Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
1.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114434, 2022 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061124

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic led to the explosion of biomedical waste, a global challenge to public health and the environment. Biomedical waste comprising plastic can convert into microplastics (MPs, < 5 mm) by sunlight, wave, oxidative and thermal processes, and biodegradation. MPs with additives and contaminants such as metals are also hazardous to many aquatic and terrestrial organisms, including humans. Bioaccumulation of MPs in organisms often transfers across the trophic level in the global food web. Thus, this article aims to provide a literature review on the source, quantity, and fate of biomedical waste, along with the recent surge of MPs and their adverse impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. MPs intake (ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact) in humans causing various chronic diseases involving multiple organs in digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems are surveyed, which have been reviewed barely. There is an urgent need to control and manage biomedical waste to shrink MPs pollution for reducing environmental and human health risks.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266686, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785199

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Students generally struggle to build a good career after their graduation in developing countries like Bangladesh. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, such struggle increased and faced with stress and depression. We aimed to inquire about the amplitude of depression and stress among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding their future careers and to identify the factors associated with this depression and stress. METHODS: A total of 516 students at various universities participated in this cross-sectional survey. From October 2020 to February 2021, data was collected through an online survey. An e-questionnaire with socio-demographic, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) questions was created using Google Forms and distributed via Facebook, WhatsApp, and other social media platforms. The universities included into the sample were selected randomly from eight divisions of Bangladesh. Descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests were carried out and the association between the risk factors and the outcome (e.g. depression and stress) was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) including 95% confidence interval (CI) obtained from the binary logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 516 participants, 380 (73.6%) were male and 136 (26.4%) were female. Around 414 (80.2%) participants had mild to severe depression and 399 (77.3%) reported having low to moderately perceived stress. Female students were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.21-3.76) times more depressed and 3.6 (95% CI: 1.87-6.76) times more stressed than the counterpart. Students, who think delaying graduation due to COVID-19 will reduce the chance of getting a job, were 1.72 (95% CI: 1.07-2.76) times more depressed. Respondents, whose department offers any internship were 36% less depressed (p = 0.053), while skilled students were 46% less stressed though it was not statistically significant (p = 0.43). CONCLUSION: According to our findings, there is an increasing prevalence of depression and stress among students, particularly among female students and those who do not receive job-related facilities from their institutions or who are unskilled. Universities can provide mental health programs and strive to have enough space for students to participate in internships. In addition, the government and educational institutions should work together to address the growing challenge.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudiantes , Universidades
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint en Inglés | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318836

RESUMEN

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest public health concern. It harmed everyone, both physically and mentally. Because of panic situations in COVID-19 pandemic, students all over the world, including those in Bangladesh, are suffering from depression and anxiety. Considering this, we aimed to assess psycho-emotional changes of the university students through investigating their level of depression and anxiety effects during panic and post-panic period of COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Methods: : Cross-sectional online surveys were conducted among university students in Bangladesh from April to July 2020 (panic period, n=170) and then from August to November 2020 (post-panic period, n=170). The PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires were used to assess respondents' depression and anxiety levels, respectively. We used continuous scores to assess the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms. We also computed binary depression and anxiety scores. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Results: : The proportion of depression symptoms was 49.4% during the panic period and 52.4% after the panic period. Anxiety symptoms were experienced by 38.2% of students during the panic period, and this percentage was nearly identical in the post-panic interval. Depression levels increased in the post-panic period and urban students have significantly (P< 0.05) higher levels of depression and anxiety than their counterparts. Female students also exhibited significantly more anxious symptoms (p=0.002) than male. Depression symptoms significantly vary by family types, students place of residence whereas students age, gender, education, family head's occupation, time period and family economic condition found no significant association with the depression. Conclusions: : Students during the post-panic period have a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms than during the panic period. Although the difference was small, it was still concerning for university students in Bangladesh because it interfered with their academic life.

4.
Infect Dis Rep ; 13(4): 902-909, 2021 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470830

RESUMEN

Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is a recently identified glycoprotein that is an important host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the other hand, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) acts as a receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, both NRP1 and ACE2 express in the kidney and are associated with various renal diseases, including renal carcinoma. Therefore, the expression profiles of NRP1 and ACE2 in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) and kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP) patients from the various cancer databases were investigated along with their impact on patients' survivability. In addition, coexpression analysis of genes involved in COVID-19, KIRC, and KIRP concerning NRP1 and ACE2 was performed. The results demonstrated that both t NRP1 and ACE2 expressions are upregulated in KIRC and KIRP compared to healthy conditions and are significantly correlated with the survivability rate of KIRC patients. A total of 128 COVID-19-associated genes are coexpressed, which are positively associated with NRP1 and ACE2 both in KIRC and KIRP. Therefore, it might be suggested that, along with the ACE2, high expression of the newly identified host factor NRP1 in renal carcinomas may play a vital role in the increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and survivability of COVID-19 patients suffering from kidney cancers. The findings of this investigation will be helpful for further molecular studies and prevention and/or treatment strategies for COVID-19 patients associated with renal carcinomas.

5.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 8594-8613, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450347

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is one of the most severe global health crises that humanity has ever faced. Researchers have restlessly focused on developing solutions for monitoring and tracing the viral culprit, SARS-CoV-2, as vital steps to break the chain of infection. Even though biomedical engineering (BME) is considered a rising field of medical sciences, it has demonstrated its pivotal role in nurturing the maturation of COVID-19 diagnostic technologies. Within a very short period of time, BME research applied to COVID-19 diagnosis has advanced with ever-increasing knowledge and inventions, especially in adapting available virus detection technologies into clinical practice and exploiting the power of interdisciplinary research to design novel diagnostic tools or improve the detection efficiency. To assist the development of BME in COVID-19 diagnosis, this review highlights the most recent diagnostic approaches and evaluates the potential of each research direction in the context of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Ingeniería Biomédica/métodos , Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Prueba Serológica para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Inteligencia Artificial , Técnicas Biosensibles , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Humanos , Inmunoensayo , Microfluídica , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E329-E371, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355287

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of reported symptoms and comorbidities, and investigate the factors associated with age of the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020182677) where the databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, WHO, Semantic Scholar, and COVID-19 Primer) were searched for clinical studies published from January to April, 2020. Initially, the pooled prevalence of symptoms and comorbidity of COVID-19 patients were estimated using random effect model and the age -related factors were identified performing multivariate analysis [factor analysis]. RESULTS: Twenty-nine articles with 4,884 COVID-19 patients were included in this study. Altogether, we found 33 symptoms and 44 comorbidities where the most frequent 19 symptoms and 11 comorbidities were included in the meta-analysis. The fever (84%), cough/dry cough (61%), and fatigue/weakness (42%) were found more prevalent while acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypertension and diabetes were the most prevalent comorbid condition. The factor analysis showed positive association between a cluster of symptoms and comorbidities with patients' age. The symptoms comprising fever, dyspnea/shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, anorexia and pharyngalgia; and the comorbidities including diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, COPD/lung disease and ARDS were the factors positively associated with COVID-19 patient's age. CONCLUSION: As an unique effort, this study found a group of symptoms (fever, dyspnea/shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, anorexia and pharyngalgia) and comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, COPD/lung disease and ARDS), associated with the age of COVID-19 infected patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidad , Pandemias , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Fiebre/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Health Sci Rep ; 4(2): e274, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222623

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Realizing the transmission potential and the magnitude of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) aids public health monitoring, strategies, and preparation. Two fundamental parameters, the basic reproduction number (R 0) and case fatality rate (CFR) of COVID-19, help in this understanding process. The objective of this study was to estimate the R 0 and CFR of COVID-19 and assess whether the parameters vary in different regions of the world. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review to find the reported estimates of the R 0 and the CFR in articles from international databases between January 1 and August 31, 2020. Random-effect models and Forest plots were implemented to evaluate the mean effect size of R 0 and the CFR. Furthermore, R 0 and CFR of the studies were quantified based on geographic location, the tests/thousand population, and the median population age of the countries where the studies were conducted. To assess statistical heterogeneity among the selected articles, the I 2 statistic and the Cochran's Q test were used. RESULTS: Forty-five studies involving R 0 and 34 studies involving CFR were included. The pooled estimation of R 0 was 2.69 (95% CI: 2.40, 2.98), and that of the CFR was 2.67 (2.25, 3.13). The CFR in different regions of the world varied significantly, from 2.49 (2.08, 2.94) in Asia to 3.40 (2.81, 4.04) in North America. We observed higher mean CFR values for the countries with lower tests (3.15 vs 2.16) and greater median population age (3.13 vs 2.27). However, R 0 did not vary significantly in different regions of the world. CONCLUSIONS: An R 0 of 2.69 and a CFR of 2.67 indicate the severity of the COVID-19. Although R 0 and CFR may vary over time, space, and demographics, we recommend considering these figures in control and prevention measures.

9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(6): 2176-2184, 2021 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197603

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend of reported case fatality rate (rCFR) of COVID-19 over time, using globally reported COVID-19 cases and mortality data. We collected daily COVID-19 diagnoses and mortality data from the WHO's daily situation reports dated January 1 to December 31, 2020. We performed three time-series models [simple exponential smoothing, auto-regressive integrated moving average, and automatic forecasting time-series (Prophet)] to identify the global trend of rCFR for COVID-19. We used beta regression models to investigate the association between the rCFR and potential predictors of each country and reported incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of each variable. The weekly global cumulative COVID-19 rCFR reached a peak at 7.23% during the 17th week (April 22-28, 2020). We found a positive and increasing trend for global daily rCFR values of COVID-19 until the 17th week (pre-peak period) and then a strong declining trend up until the 53rd week (post-peak period) toward 2.2% (December 29-31, 2020). In pre-peak of rCFR, the percentage of people aged 65 and above and the prevalence of obesity were significantly associated with the COVID-19 rCFR. The declining trend of global COVID-19 rCFR was not merely because of increased COVID-19 testing, because COVID-19 tests per 1,000 population had poor predictive value. Decreasing rCFR could be explained by an increased rate of infection in younger people or by the improvement of health care management, shielding from infection, and/or repurposing of several drugs that had shown a beneficial effect on reducing fatality because of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , SARS-CoV-2 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Salud Global , Humanos , Incidencia , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Heliyon ; 6(12): e05798, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996919

RESUMEN

Honey and its compounds are drawing attention as an effective natural therapy because of its ability to attenuate acute inflammation through enhancing immune response. Several studies have proved its potential healing capability against numerous chronic diseases/conditions, including pulmonary disorders, cardiac disorders, diabetes, hypertension, autophagy dysfunction, bacterial, and fungal infections. More importantly, honey has proved its virucidal effect on several enveloped viruses such as HIV, influenza virus, herpes simplex, and varicella-zoster virus. Honey may be beneficial for patients with COVID-19 which is caused by an enveloped virus SARS-CoV-2 by boosting the host immune system, improving comorbid conditions, and antiviral activities. Moreover, a clinical trial of honey on COVID-19 patients is currently undergoing. In this review, we have tried to summarize the potential benefits of honey and its ingredients in the context of antimicrobial activities, some chronic diseases, and the host immune system. Thus, we have attempted to establish a relationship with honey for the treatment of COVID-19. This review will be helpful to reconsider the insights into the possible potential therapeutic effects of honey in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the effects of honey on SARS-CoV-2 replication and/or host immune system need to be further investigated by in vitro and in vivo studies.

11.
Infect Chemother ; 52(4): 461-477, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952733

RESUMEN

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is an essential vitamin with pleiotropic functions, ranging from antioxidant to anti-microbial functions. Evidence suggests that vitamin C acts against inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy chaos, and immune dysfunction. The ability to activate and enhance the immune system makes this versatile vitamin a prospective therapeutic agent amid the current situation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Being highly effective against the influenza virus, causing the common cold, vitamin C may also function against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its associated complications. Severe infections need higher doses of the vitamin to compensate for the augmented inflammatory response and metabolic demand that commonly occur during COVID-19. Compelling evidence also suggests that a high dose of vitamin C (1.5 g/kg body weight) in inflammatory conditions can result in effective clinical outcomes and thus can be employed to combat COVID-19. However, further studies are crucial to delineate the mechanism underlying the action of vitamin C against COVID-19. The current review aims to reposition vitamin C as an alternative approach for alleviating COVID-19-associated complications.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 143315, 2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899490

RESUMEN

We aimed to examine the impact of weather on COVID-19 confirmed cases in South Asian countries, namely, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Data on daily confirmed cases, together with weather parameters, were collected from the first day of COVID confirmed cases in each country to 31 August 2020. The weather parameters were Rainfall (mm), relative humidity (%), maximum and minimum temperature (°C), surface pressure (kPa), maximum air pollutants matter PM 2.5 (µg/m3) and maximum wind speed (m/s). Data were analyzed for each investigated countries separately by using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Explanatory Variables (ARIMAX) model. We found that maximum wind speed had significant negative impact on COVID-19 transmission in India (-209.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): -369.13, -49.77) and Sri Lanka (-2.77, 95% CI: -4.77, -0.77). Apart from India, temperature had mixed effects (i.e., positive or negative) in four countries in South Asia. For example, maximum temperature had negative impact (-30.52, 95% CI: -60.24, -0.78) in Bangladesh and positive impact (5.10, 95% CI: 0.06, 10.14) in Afghanistan. Whereas rainfall had negative effects (-48.64, 95% CI: -80.17, -17.09) in India and mixed effects in Pakistan. Besides, maximum air pollutants matter PM 2.5 was negatively associated with the confirmed cases of COVID-19. In conclusion, maximum wind speed, rainfall, air pollutants (maximum PM 2.5) and temperature are four variables that could play a vital role in the transmission of COVID-19. Although there is a mixed conclusion regarding weather parameters and COVID-19 transmission, we recommend developing environmental policies regarding the transmission of COVID-19 in South Asian countries.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Afganistán , Bangladesh , Humanos , India , Pakistán , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiología , Tiempo (Meteorología)
13.
Phytother Res ; 35(3): 1329-1344, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844376

RESUMEN

Nigella sativa seed and its active compounds have been historically recognized as an effective herbal panacea that can establish a balanced inflammatory response by suppressing chronic inflammation and promoting healthy immune response. The essential oil and other preparations of N. sativa seed have substantial therapeutic outcomes against immune disturbance, autophagy dysfunction, oxidative stress, ischemia, inflammation, in several COVID-19 comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, Kawasaki-like diseases, and many bacterial and viral infections. Compelling evidence in the therapeutic efficiency of N. sativa along with the recent computational findings is strongly suggestive of combating emerged COVID-19 pandemic. Also, being an available candidate in nutraceuticals, N. sativa seed oil could be immensely potential and feasible to prevent and cure COVID-19. This review was aimed at revisiting the pharmacological benefits of N. sativa seed and its active metabolites that may constitute a potential basis for developing a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy against COVID-19. Bioactive compounds of N. sativa seed, especially thymiquinone, α-hederin, and nigellidine, could be alternative and promising herbal drugs to combat COVID-19. Preclinical and clinical trials are required to delineate detailed mechanism of N. sativa's active components and to investigate their efficacy and potency under specific pathophysiological conditions of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Nigella sativa/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Semillas/química , Benzoquinonas , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Pandemias , Saponinas
14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e210, 2020 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745891

RESUMEN

Global Health Security Index (GHSI) and Joint External Evaluation (JEE) are two well-known health security and related capability indices. We hypothesised that countries with higher GHSI or JEE scores would have detected their first COVID-19 case earlier, and would experience lower mortality outcome compared to countries with lower scores. We evaluated the effectiveness of GHSI and JEE in predicting countries' COVID-19 detection response times and mortality outcome (deaths/million). We used two different outcomes for the evaluation: (i) detection response time, the duration of time to the first confirmed case detection (from 31st December 2019 to 20th February 2020 when every country's first case was linked to travel from China) and (ii) mortality outcome (deaths/million) until 11th March and 1st July 2020, respectively. We interpreted the detection response time alongside previously published relative risk of the importation of COVID-19 cases from China. We performed multiple linear regression and negative binomial regression analysis to evaluate how these indices predicted the actual outcome. The two indices, GHSI and JEE were strongly correlated (r = 0.82), indicating a good agreement between them. However, both GHSI (r = 0.31) and JEE (r = 0.37) had a poor correlation with countries' COVID-19-related mortality outcome. Higher risk of importation of COVID-19 from China for a given country was negatively correlated with the time taken to detect the first case in that country (adjusted R2 = 0.63-0.66), while the GHSI and JEE had minimal predictive value. In the negative binomial regression model, countries' mortality outcome was strongly predicted by the percentage of the population aged 65 and above (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.21) while overall GHSI score (IRR: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.98-1.01)) and JEE (IRR: 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96-1.02)) were not significant predictors. GHSI and JEE had lower predictive value for detection response time and mortality outcome due to COVID-19. We suggest introduction of a population healthiness parameter, to address demographic and comorbidity vulnerabilities, and reappraisal of the ranking system and methods used to obtain the index based on experience gained from this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Salud Global , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Distribución Binomial , COVID-19 , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Immunol Lett ; 226: 38-45, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643130

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of deadly Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which emerged as a major threat to public health across the world. Although there is no clear gender or socioeconomic discrimination in the incidence of COVID-19, individuals who are older adults and/or with comorbidities and compromised immunity have a relatively higher risk of contracting this disease. Since no specific drug has yet been discovered, strengthening immunity along with maintaining a healthy living is the best way to survive this disease. As a healthy practice, calorie restriction in the form of intermittent fasting (IF) in several clinical settings has been reported to promote several health benefits, including priming of the immune response. This dietary restriction also activates autophagy, a cell surveillance system that boosts up immunity. With these prevailing significance in priming host defense, IF could be a potential strategy amid this outbreak to fighting off SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, no review so far available proposing IF as an encouraging strategy in the prevention of COVID-19. A comprehensive review has therefore been planned to highlight the beneficial role of fasting in immunity and autophagy, that underlie the possible defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The COVID-19 pathogenesis and its impact on host immune response have also been briefly outlined. This review aimed at revisiting the immunomodulatory potential of IF that may constitute a promising preventive approach against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Ayuno , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Autofagia , COVID-19 , Restricción Calórica , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/inmunología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inmunología , Ayuno/metabolismo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Evasión Inmune , Inmunidad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Drug Dev Res ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633786

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is one of the most contagious diseases in human history that has already affected millions of lives worldwide. To date, no vaccines or effective therapeutics have been discovered yet that may successfully treat COVID-19 patients or contain the transmission of the virus. Scientific communities across the globe responded rapidly and have been working relentlessly to develop drugs and vaccines, which may require considerable time. In this uncertainty, repurposing the existing antiviral drugs could be the best strategy to speed up the discovery of effective therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, drug repurposing may leave some vital information on druggable targets that could be capitalized in target-based drug discovery. Information on possible drug targets and the progress on therapeutic and vaccine development also needs to be updated. In this review, we revisited the druggable targets that may hold promise in the development of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent. Progresses on the development of potential therapeutics and vaccines that are under the preclinical studies and clinical trials have been highlighted. We anticipate that this review will provide valuable information that would help to accelerate the development of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA