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JCI Insight ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171263


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is more benign in children compared to adults for unknown reasons. This contrasts with other respiratory viruses where disease manifestations are often more severe in children. We hypothesize that a more robust early innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 protects against severe disease. METHODS: Clinical outcomes, SARS-CoV-2 viral copies and cellular gene expression were compared in nasopharyngeal swabs obtained at the time of presentation to the Emergency Department from 12 children and 27 adults using bulk RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Total protein, cytokines and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA were quantified in nasal fluid. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 copies, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression were similar in children and adults, but children displayed higher expression of genes associated with interferon signaling, NLRP3 inflammasome, and other innate pathways. Higher levels of IFN-α2, IFN-γ, IP-10, IL-8, and IL-1ß protein were detected in nasal fluid in children versus adults. Children also expressed higher levels of genes associated with immune cells whereas expression of those associated with epithelial cells did not differ in children versus adults. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG were detected at similar levels in nasal fluid from both groups. None of the children required supplemental oxygen whereas 7 adults did (p=0.03); four adults died. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide direct evidence of a more vigorous early mucosal immune response in children compared to adults and suggest that this contributes to favorable clinical outcomes.

J Grad Med Educ ; 12(6): 682-685, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005985


Background: Montefiore Medical Center (MMC) is a large tertiary care center in the Bronx, New York City, with 245 internal medicine residents. Beginning on February 29, 2020, residents became ill with COVID-19-like illness (CLI), which required absence from work. There was initially a shortage of personal protective equipment and delays in SARS-CoV-2 testing, which gradually improved during March and April 2020. Objective: We evaluated the relationship between CLI-related work absence rates of internal medicine residents and MMC's COVID-19 hospital census over time. Methods: Data on resident work absence between February 29 and May 22 were reviewed along with MMC's COVID-19 hospital census data. To determine the effect of patient exposure on resident CLI incidence, we compared the mean incidence of CLI per patient exposure days (PED = daily hospital census × days pre- or post-peak) before and after peak COVID-19 hospital census. Results: Forty-two percent (103 of 245) of internal medicine residents were absent from work, resulting in 875 missed workdays. At the peak of resident work absence, 16% (38 of 245) were out sick. Residents were absent for a median of 7 days (IQR 6-9.5 days). Mean resident CLI incidence per PED (CLI/PED) was 13.9-fold lower post-peak compared to pre-peak (P = .003). Conclusions: At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, a large portion of internal medicine residents at this single center became ill. However, the incidence of CLI decreased over time, despite ongoing exposure to patients with COVID-19.

/epidemiología , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Centros Médicos Académicos , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Medicina Interna , Internado y Residencia/métodos , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional , Admisión y Programación de Personal , Estudios Retrospectivos
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661852


OBJECTIVE: Little is known about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hypercoagulability. We sought to characterize patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) identified after admission for COVID-19. METHODS: All adult patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center from March 1, 2020, to April 10, 2020, and undergoing lower extremity venous duplex for DVT evaluation were included. Patients admitted with suspicion of COVID-19 were divided into severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative groups based on in-hospital test results. Patients without clinical suspicion for COVID-19 were not tested. A retrospective case-control study design was used to identify potential risk factors for DVT in patients with COVID-19. Demographic, radiographic, and laboratory values were abstracted and analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, 3404 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to the hospital. Of the 135 SARS-CoV-2 patients who underwent duplex scanning, there were 18 (13.3%) noted to have DVT compared with 72 of the 711 patients (10.1%) who were either SARS-CoV-2 negative or untested. The odds ratio for DVT in COVID-19 was 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-2.34; P = .289). Baseline characteristics for COVID-19 patients with and without DVT were overall similar. COVID-19 patients with DVT had an elevated median first d-dimer (18.88 µg/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 7.79-20.00] vs 2.55 µg/mL [IQR, 1.45-6.28]; P = .002; reference value, <0.5 µg/mL), average in-hospital d-dimer (median, 11.93 µg/mL [IQR, 8.25-16.97] vs 3.54 µg/mL [IQR, 2.05-8.53]; P < .001) and median fibrinogen level (501.0 [IQR, 440.0-629.0] vs 654.5 [IQR, 535.8-780.0]; P = .002; reference range, 187-502 mg/dL). There was a trend to significance for COVID-19 patients with DVT compared with without DVT in median d-dimer levels at the time of the duplex (13.61 µg/mL [IQR, 4.04-19.97] vs 3.58 µg/mL [IQR, 2.51-9.62]; P = .055) and median ferritin levels (1679.0 ng/mL [IQR, 1168.0-2577.0] vs 1103.0 ng/mL [IQR, 703.5-2076.5]; P = .055; reference range, 25-270 ng/mL). Twelve of the 18 patients with COVID who developed DVT did so despite chemical thromboprophylaxis, and 2 developed DVT despite therapeutic anticoagulation CONCLUSIONS: We found only a modestly increased risk of DVT in patients with COVID-19, likely underestimated owing to limitations in duplex testing early in the epidemic. Elevated d-dimer and a less elevated fibrinogen are associated with DVT in patients with COVID-19 who seem to form thrombus despite conventional chemical thromboprophylaxis. Additionally, an increasing d-dimer over time may be a reflection of the development of DVT in patients with COVID-19.