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2.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(4): 444-454, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141400

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To analyze the application of a lung ultrasound (LUS)-based diagnostic approach to patients suspected of COVID-19, combining the LUS likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia with patient's symptoms and clinical history. METHODS: This is an international multicenter observational study in 20 US and European hospitals. Patients suspected of COVID-19 were tested with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) swab test and had an LUS examination. We identified three clinical phenotypes based on pre-existing chronic diseases (mixed phenotype), and on the presence (severe phenotype) or absence (mild phenotype) of signs and/or symptoms of respiratory failure at presentation. We defined the LUS likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia according to four different patterns: high (HighLUS), intermediate (IntLUS), alternative (AltLUS), and low (LowLUS) probability. The combination of patterns and phenotypes with RT-PCR results was described and analyzed. RESULTS: We studied 1462 patients, classified in mild (n = 400), severe (n = 727), and mixed (n = 335) phenotypes. HighLUS and IntLUS showed an overall sensitivity of 90.2% (95% CI 88.23-91.97%) in identifying patients with positive RT-PCR, with higher values in the mixed (94.7%) and severe phenotype (97.1%), and even higher in those patients with objective respiratory failure (99.3%). The HighLUS showed a specificity of 88.8% (CI 85.55-91.65%) that was higher in the mild phenotype (94.4%; CI 90.0-97.0%). At multivariate analysis, the HighLUS was a strong independent predictor of RT-PCR positivity (odds ratio 4.2, confidence interval 2.6-6.7, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Combining LUS patterns of probability with clinical phenotypes at presentation can rapidly identify those patients with or without COVID-19 pneumonia at bedside. This approach could support and expedite patients' management during a pandemic surge.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Adulto , Anciano , Diagnóstico Precoz , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
3.
Chest ; 158(6): 2511-2516, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108121

RESUMEN

Lung ultrasonography (LUS), an imaging modality quickly performed, interpreted, and integrated by the treating physician at the bedside, is a particularly useful tool for acutely ill patients. In the evaluation of a patient with respiratory failure in the ICU or ED, LUS is superior to chest radiograph and generally comparable with CT imaging and reduces the need for patient transport and radiation exposure. This article will provide a concise review of LUS as it pertains to respiratory failure in general and will include examples of relevant ultrasound images and video clips from critically ill patients.

4.
Ultrasound J ; 13(1): 11, 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105732

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LUS) and chest radiography (CXR) are the most used chest imaging tools in the early diagnosis of COVID-19 associated pneumonia. However, the relationship between LUS and CXR is not clearly defined. The aim of our study was to describe the comparison between LUS interpretation and CXR readings in the first approach to patients suspected of COVID-19. METHODS: In the time of the first COVID-19 pandemic surge, we prospectively evaluated adult patients presenting to an emergency department complaining of symptoms raising suspicion of COVID-19. Patients were studied by LUS and only those performing also CXR were analyzed. All the patients performed viral reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). LUS studies were classified in 4 categories of probabilities, based on the presence of typical or alternative signs of COVID-19-associated interstitial pneumonia. Accordingly, the CXR readings were retrospectively adapted by 2 experts in 4 categories following the standard language that describes the computed tomography (CT) findings. Patients were divided in two groups, based on the agreement of the LUS and CXR categories. Results were also compared to RT-PCR and, when available, to CT studies. RESULTS: We analyzed 139 cases (55 women, mean age 59.1 ± 15.5 years old). The LUS vs CXR results disagreed in 60 (43.2%) cases. RT-PCR was positive in 88 (63.3%) cases. In 45 cases, a CT scan was also performed and only 4 disagreed with LUS interpretation versus 24 in the comparison between CT and CXR. In 18 cases, LUS detected signs of COVID-19 pneumonia (high and intermediate probabilities) while CXR reading was negative; in 14 of these cases, a CT scan or a RT-PCR-positive result confirmed the LUS interpretation. In 6 cases, LUS detected signs of alternative diagnoses to COVID-19 pneumonia while CXR was negative; in 4 of these cases, CT scan confirmed atypical findings. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a strong disagreement between LUS interpretation and CXR reading in the early approach to patients suspected of COVID-19. Comparison with CT studies and RT-PCR results seems to confirm the superiority of LUS over a second retrospective reading of CXR.

5.
Chest ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064920

RESUMEN

Given the general utility of lung ultrasound for the evaluation of respiratory failure in acutely ill patients, it is logical to consider its specific advantages in coronavirus disease 2019-related pulmonary disease. The authors, representing the extensive experience of the North American and European coronavirus disease 2019 epicenters, present an ultrasound scanning protocol and report on the common associated ultrasound findings.

6.
Telemed J E Health ; 26(10): 1304-1307, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639940

RESUMEN

Purpose: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is an acute respiratory illness. Although most infected persons are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms, some patients progress to devastating disease; such progression is difficult to predict or identify in a timely manner. COVID-19 patients who do not require hospitalization can self-isolate at home. Calls from one disease epicenter identify the need for homebased isolation with telemedicine surveillance to monitor for impending deterioration. Methodology: Although the dominant approach for these asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic patients is to monitor oxygen saturation, we suggest additionally considering the potential merits and utility of home-based imaging. Chest computed tomography is clearly impractical, but ultrasound has shown comparable sensitivity for lung involvement, with major advantages of short and simple procedures, low cost, and excellent repeatability. Thoracic ultrasound may thus allow remotely identifying the development of pneumonitis at an early stage of illness and potentially averting the risk of insidious deterioration to severe pneumonia and critical illness while in home isolation. Conclusions: Lung sonography can be easily performed by motivated nonmedical caregivers when directed and supervised in real time by experts. Remote mentors could thus efficiently monitor, counsel, and triage multiple home-based patients from their "control center." Authors believe that this approach deserves further attention and study to reduce delays and failures in timely hospitalization of home-isolated patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/diagnóstico por imagen , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Salud Laboral , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Consulta Remota/métodos , Ultrasonografía Doppler/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/virología , Masculino , Tutoría/métodos , Pandemias , Seguridad del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/diagnóstico por imagen
9.
Ultrasound J ; 12(1): 22, 2020 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-94853

RESUMEN

The pandemic of COVID-19 is seriously challenging the medical organization in many parts of the world. This novel corona virus SARS-CoV-2 has a specific tropism for the low respiratory airways, but causes severe pneumonia in a low percentage of patients. However, the rapid spread of the infection during this pandemic is causing the need to hospitalize a high number of patients. Pneumonia in COVID-19 has peculiar features and can be studied by lung ultrasound in the early approach to suspected patients. The sonographic signs are non-specific when considered alone, but observation of some aspects of vertical artifacts can enhance the diagnostic power of the ultrasound examination. Also, the combination of sonographic signs in patterns and their correlation with blood exams in different phenotypes of the disease may allow for a reliable characterization and be of help in triaging and admitting patients.

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