve with increasing object size up to 10mm. Providers should consider alternative diagnostic modalities if there is persistent clinical concern for a retained, radiolucent, soft-tissue foreign body.


Asunto(s)
Cuerpos Extraños/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Muslo/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Animales , Pollos , Competencia Clínica , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Escolaridad , Medicina de Emergencia/educación , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Método Simple Ciego , Madera
5.
West J Emerg Med ; 18(6): 1061-1067, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085538

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Our goal was to determine if heated gel for emergency department (ED) bedside ultrasonography improves patient satisfaction compared to room-temperature gel. METHODS: We randomized a convenience sample of ED patients determined by their treating physician to require a bedside ultrasound (US) study to either heated gel (102.0° F) or room-temperature gel (82.3° F). Investigators performed all US examinations. We informed all subjects that the study entailed investigation into various measures to improve patient satisfaction with ED US examinations but did not inform them of our specific focus on gel temperature. Investigators wore heat-resistant gloves while performing the examinations to blind themselves to the gel temperature. After completion of the US, subjects completed a survey including the primary outcome measure of patient satisfaction as measured on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A secondary outcome was patient perceptions of sonographer professionalism measured by an ordinal scale (1-5). RESULTS: We enrolled 124 subjects; 120 completed all outcome measures. Of these, 59 underwent randomization to US studies with room-temperature gel and 61 underwent randomization to heated US gel. Patient 100-mm VAS satisfaction scores were 83.9 among patients undergoing studies with room-temperature gel versus 87.6 among subjects undergoing studies with heated gel (effect size 3.7, 95% confidence interval -1.3-8.6). There were similarly no differences between the two arms with regard to patient perceptions of sonographer professionalism. CONCLUSION: The use of heated ultrasound gel appears to have no material impact on the satisfaction of ED patients undergoing bedside ultrasound studies.


Asunto(s)
Geles/administración & dosificación , Satisfacción del Paciente , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Administración Tópica , Adulto , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Calor , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 35(9): 1285-1290, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400069

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to measure the diagnostic accuracy of a novel software technology to detect pneumothorax on Brightness (B) mode and Motion (M) mode ultrasonography. METHODS: Ultrasonography fellowship-trained emergency physicians performed thoracic ultrasonography at baseline and after surgically creating a pneumothorax in eight intubated, spontaneously breathing porcine subjects. Prior to pneumothorax induction, we captured sagittal M-mode still images and B-mode videos of each intercostal space with a linear array transducer at 4cm of depth. After collection of baseline images, we placed a chest tube, injected air into the pleural space in 250mL increments, and repeated the ultrasonography for pneumothorax volumes of 250mL, 500mL, 750mL, and 1000mL. We confirmed pneumothorax with intrapleural digital manometry and ultrasound by expert sonographers. We exported collected images for interpretation by the software. We treated each individual scan as a single test for interpretation by the software. RESULTS: Excluding indeterminate results, we collected 338M-mode images for which the software demonstrated a sensitivity of 98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 92-99%), specificity of 95% (95% CI 86-99), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 21.6 (95% CI 7.1-65), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.02 (95% CI 0.008-0.046). Among 364 B-mode videos, the software demonstrated a sensitivity of 86% (95% CI 81-90%), specificity of 85% (81-91%), LR+ of 5.7 (95% CI 3.2-10.2), and LR- of 0.17 (95% CI 0.12-0.22). CONCLUSIONS: This novel technology has potential as a useful adjunct to diagnose pneumothorax on thoracic ultrasonography.


Asunto(s)
Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador/métodos , Neumotórax/diagnóstico por imagen , Programas Informáticos , Pared Torácica/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Animales , Tubos Torácicos , Femenino , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Porcinos
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 17(2): 209-15, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26973754

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Bedside thoracic ultrasound (US) can rapidly diagnose pneumothorax (PTX) with improved accuracy over the physical examination and without the need for chest radiography (CXR); however, US is highly operator dependent. A computerized diagnostic assistant was developed by the United States Army Institute of Surgical Research to detect PTX on standard thoracic US images. This computer algorithm is designed to automatically detect sonographic signs of PTX by systematically analyzing B-mode US video clips for pleural sliding and M-mode still images for the seashore sign. This was a pilot study to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the PTX detection computer algorithm when compared to an expert panel of US trained physicians. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using archived thoracic US obtained on adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) between 5/23/2011 and 8/6/2014. Emergency medicine residents, fellows, attending physicians, physician assistants, and medical students performed the US examinations and stored the images in the picture archive and communications system (PACS). The PACS was queried for all ED bedside US examinations with reported positive PTX during the study period along with a random sample of negatives. The computer algorithm then interpreted the images, and we compared the results to an independent, blinded expert panel of three physicians, each with experience reviewing over 10,000 US examinations. RESULTS: Query of the PACS system revealed 146 bedside thoracic US examinations for analysis. Thirteen examinations were indeterminate and were excluded. There were 79 true negatives, 33 true positives, 9 false negatives, and 12 false positives. The test characteristics of the algorithm when compared to the expert panel were sensitivity 79% (95 % CI [63-89]) and specificity 87% (95% CI [77-93]). For the 20 images scored as highest quality by the expert panel, the algorithm demonstrated 100% sensitivity (95% CI [56-100]) and 92% specificity (95% CI [62-100]). CONCLUSION: This novel computer algorithm has potential to aid clinicians with the identification of the sonographic signs of PTX in the absence of expert physician sonographers. Further refinement and training of the algorithm is still needed, along with prospective validation, before it can be utilized in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Neumotórax/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Ultrasonografía , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , California , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
10.
J Emerg Med ; 47(3): e63-8, 2014 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24915743

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute spontaneous subdural hematomas (ASSDH) occur by a variety of pathological processes and are less common than trauma-related acute subdural hematomas (SDH). Both types are usually seen in the elderly, and only 22 cases of ASSDH in patients aged < 40 years have been reported in the medical literature. OBJECTIVES: We report a rare case of ASSDH in a middle-aged male with no previous history of head trauma. A literature review comparing the clinical presentations, etiologies, incidence, mortality rates, and prognostic factors of ASSDH in various age groups is discussed. CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with headaches, myalgias, and vomiting. Noncontrast computed tomography revealed a unilateral ASSDH with 9 mm of midline shift, despite a normal neurological examination. Upon admission, the patient developed an abducens palsy suggesting increased intracranial pressure and underwent an urgent hemicraniectomy. Pathological sampling revealed large atypical cells indicative of a hematopoietic neoplasm, but various advanced imaging modalities failed to identify signs of cerebral tumor, vascular malformation, or arterial extravasation. CONCLUSION: Given the rarity of SDH in nonelderly patients, this case suggests a broader differential diagnosis for nontraumatic headaches to include arterial and even neoplastic origins. Our literature review confirms the paucity of reported incidences of ASSDH, yet reminds medical providers to closely monitor for developing neurological symptoms and initiate prompt medical intervention when necessary.


Asunto(s)
Hematoma Subdural Agudo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Cefalea/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Pronóstico
12.
J Spec Oper Med ; 12(3): 19-22, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23032316

RESUMEN

Increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) may damage the brain by compression of its structures or restriction of its blood flow, and medical providers my encounter elevated ICP in conventional and non-conventional medical settings. Early identification of elevated ICP is critical to ensuring timely and appropriate management. However, few diagnostic methods are available for detecting increased ICP in an acutely ill patient, which can be performed quickly and noninvasively at the bedside. The optic nerve sheath is a continuation of the dura mater of the central nervous system and can be viewed by ocular ultrasound. Pressure changes within the intracranial cavity affect the diameter of the optic nerve sheath. Data acquired from multiple clinical settings suggest that millimetric increases in the optic nerve sheath diameter detected via ocular ultrasound correlate with increasing levels of ICP. In this review, we discuss the use of ocular ultrasound to evaluate for the presence of elevated ICP via assessment of optic nerve sheath diameter, and describe critical aspects of this valuable diagnostic procedure. Ultrasound is increasingly becoming a medical fixture in the modern battlefield where other diagnostic modalities can be unavailable or impractical to employ. As Special Forces and other austere medical providers become increasingly familiar with ultrasound, ocular ultrasound for the assessment of increased intracranial pressure may help optimize their ability to provide the most effective medical management for their patients.


Asunto(s)
Presión Intracraneal , Nervio Óptico , Ondas de Choque de Alta Energía , Humanos , Hipertensión Intracraneal , Ultrasonido
13.
J Emerg Med ; 44(1): 142-9, 2013 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22595631

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prehospital ultrasound has been shown to aid in the diagnosis of multiple conditions that do not generally change prehospital management. On the other hand, the diagnoses of cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax, or cardiac standstill may directly impact patient resuscitation in the field. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine if prehospital care providers can learn to acquire and recognize ultrasound images for several life-threatening conditions using the Prehospital Assessment with UltraSound for Emergencies (PAUSE) protocol. METHODS: This is a prospective, educational intervention pilot study at an urban fire department with integrated emergency medical services (EMS). We enrolled 20 emergency medical technicians--paramedic with no prior ultrasonography training. Subjects underwent a 2-h training session on basic ultrasonography of the lungs and heart to evaluate for pneumothorax, pericardial effusion, and cardiac activity. Subjects were tested on image interpretation as well as image acquisition skills. Two bedside ultrasound-trained emergency physicians scored images for adequacy. Image interpretation testing was performed using pre-obtained ultrasound clips containing normal and abnormal images. RESULTS: All subjects appropriately identified the pleural line, and 19 of 20 paramedics achieved a Cardiac Ultrasound Structural Assessment Scale score of ≥4. For the image interpretation phase, the mean PAUSE protocol video test score was 9.1 out of a possible 10 (95% confidence interval 8.6-9.6). CONCLUSION: Paramedics were able to perform the PAUSE protocol and recognize the presence of pneumothorax, pericardial effusion, and cardiac standstill. The PAUSE protocol may potentially be useful in rapidly detecting specific life-threatening pathology in the prehospital environment, and warrants further study in existing EMS systems.


Asunto(s)
Taponamiento Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagen , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Auxiliares de Urgencia/educación , Paro Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumotórax/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Prospectivos , Ultrasonografía
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